Western Political Thought Dr. John Paul Tabakian Political Science 5 Fall 2012 – Power Point #2
COURSE LECTURE: WEEK #2Today’s Lecture Covers The Following:• Classical & Modern Political Thought• Organic Roots Of The United States• John Locke’s “Second Treatise”• American Persona• Early Elite Influence In America• Cosmopolitanism• Manifest Destiny• Capitalism & Democracy Are Similar• Minor Paper Assignment #2• Final-Major Paper
CLASSICAL POLITICAL THOUGHTAristotle states that inherent within man’s natural state of being,there exist different roles that are designated according to the needof any community. Special virtues are rewarded to those whoaccept their roles without question, beginning with those termsidentified by Aristotle in the household, where the roles ofhusbands, wives, children and slaves are defined. Roles areassigned, for no man is able to exercise the same talents whileproducing exact levels of quality in their finished work (Politics,Book 1, Chapter 4, 1253b1). As the polis consists of citizens withenough leisure time to participate in government functions, it is thecitizenry that determines those roles to be filled. Government itselfhas no emotions, or soul. Rather, it is the political activism of a fewelites according to Aristotle that makes all government decisions.
MODERN POLITICAL THOUGHTClassical liberalism refers to the beginning in terms of ahistorical rendition of the periods capable of being identified inwhich man existed. John Locke is recognized as being one ofthe first to anticipate the rise of liberal thought in his time.American political thought has been heavily influenced byLockean principle. Simply put, liberalism derived comes from thestraightforward ideology of capitalism, as one cannot have onewithout the other. Locke justifies capitalism by utilizing liberalismto criticize inequality, shaping everything around the premises ofliberty and equality, thus coming to the conclusion that societycannot have one without the other.
ORGANIC ROOTS OF THE UNITED STATES (1)In their quest for designing a viable representative government,the founding fathers dedicated themselves to careful study ofthe political philosophy of Europeans. Focusing primarily onBritish political thinkers from the 16th and 17th century, thefounding fathers focused primarily on the natural rights of man,which in turn varied according to the individual philosopherstudied. Over the course of their study, the founding fathersopenly discussed their opinions with one another so as toproperly bring forth differing views in order to prudentlyconstruct a government that would protect individual liberty, aswell as determine what was required of government to protectcivil liberties.
ORGANIC ROOTS OF THE UNITED STATES (2)The theory of singular government deeply influenced foundingfathers Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Alexander Hamiltonand even later political leaders like Abraham Lincoln, to presentleaders of today. John Locke’s articulation of human nature, inturn relating the law of nature, which is reason, emphasized thata state of inconvenience results in a state of war (SecondTreatise, Locke). The most acceptable alternative to a state ofnature is a civil society or government, as long as theestablished authority protects equality. As the fundamentaldesire of mankind is life itself, government’s foremost priority isto protect property. Alexander Hamilton further propounded thisposition in that government is indeed a reflection on humannature (Federalist Paper #51).
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (1)•Recognized as the first to anticipate the rise of liberal thought inhis time.•Addressed the merits of exchanging certain natural rights orliberties for civil rights as afforded by a social contract thatprovides a foundation of laws assuring freedom and equality forall citizens.• One cannot have liberalism without capitalism.•Embodies tolerance, freedom of speech and religion withcapitalism. Social contract is man’s way of establishing agovernment to guarantee those identified fundamental rights.•Argues that the law of God serves as the fundamental exampleof what constitutes natural rights.
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (2)•John Lock is very secular as his natural law argumentdemonstrates. Adopted to make Christianity more progressive,Locke argues that the law of reason is in actuality the law of naturewith natural law governed by God.•No man has sovereignty by birth or any other greater freedom, forall of man are seen in the same light under God’s eyes. (Chap.1)•Locke argues that man’s natural duty is to insure his self-preservation, which he bases on two qualifications. First, men dowhat is necessary for their pursuit of life, liberty and prosperity.Second, man can only take from another if it is dependent onpreserving his own life, liberty and prosperity. (Chap.1)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (3)•Self-preservation is absolute only in a state of war, for when forcewithout rights exists, it presents a theater through which violenceexists outside the reach of law. (Sec.17)•Stresses that rights or duties accorded in a state of nature arebased on natural law, or reason. His whole theory is based on thetenets of liberalism with a focus on relationships and conflict.(Preface)•Examines how one can and cannot morally possess materialgoods. States that the law of nature demands that no one shallwaste or spoil anything that others could use. Arguing that one’sclaims to the products of the earth is in truth owned in common byall, the right of subsistence cannot justify waste, for one does notown the Earth. (Sec.36)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (4)•Self-regulating capitalism is the overriding purpose of theestablishment of this contract in order to insure that equality andfreedom continue to exist outside of the state of nature. Addressingthe needy deficiencies of the state of nature, Locke examines theneed for common consent with the people following the basictenets of natural law. Man thereby agrees to give up their naturalrights in exchange for civil rights in return for order in a civil society.•Argues that the rule of law must apply to all in the same fashion,fairly affecting all aspects of society. The state of nature dictatesthat the law must treat all people equally for no one has the right tocontrol another absolutely.
