Political Science 1 - Introduction To Political Science - Power Point #4
Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 1 US Government – Spring 2013 Power Point Presentation #4
COURSE LECTURE TOPICS• America’s Elite Membership• Policy Changes and Innovations in America• Political Conflict• Stability & Instability• Power Of Exporting Corporate Elites• Corporate and Economic Power• Globalization• How Elites Exercise Power• John Locke’s “Second Treatise Of Government”• Capitalism & Democracy Are Similar
AMERICAN ELITE EVOLUTIONAmerica’s Elite Membership & New Elite Membership.• Early disputes were between propertied classes.• Political parties emerged in the 1796 election.• New Western elites were assimilated • The new electorate included all White men.• New industrial elites use Social Darwinism to justify wealth.Policy Changes & Innovations in American Government• Hamilton pays the national debt • Establishes a national bank.• Supreme Court expands necessary and proper clause.• President Abraham Lincoln & Emancipation Proclamation.• President Franklin Roosevelt & New Deal legislation.
NORTH VERSUS SOUTHPolitical Conflict1. Southern and Northern elite conflict over western land led to Civil War.2. Missouri Compromise was an attempt at compromise.3. Southern elites seceded from the Union.4. America lost its first war in Vietnam.5. America regained its prestige in Persian Gulf War I. • President George Bush had a 90 % approval. • The military was the most trusted institution.
IMPACT OF VIETNAMPresident Lyndon Baines Johnsonaddresses the American people onMarch 31, 1968. He begins his speechwith a review of current Americanstrategy regarding Vietnam, only tolater declare his decision to withdrawfrom the presidential race. One canargue that the move was purely tomaintain democratic control over thepresidency. He campaigned on behalfof Vice-President Hubert Humphrey.
DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION 1968The Democratic National Convention of1968 was held in Chicago from August26 to the 29th. The divisive politics of theconvention, brought about by theVietnam War policies of PresidentJohnson, prompted the Democraticparty to completely overhaul its rules forselecting presidential delegates. Thisallowed millions to participate in thepolitical process. The violence betweenpolice and anti-Vietnam War protestersstands testament to the negative effectsof rampant instability.
POLITICAL CONFLICT – WATERGATEPresident Richard Nixon announcedon August 8, 1974 that he will resignthe presidency. The primary goal ofthe elite class is to maintain and/orenhance their positions of power.This requires maintaining the powersystem in which they dominate.Once the masses begin to loseconfidence in the system then thesystem itself is in danger ofcollapsing. Was the decision toresign made to save his own skin orto preserve the system?
STABILIZATIONSudden instability is the greatest threat to humanity for itthreatens to cause irreparable harm to the individual. One maynever consider harming another person in a state of nature.Elimination of one’s sustenance throws the individual into a stateof war, because their survival is now threatened. Nation-statesconsist of multiple spheres of interest in turn consisting ofindividual units consisting of people. As survival is the primarygoal of man, so it is the ultimate pursuit of nation-states. Theprimary concern is that of stability. This philosophy has preventeda major war from taking place over the last sixty years. Instabilityis the primary cause of all conflict both within and betweennation-states.
NIGHTMARE SCENARIOSudden instability results in thepotential destruction of arelationship. Everyone hasexperienced the negative effects ofinstability. Relationships betweenloved ones is just one of manyexamples. One major cause oframpant instability is the breakdownof communication between spheres.This is a video documentary titled“First Strike”. It presents anightmare scenario resulting fromsouring relations between theUnited States and the Soviet Union.
DEATH OF A PRESIDENTPresident John FitzgeraldKennedy was assassinated inTexas on November 22, 1963. ThePresident’s body was brought toLove Field and placed on AirForce One. This video is ofLyndon Johnson addressing thenation from the airport.
GLOBAL ELITESCorporate and Economic Power is globalized and free fromnational government restraints.• Financial and industrial elites control America’s economic life.• Exporting Corporate elites control America’s trade policy. • WTO and IMF/WB facilitate international trade. • NAFTA and FTA are institutionalizing global trade. • Corporate Elites have earned a reputation for greed. America’s Elites exercise power in many sectors of society.• Elites move from government positions to corporate positions through a revolving door.• Elites are public-regarding and establishment-trained.• An increasing number of neoconservatives and neoliberals are in America’s elite.
GLOBALIZATION – 1Globalization is a process that seems to create a more unifiedworld united in a single economic system. Globalization continuesto be cited as a cause for the withering away of the state.Technology has allowed mankind to realize globalization.Liberalism and its market-based order continue to be the primarymotivator for technological innovation that in turn has renderedprevious norms obsolete. One can argue that this constant drivemay in time render international strife, conflict and other assortedcalamities obsolete. Liberals would argue that globalization is atrend toward the transformation of world politics with states nolonger remaining sealed units.
