Western Political Thought Dr. John Paul Tabakian Political Science 5 Fall 2012 – Power Point #3
COURSE LECTURE: WEEK #3Today’s Lecture Covers The Following:• Declaration Of Independence• Articles of Confederation• Northwest Ordinance• Constitution As An Elitist Document• Bill Of Rights• Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense”• Thomas Paine’s “American Crisis”• Discussion Topics For Major-Final Paper
CLASSICAL POLITICAL THOUGHTAristotle states that inherent within man’s natural state of being,there exist different roles that are designated according to theneed of any community. Special virtues are rewarded to thosewho accept their roles without question, beginning with thoseterms identified by Aristotle in the household, where the roles ofhusbands, wives, children and slaves are defined. Roles areassigned, for no man is able to exercise the same talents whileproducing exact levels of quality in their finished work (Politics,Book 1, Chapter 4, 1253b1). As the polis consists of citizenswith enough leisure time to participate in government functions,it is the citizenry that determines those roles to be filled.Government itself has no emotions, or soul. Rather, it is thepolitical activism of a few elites according to Aristotle thatmakes all government decisions.
MODERN POLITICAL THOUGHTClassical liberalism refers to the beginning in terms of ahistorical rendition of the periods capable of being identified inwhich man existed. John Locke is recognized as being one ofthe first to anticipate the rise of liberal thought in his time.American political thought has been heavily influenced byLockean principle. Simply put, liberalism derived comes fromthe straightforward ideology of capitalism, as one cannot haveone without the other. Locke justifies capitalism by utilizingliberalism to criticize inequality, shaping everything around thepremises of liberty and equality, thus coming to the conclusionthat society cannot have one without the other.
ORGANIC ROOTS OF THE UNITED STATES (1)In their quest for designing a viable representative government,the founding fathers dedicated themselves to careful study ofthe political philosophy of Europeans. Focusing primarily onBritish political thinkers from the 16th and 17th century, thefounding fathers focused primarily on the natural rights of man,which in turn varied according to the individual philosopherstudied. Over the course of their study, the founding fathersopenly discussed their opinions with one another so as toproperly bring forth differing views in order to prudentlyconstruct a government that would protect individual liberty, aswell as determine what was required of government to protectcivil liberties.
ORGANIC ROOTS OF THE UNITED STATES (2)The theory of singular government deeply influenced foundingfathers Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Alexander Hamiltonand even later political leaders like Abraham Lincoln, to presentleaders of today. John Locke’s articulation of human nature, inturn relating the law of nature, which is reason, emphasized thata state of inconvenience results in a state of war (SecondTreatise, Locke). The most acceptable alternative to a state ofnature is a civil society or government, as long as theestablished authority protects equality. As the fundamentaldesire of mankind is life itself, government’s foremost priority isto protect property. Alexander Hamilton further propounded thisposition in that government is indeed a reflection on humannature (Federalist Paper #51).
STABILIZATIONSudden instability is the greatest threat to humanity for itthreatens to cause irreparable harm to the individual. One maynever consider harming another person in a state of nature.Elimination of one’s sustenance throws the individual into a stateof war, because their survival is now threatened. Nation-statesconsist of multiple spheres of interest in turn consisting ofindividual units consisting of people. As survival is the primarygoal of man, so it is the ultimate pursuit of nation-states. Theprimary concern is that of stability. This philosophy has preventeda major war from taking place over the last sixty years. Instabilityis the primary cause of all conflict both within and betweennation-states.
INSTABILITY – A NIGHTMARE SCENARIOSudden instability results in thepotential destruction of a relationship.Everyone has experienced thenegative effects of instability.Relationships between loved ones isjust one of many examples. Onemajor cause of rampant instability isthe breakdown of communicationbetween spheres. This is a videodocumentary titled “First Strike”. Itpresents a nightmare scenarioresulting from souring relationsbetween the United States and theSoviet Union.
INSTABILITY – DEATH OF A PRESIDENTPresident John FitzgeraldKennedy was assassinated inTexas on November 22, 1963. ThePresident’s body was brought toLove Field and placed on AirForce One. This video is ofLyndon Johnson addressing thenation from the airport.
IRONY OF DEMOCRACY: CHAPTER 4 (A) ELITES IN AMERICACorporate and Economic Power is globalized and free from nationalgovernment restraints.1. Financial and industrial elites control America’s economic life.2. Exporting Corporate elites control America’s trade policy.• WTO and IMF/WB facilitate international trade.• NAFTA and FTA are institutionalizing global trade.• Corporate Elites have earned a reputation for greed. America’s Elites exercise power in many sectors of society.1. Elites move from government positions to corporate positions through a revolving door.2. An increasing number of women and African Americans are government elites.3. Elites are public-regarding and establishment-trained.4. An increasing number of neoconservatives and neoliberals are in America’s elite.