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (6)•From the beginning: Adam & Eve. Neither had total control overtheir children or the Earth. (Chap.1)•People must freely surrender some of their inalienable rights inorder for the construction of government. (Chap.1)•All are charged with the responsibility of ensuring their prosperity.None may willfully retreat from life to death. (Sec.6)•A state of war results when one’s survival is jeopardized. Slaveryproduces a state of war. (Sec.8)•No man shall do harm. Transgressors shall be punished either bythe state or individual. (Sec.11)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (7)•State of nature is a state of peace, good will, mutual assistanceand preservation. A state of enmity, malice, violence and mutualdestruction is in fact a state of war. (Sec.16)•When actual force ends then so does the state of war. Bothsides are then subjected to the faire determination of the law.(Sec.20)•Men willingly join a society to prevent a state of war. (Sec.21)•Man shall not be under any other legislative power, but thatestablished, by consent, in the commonwealth. Only thoserestraints placed by the legislature may apply. (Sec.22)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (8)•Only those powers willfully forfeited may be applied to man. No onecan give more away more power than he has himself. He thatcannot take away his own life, cannot give another power overit. (Sec.23)•Every man has a property in his own person. No power has anyright to this property except the respective individual.(Sec.27)•Adding labor or value makes the end product man’s. (Sec.28)•Ethics of converting or trading tangible products into currency. Thisbrings money, gold and silver, into the foray. (Sec.50)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (9)The freedom then of man, and liberty of acting according to his ownwill, is grounded on his having reason, which is able to instruct him inthat law he is to govern himself by, and make him know how far he isleft to the freedom of his own will. To turn him loose to anunrestrained liberty, before he has reason to guide him, is not theallowing him the privilege of his nature to be free; but to thrust him outamongst brutes, and abandon him to a state as wretched, and asmuch beneath that of a man, as theirs. This is that which puts theauthority into the parents hands to govern the minority of theirchildren. God hath made it their business to employ this care on theiroffspring, and hath placed in them suitable inclinations of tendernessand concern to temper this power, to apply it, as his wisdom designedit, to the childrens good, as long as they should need to be under it.(Sec.63)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (10)MEN being, as has been said, by nature, all free, equal, andindependent, no one can be put out of this estate, and subjected tothe political power of another, without his own consent. The only waywhereby any one divests himself of his natural liberty, and puts onthe bonds of civil society, is by agreeing with other men to join andunite into a community for their comfortable, safe, and peaceableliving one amongst another, in a secure enjoyment of their properties,and a greater security against any, that are not of it. (Sec.95)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (11)For when any number of men have, by the consent of everyindividual, made a community, they have thereby made thatcommunity one body, with a power to act as one body, which isonly by the will and determination of the majority: for that whichacts any community, being only the consent of the individuals ofit, and it being necessary to that which is one body to move oneway; it is necessary the body should move that way whither thegreater force carries it, which is the consent of the majority: orelse it is impossible it should act or continue one body, onecommunity, which the consent of every individual that unitedinto it, agreed that it should; and so every one is bound by thatconsent to be concluded by the majority. (Sec.96)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (12)IF man in the state of nature be so free, as has been said; if hebe absolute lord of his own person and possessions, equal tothe greatest, and subject to no body, why will he part with hisfreedom? why will he give up this empire, and subject himself tothe dominion and control of any other power? To which it isobvious to answer, that though in the state of nature he hathsuch a right, yet the enjoyment of it is very uncertain, andconstantly exposed to the invasion of others: for all being kingsas much as he, every man his equal, and the greater part nostrict observers of equity and justice, the enjoyment of theproperty he has in this state is very unsafe, very insecure.Protection of property is the primary motivator to join civilsociety. (Sec.123)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (13)THE majority having, as has been shewed, upon mens first unitinginto society, the whole power of the community naturally in them,may employ all that power in making laws for the community fromtime to time, and executing those laws by officers of their ownappointing; and then the form of the government is a perfectdemocracy: or else may put the power of making laws into thehands of a few select men, and their heirs or successors; and thenit is an oligarchy: or else into the hands of one man, and then it is amonarchy: if to him and his heirs, it is an hereditary monarchy: if tohim only for life, but upon his death the power only of nominating asuccessor to return to them; an elective monarchy. And soaccordingly of these the community may make compounded andmixed forms of government, as they think good. (Sec.132)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (14)Though the legislative, whether placed in one or more, whetherit be always in being, or only by intervals, though it be thesupreme power in every common-wealth; yet,First: It is not, nor can possibly be absolutely arbitrary over thelives and fortunes of the people: for it being but the joint powerof every member of the society given up to that person, orassembly, which is legislator; it can be no more than thosepersons had in a state of nature before they entered intosociety, and gave up to the community: for no body can transferto another more power than he has in himself; and no body hasan absolute arbitrary power over himself, or over any other, todestroy his own life, or take away the life or property of another.