Political Science 5 – Western Political Thought - Power Point #9
Western Political Thought Dr. John Paul Tabakian Political Science 5 Fall 2012 – Power Point #9
COURSE LECTURE: WEEK 9 (1)Today’s Lecture Covers The Following:• Muckrackers – Upton Sinclair• How The Masses Perceive The Parties• Pluralism Example – Obama Vs. Apple• Conflict, Violence & War - Causes Of War: 1. Nationalism 2. Ethnicity 3. Religion 4. Culture 5. Natural Resources
COURSE LECTURE: WEEK 9 (1)• “Kin-Country” Syndrome• Redefining Civilization Identity• West Versus The Rest• American Military Power• Ethical Issues • Unconventional Military Options: • American Biological Weapons Program• Public Influences Policy• Legislatures
UPTON SINCLAIR’S “THE JUNGLE”•Upton Sinclair was a poor reformer who sought to write the GreatAmerican Novel.•“The Jungle” examined the unsanitary methods of Chicago’smeatpacking industry of Chicago. It was released in 1906.•President Theodore Roosevelt received advanced copy. Used hisinfluence to push Congress to pass a law establishing the Food andDrug Administration (FDA). Roosevelt coined the term “muckrakers”to describe Sinclair and other reformist crusaders.•Roosevelt’s phrase was not meant to be wholly complimentary.•Muckrackers are journalists who expose political and commercialcorruption.
HOW THE MASSES PERCEIVE THE PARTIESActivists are most likely to participate incampaign activities. These are the mostpartisan among typical voters. Two of themost common activities aside fromvoting is donating personal labor andfinancial resources. Political panderingrefers to how parties cater to their corebase of activists. Those found in theRepublican Party tend to be moreconservative than the averageRepublican voter. Democratic activistson the other hand tend to be more liberalthan the average Democratic voter.
HOW THE MASSES VIEW THE PARTIESLet us now see how Hollywood views the parties from the perspective of theaverage Joe or Jane. Our example comes from the movie “Bulworth” starringWarren Beatty. Two scenes are shown to demonstrate pandering as seen from theperspective of Hollywood. What are your thoughts after watching these clips? Dothey coincide with your personal belief systems in any way? Race Based Politics Hollywood + Religion
OBAMA & APPLEConstituents have witnessed influential campaign advertisementsthat are authored by the average person. The clip on the left wascreated from an Obama supporter with commonly available computerequipment who manipulated the famous 1984 Apple commercial thatintroduced the world to Macintosh.
CULTURAL CONFLICT - NEW COLD WAR?• Tensions between civilizations are supplanting the political and ideological rivalries persistent during the Cold War.• Samuel Huntington argue, "the values that are most important in the West are least important worldwide.”• World politics will be directed in the future by conflicts that according to Kishore Mahbubani will be between "the West and the Rest".• Samuel P. Huntington adds "...and the responses of non-Western civilizations to Western power and values.”
CONFLICT, VIOLENCE, AND WAR1. Non-Western civilizations isolate themselves from the Western-dominated global community.2. "Band-Wagoning" can lead non-Western countries to join with the West and accept its values and institutions.3. Non-Western countries can attempt to "balance" the West by developing an alternative economic and military power and ally with one another to effective counter Western dominance.
CAUSES OF WAR• Nationalism• Ethnicity• Religion• Culture• Natural Resources
“KIN-COUNTRY” SYNDROME• States try to rally support from states that share a similar culture.• Replaces political ideology and traditional balance of power as the principal basis for cooperation and coalitions.
REDEFINING CIVILIZATION IDENTITYSamuel Huntington’s Three Requirements For TornCountries To Redefine Its Civilization Identity:• The Country’s economic and political elites have to enthusiastically endorse the transition.• Its public has to endorse whatever new definition is adopted.• Dominant groups in the recipient civilization have to embrace the convert.