GLOBALIZATION (1)Globalization is a process that seems to create a more unifiedworld united in a single economic system. Globalization continuesto be cited as a cause for the withering away of the state.Technology has allowed mankind to realize globalization.Liberalism and its market-based order continue to be the primarymotivator for technological innovation that in turn has renderedprevious norms obsolete. One can argue that this constant drivemay in time render international strife, conflict and other assortedcalamities obsolete. Liberals would argue that globalization is atrend toward the transformation of world politics with states nolonger remaining sealed units.
GLOBALIZATION (2)Globalization may be seen as a homogenization process thatequalizes prices, products, wages, wealth, rates of interest andprofit margins. It is a movement that can spark resistance bothwithin the United States as well as around the world. This cancome from religious fundamentalists, labor unions and other typesof special interest groups. Globalization has so far onlyencompassed western countries, Israel and certain Asiancountries like Japan, South Korea and China. Most of the worldhas been left out, including Africa, Latin America, Russia, MiddleEast and swaths of Asia.
GLOBALIZATION (3)This political piece explores theeffects of globalization. One canargue that globalization hasextended people’s buying power.Dollars can be stretched mustfurther thanks to lower laborcosts found in distant lands. “BigBox-Mart” argues that cheapgoods does present a seriousside effect. Does the messagerelate to your personal beliefabout our present globaleconomy?
THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION (1) • Government Under The Articles Of Confederation • Established A “Firm League Of Friendship” • Identified Powers Belonging To The National Government • Reassured Each State Of Its • Sovereignty • Freedom • Independence • Repayment Of Loans Made To Congress • Investors Who Backed The American War Effort Had Difficulty Securing Their Loans • Without The Power To Ta, The Future Of The American Government Looked Bleak
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION (2)Though the American Revolution was that of ideas, it was a full outwar. Victorious, the thirteen colonies established and lived under theArticles of Confederation until the adoption of the Constitution of1787. Revolutionary itself, the Articles of Confederation provided littleassistance for a nation absent of leaders who possessed experiencein governing the whole country. The Articles of Confederation linkedthe thirteen colonies in mainly defensive guarantees. Though acongress with typical authority associated with a central governmentwas established with normal duties including the right to declare war,engage in treaties and coin money, there lacked an executive branchto enforce decisions. Congress was state directed, with each statehaving a single vote. Nine out of thirteen states had to agree ifanything were to be passed.
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION (3) • Protection Of Bankers And Creditors • State-Issued Paper Money Permitted Debtors To Pay Off Creditors With Money Worth Less Than They Originally Owned • Opening Western Land To Speculation • Need A Strong Central Government • With Enough Military Power To Oust The British From The Northwest • To Protect Settlers Against Indian Attacks • The Protection And Settlement • Cause Land Values To Increase • Make Land Speculators Rich
NORTHWEST ORDINANCE (1)•Known formally as “An Ordinance for the Territory of the UnitedStates, North-West of the River Ohio” or as the “FreedomOrdinance”.•Act of the Continental Congress of the United States passed onJuly 13, 1787 under the Articles of Confederation.•Northwest Territory was the first organized territory.•Stretched from the region south of the Great Lakes to north andwest of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River.•United States Congress Congress affirmed the Ordinance onAugust , 1789 with slight modifications under the Constitution.•Precedent set by which the United States would expand westwardby the admission of new states and not the expansion of existingstates.
NORTHWEST ORDINANCE (2)•It established the precedent by which the United States wouldexpand westward across North America by the admission of newstates, rather than by the expansion of existing states.•Banning slaver in the territory established the Ohio River as theboundary between free and slave territories between theAppalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.