(Sec.135)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (15)Second: The legislative, or supreme authority, cannot assume to itsself a power to rule by extemporary arbitrary decrees, but is bound todispense justice, and decide the rights of the subject by promulgatedstanding laws, and known authorized judges: for the law of naturebeing unwritten, and so no where to be found but in the minds ofmen, they who through passion or interest shall miscite, or misapplyit, cannot so easily be convinced of their mistake where there is noestablished judge: and so it serves not, as it ought, to determine therights, and fence the properties of those that live under it, especiallywhere every one is judge, interpreter, and executioner of it too, andthat in his own case: and he that has right on his side, havingordinarily but his own single strength, hath not force enough todefend himself from injuries, or to punish delinquents. (Sec.136)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (16)Absolute arbitrary power, or governing without settled standinglaws, can neither of them consist with the ends of society andgovernment, which men would not quit the freedom of the stateof nature for, and tie themselves up under, were it not topreserve their lives, liberties and fortunes, and by stated rulesof right and property to secure their peace and quiet.This wereto put themselves into a worse condition than the state ofnature, wherein they had a liberty to defend their right againstthe injuries of others, and were upon equal terms of force tomaintain it, whether invaded by a single man, or many incombination. (Sec.137)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (17)Thirdly, The supreme power cannot take from any man any partof his property without his own consent: for the preservation ofproperty being the end of government, and that for which menenter into society, it necessarily supposes and requires, that thepeople should have property, without which they must besupposed to lose that, by entering into society, which was theend for which they entered into it; too gross an absurdity for anyman to own. (Sec.138)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (18)Legislative Powers Of The Commonwealth:(1) Govern by promulgated established laws, not to be varied in particular cases, but to have one rule for rich and poor, for the favorite at court, and the country man at plough.(2) Laws also ought to be designed for no other end ultimately, but the good of the people.(3) They must not raise taxes on the property of the people, without the consent of the people, given by themselves, or their deputies.(4) The legislative neither must nor can transfer the power of making laws to any body else, or place it any where, but where the people have. (Sec.142)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (19)• But because the laws, that are at once, and in a short time made, have a constant and lasting force, and need a perpetual execution, or an attendance thereunto; therefore it is necessary there should be a power always in being, which should see to the execution of the laws that are made, and remain in force. And thus the legislative and executive power come often to be separated. (Sec.144)• Executive and federative, though they be really distinct in themselves, yet one comprehending the execution of the municipal laws of the society within its self, upon all that are parts of it; the other the management of the security and interest of the public without, with all those that it may receive benefit or damage from, yet they are always almost united. (Sec.147)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (20)In a constituted common-wealth, standing upon its own basis,and acting according to its own nature, that is, acting for thepreservation of the community, there can be but one supremepower, which is the legislative, to which all the rest are and mustbe subordinate, yet the legislative being only a fiduciary powerto act for certain ends, there remains still in the people asupreme power to remove or alter the legislative, when they findthe legislative act contrary to the trust reposed in them: for allpower given with trust for the attaining an end, being limited bythat end, whenever that end is manifestly neglected, oropposed, the trust must necessarily be forfeited, and the powerdevolve into the hands of those that gave it. (sec.149)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (21)WHERE the legislative and executive power are in distincthands, (as they are in all moderated monarchies, and well-framed governments) there the good of the society requires,that several things should be left to the discretion of him thathas the executive power: for the legislators not being able toforesee, and provide by laws, for all that may be useful to thecommunity, the executor of