WEST VS. THE REST• Samuel P. Huntington stresses that civilization- consciousness is increasing and that global politics will be focused on "the West and the Rest".• This applies to conflicts between the Western powers, especially the United States, against "others".• The first conflict(s) will be between the West and several Islamic-Confucian states.• Samuel Huntington made these arguments in the article “The Clash of Civilizations (1993)”.
AMERICAN MILITARY POWER• The main reasons for the US to maintain such a high military expenditure are:• US commitments on a global basis. US military forces must be able to project power to regions located thousands of miles away.• US forces require high technology in order to defeat its enemies with limited casualties.• US maintains a much more expensive all-volunteer force.
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS – ETHICS (1) Human beings are the ultimate weapon. Biological weapon development is presented in this PBS Special “The Living Weapon. All slides from this point incorporate information from the PBS website dedicated to “The Living Weapon”: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/weapon/index.html. Chapter 1: (2:37) "Teaser" introduction for The Living Weapon on American Experience. Chapter 2: (3:15) In December 1942, the U.S. government holds a secret meeting at the National Academy of Sciences to discuss a biological warfare program.
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS – ETHICS (2) Chapter 3: (4:16) During the summer of 1942, the British conduct secret anthrax tests on the Scottish island of Gruinard. Chapter 4: (5:11) American scientists begin secret biological warfare research at Camp Detrick in Maryland. Chapter 5: (4:00) New weapons of mass destruction are deployed during World War II. Chapter 6: (10:32) Surprising news of German and Japanese biowarfare research emerge at the end of World War II.
BIOLOGICAN WEAPONS – ETHICS (3) Chapter 7: (5:59) The U.S. biological weapons program escalates during the Cold War. Chapter 8: (10:05) In 1954, American scientists begin testing biological agents on human subjects. Chapter 9: (5:13) The U.S. biological weapons program comes under public scrutiny. Chapter 10: (1:38) The United States ratifies international agreements leading to the end of the U.S. biological weapons program.
BIOLOGICAN WEAPONS – ETHICS (4) Title Unknown (Botulism) (9:43) This experiment was conducted to determine whether primates would make suitable research subjects in a study of botulism. Researchers inject a monkey with botulisum toxin to determine if he will exhibit the same effects as human victims. Operation Cover Up (9:04) This film questions how long military personnel would be able to remain in protective suits and gas masks in the event of an operation within a biological or chemical weapons area. Incapacitation by Enterotoxin (5:40) The film shows the effect of enterotoxin, a form of food poisoning, when delivered as an aerosol spray to monkeys.
MAKING FOREIGN POLICY (1)• Foreign policies are the strategies governments use to guide their actions in the international arena. – Spell out the objectives state leaders have decided to pursue in a given relationship or situation. – Foreign policy process: How policies are arrived at and implemented.
PUBLIC INFLUENCES POLICY (1)• Range of views on foreign policy issues held by the citizens of a state.• Has a greater influence on foreign policy in democracies than in authoritarian governments. – Legitimacy – Propaganda – Journalists as gatekeepers
PUBLIC INFLUENCES POLICY (2)• In democracies, public opinion generally has less effect on foreign policy than on domestic policy. – Attentive public – Foreign policy elite – Rally ’round the flag syndrome – Diversionary foreign policy
MAKING FOREIGN POLICY (2)• Comparative foreign policy. – Study of foreign policy in various states in order to discover whether similar types of societies or governments consistently have similar types of foreign policies.• Foreign policy outcomes result from multiple forces at various levels of analysis.
LEGISLATURES (1)• Conduit through which interest groups and public opinion can wield influence. – Presidential systems; separate elections. • Legislatures play a direct role in making foreign policy. • Different rules apply, however, to the use of military force. – Rally ’round the flag. – May challenge the president if they have power of the “purse”.
LEGISLATURES (2)• Parliamentary systems; political parties are dominant • Often parliamentary executives do not need to submit treaties or policies for formal approval by the legislature. • Call elections; new executive • Legislatures play a key role in designing and implementing foreign policy.