ELITE PREFERENCES: INSPIRATIONFOR A NEW CONSTITUTION Protection Of Shipping And Manufacturing Strong Navy Important To American Commercial Interests Tariff Barriers Not Adequate Against Foreign Goods Ensuring The Return Of Runaway Slaves Protection Of Human “Property” Sought In 1787, Slavery Was Lawful Everywhere Except In Massachusetts Nation’s Founders Prepared To Protect Slavery Southern Economy Highly Dependent On Slaves Exercising Powers In World Affairs Confederation Held In Contempt By Britain And Barbary States Elite Wanted To Assume Role In The International Community And Exercise Power In World Affairs
FORMATION OF A NATIONAL ELITE • An Annapolis Convention • Report That Outlined Defects In The Articles Of Confederation • Called Upon States To Send Delegates To New Convention To Suggest Remedies • George Washington’s Prestige • 55 Men Chose George Washington In The Summer Of 1787 • Stood At The Apex Of American Elite Structure
FORMATION OF A NATIONAL ELITE • Founders’ Governing Experience—Wealthy Individuals • Wealth Assumed A Variety Of Forms: • Land, Ships, Business Inventories, Slaves, • Credit, Bonds, Paper Money • Founders’ “ Continental” View • Cosmopolitanism Distinguished The Men Of Philadelphia From The Masses • “Continental” Point Of View For Political, Economic, & Military Issues • Members Of The Elite Extended Their Loyalties Beyond Their States
ELITE CONSENSUS IN 1787 • Goal Of Government Is To Protect Liberty And Property • Origin Of Government Is Implied Contract Among People • Elites Believed In • A Republican Government • Limited Government Could Not Threaten Liberty Or Property • A Strong National Government Could • “Establish Justice, • Insure Domestic Tranquility, • Provide For The Common Defense, • Promote The General Welfare, And • Secure The Blessings Of Liberty”
AN ELITE IN OPERATION:CONCILIATION AND COMPROMISE • Representation Compromise • Addressed Representation In The National Legislature • Slavery Compromise –The Three-fifths Compromise • For Tax And Representation Purposes: Slaves Counted As Three-fifths of A Person • Export Tax Compromise –Between Planters And Merchants • Articles Exported From Any State Should Not Bear Tax Or Duty • Imports Could Only Be Taxed By The National Government • Voter Qualification Compromise • Concerned Qualifications For Voting And Holding Office • Electors In States Should Qualify For Electors Of The Most Numerous Branch Of The State Legislatures • Women Could Not Participate In Government
THE CONSTITUTION AS ELITIST DOCUMENT • Elites Benefited More Directly And Immediately Than Did Nonelites • Levying Taxes • Congress Given Power To Tariff • Regulating Commerce –The Interstate Commerce Clause & The Provision In Article I, Section 9 • Created Free Trade Area Over The Thirteen States • The Arrangement Was Beneficial For American Merchants. • Protecting Money And Property • Congress Gains Control Over Currency And Credit
THE CONSTITUTION AS ELITIST DOCUMENT • Creating The Military –Two Purposes • Army and Navy Promote Commercial and Territorial Ambitions • Protection From Invasion • Protecting Against Revolution • Protect The Government From Revolution By Providing Military • Protect Slaveholders From Slave Revolt • Protecting Slavery • Congress Outlawed The Import Of Slaves After 1808 • Protect Existing Property And Slaves
THE CONSTITUTION AS ELITIST DOCUMENT • Limiting States In Business Affairs • Prevents States “Impairing The Obligation Of Contracts” • Limiting States In Monetary Affairs • Provided Protection To Elite • States Could Not • Coin Money • Issue Paper Money • Make Money Other Than Gold Or Silver Coin Legal Tender In Payment Of Debt
ELITISM AND THE STRUCTURE OF THENATIONAL GOVERNMENT • Structure Reflects Desire To Protect Liberty And Property • Elite Control Government and Policy Decisions • National Supremacy – Congressional Control Of Decisions • Republicanism – Representative Government • Separated Powers In The National Government • Bulwark Against Majoritarianism • Additional Safeguard For Elite Liberty & Property • Divides Responsibilities • Difficult To Hold Government Accountable For Public Policy
RATIFICATION: AN EXERCISE INELITE POLITICAL SKILLS • Ratification Rules Designed To Give Clear Advantage To Supporters Of Constitution • Special Ratifying Conventions Called • Extraordinary Ratification Procedure • Minority Of Population Participated In Ratifying The Constitution • Emergence Of Anti-federalist Opposition • Feared A Strong Federal Government’s Control • Confidence In Ability To Control State Government • The Bill Of Rights An An Afterthought • Most Effective Criticism Centered On The Absence Of Bill Of Rights
BILL OF RIGHTS (1)During the debates on the adoption of the Constitution, itsopponents repeatedly charged that the Constitution asdrafted would open the way to tyranny by the centralgovernment. Fresh in their minds was the memory of theBritish violation of civil rights before and during theRevolution. They demanded a "bill of rights" that would spellout the immunities of individual citizens. Several stateconventions in their formal ratification of the Constitutionasked for such amendments; others ratified the Constitutionwith the understanding that the amendments would beoffered.
BILL OF RIGHTS (2)On September 25, 1789, the First Congress of the UnitedStates therefore proposed to the state legislatures 12amendments to the Constitution that met arguments mostfrequently advanced against it. The first two proposedamendments, which concerned the number of constituents foreach Representative and the compensation of Congressmen,were not ratified. Articles 3 to 12, however, ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures, constitute the first 10amendments of the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights.