the laws having the power in hishands, has by the common law of nature a right to make use ofit for the good of the society, in many cases, where themunicipal law has given no direction, till the legislative canconveniently be assembled to provide for it. (Sec.159)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (22)Because the miscarriages of the father are no faults of thechildren, and they may be rational and peaceable,notwithstanding the brutishness and injustice of the father; thefather, by his miscarriages and violence, can forfeit but his ownlife, but involves not his children in his guilt or destruction. Hisgoods, which nature, that willeth the preservation of all mankindas much as is possible, hath made to belong to the children tokeep them from perishing, do still continue to belong to hischildren: for supposing them not to have joined in the war,either through infancy, absence, or choice, they have donenothing to forfeit them: nor has the conqueror any right to takethem away. (Sec.182)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (23)AS usurpation is the exercise of power, which another hath aright to; so tyranny is the exercise of power beyond right,which no body can have a right to. And this is making use ofthe power any one has in his hands, not for the good of thosewho are under it, but for his own private separate advantage.When the governor, however entitled, makes not the law, buthis will, the rule; and his commands and actions are notdirected to the preservation of the properties of his people, butthe satisfaction of his own ambition, revenge, covetousness,or any other irregular passion. (Sec.199)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (24)Where-ever law ends, tyranny begins, if the law betransgressed to anothers harm; and whosoever in authorityexceeds the power given him by the law, and makes use ofthe force he has under his command, to compass that uponthe subject, which the law allows not, ceases in that to be amagistrate; and, acting without authority, may be opposed,as any other man, who by force invades the right of another.This is acknowledged in subordinate magistrates. He thathath authority to seize my person in the street, may beopposed as a thief and a robber, if he endeavors to breakinto my house to execute a writ, notwithstanding that I knowhe has such a warrant, and such a legal authority, as willempower him to arrest me abroad. (Sec. 202)
John Locke’s “Second Treatise” (25)HE that will with any clearness speak of the dissolution ofgovernment, ought in the first place to distinguish between thedissolution of the society and the dissolution of the government.That which makes the community, and brings men out of theloose state of nature, into one politic society, is the agreementwhich every one has with the rest to incorporate, and act as onebody, and so be one distinct commonwealth. The usual, andalmost only way whereby this union is dissolved, is the inroad offoreign force. Thus conquerors swords often cut up governmentsby the roots, and mangle societies to pieces, separating thesubdued or scattered multitude from the protection of, anddependence on, that society which ought to have preserved themfrom violence.. Besides this over-turning from without,governments are dissolved from within. (Sec. 211)
JOHN LOCKE’S “SECOND TREATISE” (26)First, When the legislative is altered. Civil society being a stateof peace, amongst those who are of it, from whom the state ofwar is excluded by the umpirage, which they have provided intheir legislative, for the ending all differences that may ariseamongst any of them, it is in their legislative, that the membersof a commonwealth are united, and combined together into onecoherent living body. (Sec.212)
CAPITALISM & DEMOCRACY ARE SIMILAR (1)For freedom to rein it is required for the market place to determinethe fate of all products, services and ideas. No interference canburden this process. Oversight is not necessarily detrimental as isthe policy of the United States to regulate various industries. Thedeath kneel comes when powerful spheres of influence serve tosquash competition. John Locke argues it best when he suggeststhat liberalism can never exist without capitalism. This is thephilosophy of Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” where he explainshow markets determine the fate of all competing interests seekingsociety’s acceptance. We are today living in a time ofunprecedented technological innovation that is helping to propelhumanity further the ladder of evolution. This would not be possibleif vested interests were prevented from pursuing marketacceptance.
CAPITALISM & DEMOCRACY ARE SIMILAR (2)John Locke and Adam Smith would agree that there is no fundamentaldifference between a marketed product, service or even political idea.All interest groups competing in the marketplace are engaged in thesame pursuit: acceptance. Companies competing for market dollarsstrive to offer the most cost efficient product or service that is also themost innovative. This in turn encourages competing peers to furthermaximize efficiency while also stretching the bounds of innovation inorder to offer the best value. Marketing ideas is in essence the samewe have witnessed with political campaigns striving for societalacceptance. Political organizations seeking for example the election ofa particular individual to office must secure a majority of the marketwithin a certain region. Competing campaigns offer different ideas tothe market that seek to offer a better value. This constant battle allowsall individuals to decide for themselves what “product” “service” oreven “idea” is best. We all benefit from conflict.
CAPITALISM & DEMOCRACY ARE SIMILAR (3)Let us look at the example of telecommunications tounderstand the benefits of conflict. Prior to 1996, thereexisted in Southern California like most other regions in theUnited States, two cellular telephone companies. These werethe days of analog communications, or AMPS (AdvancedMobile Phone System). Southern California was home toAirtouch and LA Cellular prior to 1996. Both companiesmaintained prices that prevented the average consumer fromfully utilizing their services, or even purchasing them at all.Everything changed with the signage of the 1996Telecommunications Act by President Bill Clinton. The billallowed for more efficient use of spectrum, thereby allowingeasier access for companies to compete in wirelesscommunications.
CAPITALISM & DEMOCRACY ARE SIMILAR (4)Various competitors entered to compete for marketacceptance, requiring all companies to strive for greaterefficiency, while also providing even greater services.Consumers today face a wide selection of companies whoindividually offer greater communication services that gobeyond voice services to encompass video calling andbroadband internet. The invisible hand eliminates thosecompanies that do not provide the greatest benefit forconsumers.
CAPITALISM & DEMOCRACY ARE SIMILAR (5)The ultimate nightmare may be the elimination of debate.Many have unwittingly called for this in the halls ofgovernment. It is not debate that threatens society, but thelack of contesting ideas. Policies enacted to prevent overlypowerful monopolies help to maintain open competition. Tohave one overly powerful sphere of interest prevent debate isdestructive to the system itself. Pluralism emphasizes bothconflict and compromise with interest groups engaged in aconstant pursuit of power that naturally results in establishedalliances to compete with peer spheres that are doing thesame, resulting in the formation of two major spheres.
CAPITALISM & DEMOCRACY ARE SIMILAR (6)Public policy would thereby stall until reaching a compromisebetween these two majority powers. This in turn helps toprotect the majority of those residing in society. Every policyrequires constant improvement for humanity to arrive closerto perfection. Those that call for the elimination of specialinterest groups or even the restriction of political debate areignorant for this process benefits society immensely.
ISSUES OF CONCERN: COLA & WAGESCOLA (Cost Of Living Adjustments) andwages are two major issues of concern.National economy, as national security arethe two top issues of debate every year.How do national elites seek to manipulatemass beliefs about why wages just barelykeep pace with daily expenses? “Why PlayLeapfrog” is a Cold War-era cartoon aimedat convincing workers that increasedproductivity brings about greater purchasingpower. The film begins with a briefintroductory sequence showing two cartoonfigures -- one representing prices and theother representing wages -- playing leapfrogas each successively rises on the cost-of-living index.
ISSUES OF CONCERN: FREEDOMPropaganda is a necessary tool.“Make Mine Freedom” is a 1948 ColdWar-era cartoon that uses humor totout the dangers of Communism andthe benefits of capitalism. Variouspoints made in this presentation touchon John Locke’s “Second Treatise OfGovernment”. Can you pick them out?
AMERICAN PERSONA (1)America has enjoyed a comparable advantage in terms of itscontinental location. It has been insulated from major powers by theAtlantic and Pacific Oceans and bordered between two friendlyneighbors, Canada and Mexico, who are heavily dependent on thewell-being of its neighbor. Over the course of the early federalistperiod of the U.S., realism remained the prevalent form of politicalthinking among American statesmen. The basic underpinnings of theearly nation sensed the apparent dangers of the great Europeanpowers reigning at the time, including an outright acceptance over thefact that the young republic was in constant danger of attack, never toescape the crosshairs of foreign politics.
AMERICAN PERSONA (2)Over the course of the early federalist period of the U.S., realismremained the prevalent form of political thinking amongAmerican statesmen. The basic underpinnings of the earlynation sensed the apparent dangers of the great Europeanpowers reigning at the time, including an outright acceptanceover the fact that the young republic was in constant danger ofattack, never to escape the crosshairs of foreign politics.America’s leaders from past to present have maintained acosmopolitan belief system. This entails viewing the powerposition of the United States from the eyes of foreign powers.public policy makers for the most part maintain a cosmopolitanbelief system.