BILL OF RIGHTS (3)The Preamble to The Bill of Rights Congress of the United States –Begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth ofMarch, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine. THEConventions of a number of the States, having at the time of theiradopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to preventmisconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory andrestrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground ofpublic confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficentends of its institution. RESOLVED by the Senate and House ofRepresentatives of the United States of America, in Congressassembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the followingArticles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, asamendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any ofwhich Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures,to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the saidConstitution; viz.
BILL OF RIGHTS (4)ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitutionof the United States of America, proposed by Congress, andratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant tothe fifth Article of the original Constitution. The following textis a transcription of the first ten amendments to theConstitution in their original form. These amendments wereratified December 15, 1791, and form what is known as the"Bill of Rights."
BILL OF RIGHTS (5)Amendment I - Congress shall make no law respecting anestablishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercisethereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; orthe right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petitionthe Government for a redress of grievances.Amendment II - A well regulated Militia, being necessary tothe security of a free State, the right of the people to keep andbear Arms, shall not be infringed.Amendment III - No Soldier shall, in time of peace bequartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, norin time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
BILL OF RIGHTS (6)Amendment IV - The right of the people to be secure in theirpersons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonablesearches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrantsshall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath oraffirmation, and particularly describing the place to besearched, and the persons or things to be seized.
BILL OF RIGHTS (7)Amendment V - No person shall be held to answer for acapital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentmentor indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in theland or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service intime of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subjectfor the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb;nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witnessagainst himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property,without due process of law; nor shall private property be takenfor public use, without just compensation.
BILL OF RIGHTS (8)Amendment VI - In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shallenjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial juryof the State and district wherein the crime shall have beencommitted, which district shall have been previouslyascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and causeof the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses againsthim; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in hisfavor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.Amendment VII - In Suits at common law, where the value incontroversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by juryshall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall beotherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, thanaccording to the rules of the common law.
BILL OF RIGHTS (9)Amendment VIII - Excessive bail shall not be required, norexcessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishmentsinflicted.Amendment IX - The enumeration in the Constitution, ofcertain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparageothers retained by the people.Amendment X - The powers not delegated to the UnitedStates by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States,are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
THOMAS PAINE’S “COMMON SENSE” (1)Arguments against British rule in Common Sense:•It is ridiculous and against natural law for an island to rule acontinent.•Europe is unlikely to see peace for long and whenever a warbreaks out between England and a foreign power, the trade ofAmerica would go to ruin due to the economic connection.•It is no longer a "British nation"; it is composed of influencesfrom all of Europe.•Even if Britain was originally the "mother country" of America,that makes her current actions all the more horrendous, for notrue mother would harm her children so deplorably.
THOMAS PAINE’S “COMMON SENSE” (2)•Remaining a part of Britain will drag America into unnecessaryEuropean wars, and keep it from the international commerce atwhich America excels.•That government is best that governs least. Society representsall that is good about humanity, government represents all thatis bad about it.•The distance between the two nations makes the lag incommunication time about a year for something to go roundtrip. If there was something wrong in the government, it wouldtake a year before the colonies would hear back.
THOMAS PAINE’S “COMMON SENSE” (3)•The New World was discovered shortly after the Reformation.This was evidence for the Puritans that God wanted to givethem America as a safe haven free from the persecution ofBritish rule.•Criticizes the English Constitution, saying that the right for theHouse of Commons to "check" the king is ridiculous, as theking is given the right to rule by God, therefore, he needs no"checking".
THOMAS PAINE’S “AMERICAN CRISIS” (1)The first of the pamphlets was released during a time whenthe Revolution still looked an unsteady prospect at best; thefamous opening line is "These are the times that try menssouls." The pamphlet did attempt to bolster morale andresistance among Patriots, as well as shame neutrals andLoyalists toward the cause. "Tyranny, like hell, is not easilyconquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that theharder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph.“
THOMAS PAINE’S “AMERICAN CRISIS” (2)Along with the patriotic nature of The American Crisis, itdisplayed the strong religious beliefs that provided additionalrationale for a religiously and socially conservative continent,inciting the laity with suggestions that the British are tryingassume powers that only the Christian God should have.Paine sees the British political and military maneuvers inAmerica as "impious; for so unlimited a power can belongonly to God". Paine states that he believes God supports theAmerican cause, "that God Almighty will not give up a peopleto military destruction, or leave them unsupportedly toperish, who have so earnestly and so repeatedly sought toavoid the calamities of war, by ever decent method whichwisdom could invent".
THOMAS PAINE’S “AMERICAN CRISIS” (3)Paine takes great lengths to state that Americans do not wantforce, but "a proper application of that force" - implyingthroughout that an extended war can only lead to defeatunless a stable army was composed not of militia but oftrained professionals. But Paine maintains a positive viewoverall, hoping that this American crisis can be quicklyresolved; "For though the flame of liberty may sometimescease to shine, the embers can never expire."