AMERICAN PERSONA (3)Embedded within the American persona is a belief that the U.S.was not solely an experiment in republican government, but anation blessed with superior principles and institutions, which intime would be adopted throughout the world. American policymakers have maintained an idealist ideology in order toformulate foreign, as well as domestic policy, though its foreignpolicy is based inherently on realist dogma. U.S. foreign policyis thus utilized as an avenue in which to promote Americanideals, combining practical capacity for realizing the evils ofman, yet continuing to remain devoted to the idealistic notionsof the American success story.
AMERICAN PERSONA (4)Embedded within the American persona is a belief that theU.S. was not solely an experiment in republican government,but a nation blessed with superior principles and institutions,which in time would be adopted throughout the world.American policy makers have maintained an idealist ideologyin order to formulate foreign, as well as domestic policy,though its foreign policy is based inherently on realist dogma.U.S. foreign policy is thus utilized as an avenue in which topromote American ideals, combining practical capacity forrealizing the evils of man, yet continuing to remain devoted tothe idealistic notions of the American success story.
AMERICAN PERSONA (5)America’s political wisdom grew rapidly following its inception asan independent nation. The country never lost sight of its politicalinsight, historic perspective and the common sense approach ofthe American spirit in relation to its standing among other nations.Maintaining a quest for simplistic solutions in disregard ofconcurrent external forces is a trait of the American persona.Relations among neighbors in the international system arefocused on an unbridled philanthropy through apparent selfishinward improvement, as a training method for world improvement.Accordingly, it is idealism that promotes unbounded philosophicalphilanthropy as a selfish desire of American policy. In moreextreme terms, idealism promotes the notion that the U.S.,through its coaching of nation states, serves as the premiereexample that if followed, will produce unbridled prosperity for all.
PROPAGANDA – CINEMOCRACY (1)Governmental elites may believe thattheir national policies are so concretethat it is necessary to utilize variousforms of propaganda gage inpropaganda to incite specificreactions from its citizens. Variousforms of propaganda have beenutilized to drum up mass support tobetter assure elite legitimacy.Cinemocracy, the relationshipbetween motion pictures andgovernment is one way governmentalelites sell their agenda. Enjoy thisclassic cartoon where “Popeye TheSailor Man” battles the Nazis.
ELITES AND MASSES IN EARLY AMERICA THE LAYERS ELITE DOMINATED SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC, & POLITICAL LIFE MIDDLE CLASS SUCCESSFUL BODY OF INDIVDUALS FARMERS GREAT MASS OF WHITE AMERICANS WHO HAD LITTLE INTEREST IN PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
ELITE PREFERENCES:INSPIRATION FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION • Government Under The Articles Of Confederation • Established A “Firm League Of Friendship” • Identified Powers Belonging To The National Government • Reassured Each State Of Its • Sovereignty • Freedom • Independence • Repayment Of Loans Made To Congress • Investors Who Backed The American War Effort Had Difficulty Securing Their Loans • Without The Power To Ta, The Future Of The American Government Looked Bleak
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATIONThough the American Revolution was that of ideas, it was a full outwar. Victorious, the thirteen colonies established and lived under theArticles of Confederation until the adoption of the Constitution of1787. Revolutionary itself, the Articles of Confederation provided littleassistance for a nation absent of leaders who possessed experiencein governing the whole country. The Articles of Confederation linkedthe thirteen colonies in mainly defensive guarantees. Though acongress with typical authority associated with a central governmentwas established with normal duties including the right to declare war,engage in treaties and coin money, there lacked an executive branchto enforce decisions. Congress was state directed, with each statehaving a single vote. Nine out of thirteen states had to agree ifanything were to be passed.
ELITE PREFERENCES:INSPIRATION FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION • Protection Of Bankers And Creditors • State-Issued Paper Money Permitted Debtors To Pay Off Creditors With Money Worth Less Than They Originally Owned • Opening Western Land To Speculation • Need A Strong Central Government • With Enough Military Power To Oust The British From The Northwest • To Protect Settlers Against Indian Attacks • The Protection And Settlement • Cause Land Values To Increase • Make Land Speculators Rich
ELITE PREFERENCES:INSPIRATION FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION Protection Of Shipping And Manufacturing Strong Navy Important To American Commercial Interests Tariff Barriers Not Adequate Against Foreign Goods Ensuring The Return Of Runaway Slaves Protection Of Human “Property” Sought In 1787, Slavery Was Lawful Everywhere Except In Massachusetts Nation’s Founders Prepared To Protect Slavery Southern Economy Highly Dependent On Slaves Exercising Powers In World Affairs Confederation Held In Contempt By Britain And Barbary States Elite Wanted To Assume Role In The International Community And Exercise Power In World Affairs
FORMATION OF A NATIONAL ELITE • An Annapolis Convention • Report That Outlined Defects In The Articles Of Confederation • Called Upon States To Send Delegates To New Convention To Suggest Remedies • George Washington’s Prestige • 55 Men Chose George Washington In The Summer Of 1787 • Stood At The Apex Of American Elite Structure
FORMATION OF A NATIONAL ELITE • Founders’ Governing Experience—Wealthy Individuals • Wealth Assumed A Variety Of Forms: • Land, Ships, Business Inventories, Slaves, • Credit, Bonds, Paper Money • Founders’ “ Continental” View • Cosmopolitanism Distinguished The Men Of Philadelphia From The Masses • “Continental” Point Of View For Political, Economic, & Military Issues • Members Of The Elite Extended Their Loyalties Beyond Their States
ELITE CONSENSUS IN 1787 • Goal Of Government Is To Protect Liberty And Property • Origin Of Government Is Implied Contract Among People • Elites Believed In • A Republican Government • Limited Government Could Not Threaten Liberty Or Property • A Strong National Government Could • “Establish Justice, • Insure Domestic Tranquility, • Provide For The Common Defense, • Promote The General Welfare, And • Secure The Blessings Of Liberty”
AN ELITE IN OPERATION:CONCILIATION AND COMPROMISE • Representation Compromise • Addressed Representation In The National Legislature • Slavery Compromise –The Three-fifths Compromise • For Tax And Representation Purposes: Slaves Counted As Three-fifths of A Person • Export Tax Compromise –Between Planters And Merchants • Articles Exported From Any State Should Not Bear Tax Or Duty • Imports Could Only Be Taxed By The National Government • Voter Qualification Compromise • Concerned Qualifications For Voting And Holding Office • Electors In States Should Qualify For Electors Of The Most Numerous Branch Of The State Legislatures • Women Could Not Participate In Government
THE CONSTITUTION AS ELITIST DOCUMENT • Elites Benefited More Directly And Immediately Than Did Nonelites • Levying Taxes • Congress Given Power To Tariff • Regulating Commerce –The Interstate Commerce Clause & The Provision In Article I, Section 9 • Created Free Trade Area Over The Thirteen States • The Arrangement Was Beneficial For American Merchants. • Protecting Money And Property • Congress Gains Control Over Currency And Credit
THE CONSTITUTION AS ELITIST DOCUMENT • Creating The Military –Two Purposes • Army and Navy Promote Commercial and Territorial Ambitions • Protection From Invasion • Protecting Against Revolution • Protect The Government From Revolution By Providing Military • Protect Slaveholders From Slave Revolt • Protecting Slavery • Congress Outlawed The Import Of Slaves After 1808 • Protect Existing Property And Slaves
THE CONSTITUTION AS ELITIST DOCUMENT • Limiting States In Business Affairs • Prevents States “Impairing The Obligation Of Contracts” • Limiting States In Monetary Affairs • Provided Protection To Elite • States Could Not • Coin Money • Issue Paper Money • Make Money Other Than Gold Or Silver Coin Legal Tender In Payment Of Debt
ELITISM AND THE STRUCTURE OFTHE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT • Structure Reflects Desire To Protect Liberty And Property • Elite Control Government and Policy Decisions • National Supremacy – Congressional Control Of Decisions • Republicanism – Representative Government • Separated Powers In The National Government • Bulwark Against Majoritarianism • Additional Safeguard For Elite Liberty & Property • Divides Responsibilities • Difficult To Hold Government Accountable For Public Policy
RATIFICATION: AN EXERCISE IN ELITEPOLITICAL SKILLS • Ratification Rules Designed To Give Clear Advantage To Supporters Of Constitution • Special Ratifying Conventions Called • Extraordinary Ratification Procedure • Minority Of Population Participated In Ratifying The Constitution • Emergence Of Anti-federalist Opposition • Feared A Strong Federal Government’s Control • Confidence In Ability To Control State Government • The Bill Of Rights An An Afterthought • Most Effective Criticism Centered On The Absence Of Bill Of Rights