GLOBALIZATION – 2Globalization may be seen as a homogenization process thatequalizes prices, products, wages, wealth, rates of interest andprofit margins. It is a movement that can spark resistance bothwithin the United States as well as around the world. This cancome from religious fundamentalists, labor unions and other typesof special interest groups. Globalization has so far onlyencompassed western countries, Israel and certain Asiancountries like Japan, South Korea and China. Most of the worldhas been left out, including Africa, Latin America, Russia, MiddleEast and swaths of Asia.
GLOBALIZATION – 3This political piece explores theeffects of globalization. One canargue that globalization hasextended people’s buying power.Dollars can be stretched mustfurther thanks to lower laborcosts found in distant lands. “BigBox-Mart” argues that cheapgoods does present a seriousside effect. Does the messagerelate to your personal beliefabout our present globaleconomy?
JOHN LOCKE – 1• Recognized as the first to anticipate the rise of liberal thought in his time.• Addressed the merits of exchanging certain natural rights or liberties for civil rights as afforded by a social contract that provides a foundation of laws assuring freedom and equality for all citizens.• One cannot have liberalism without capitalism.• Embodies tolerance, freedom of speech and religion with capitalism. Social contract is man’s way of establishing a government to guarantee those identified fundamental rights.• Argues that the law of God serves as the fundamental example of what constitutes natural rights.
JOHN LOCKE – 2• John Lock is very secular as his natural law argument demonstrates. Adopted to make Christianity more progressive, Locke argues that the law of reason is in actuality the law of nature with natural law governed by God.• No man has sovereignty by birth or any other greater freedom, for all of man are seen in the same light under God’s eyes. (Chap.1)• Locke argues that man’s natural duty is to insure his self- preservation, which he bases on two qualifications. First, men do what is necessary for their pursuit of life, liberty and prosperity. Second, man can only take from another if it is dependent on preserving his own life, liberty and prosperity. (Chap.1)
JOHN LOCKE – 3• Self-preservation is absolute only in a state of war, for when force without rights exists, it presents a theater through which violence exists outside the reach of law. (Sec.17)• Stresses that rights or duties accorded in a state of nature are based on natural law, or reason. His whole theory is based on the tenets of liberalism with a focus on relationships and conflict. (Preface)• Examines how one can and cannot morally possess material goods. States that the law of nature demands that no one shall waste or spoil anything that others could use. Arguing that one’s claims to the products of the earth is in truth owned in common by all, the right of subsistence cannot justify waste, for one does not own the Earth. (Sec.36)
JOHN LOCKE – 4• Self-regulating capitalism is the overriding purpose of the establishment of this contract in order to insure that equality and freedom continue to exist outside of the state of nature.• Addressing the needy deficiencies of the state of nature, Locke examines the need for common consent with the people following the basic tenets of natural law. Man thereby agrees to give up their natural rights in exchange for civil rights in return for order in a civil society.• Argues that the rule of law must apply to all in the same fashion, fairly affecting all aspects of society. The state of nature dictates that the law must treat all people equally for no one has the right to control another absolutely.
JOHN LOCKE – 5• From the beginning: Adam & Eve. Neither had total control over their children or the Earth. (Chap.1)• People must freely surrender some of their inalienable rights in order for the construction of government. (Chap.1)• All are charged with the responsibility of ensuring their prosperity. None may willfully retreat from life to death. (Sec.6)• A state of war results when one’s survival is jeopardized. Slavery produces a state of war. (Sec.8)• No man shall do harm. Transgressors shall be punished either by the state or individual. (Sec.11)
JOHN LOCKE – 6• State of nature is a state of peace, good will, mutual assistance and preservation. A state of enmity, malice, violence and mutual destruction is in fact a state of war. (Sec.16)• When actual force ends then so does the state of war. Both sides are then subjected to the faire determination of the law. (Sec.20)• Men willingly join a society to prevent a state of war. (Sec.21)• Man shall not be under any other legislative power, but that established, by consent, in the commonwealth. Only those restraints placed by the legislature may apply. (Sec.22)
JOHN LOCKE – 7• Only those powers willfully forfeited may be applied to man. No one can give more away more power than he has himself. He that cannot take away his own life, cannot give another power over it. (Sec.23)• Every man has a property in his own person. No power has any right to this property except the respective individual.(Sec.27)• Adding labor or value makes the end product man’s. (Sec.28)• Ethics of converting or trading tangible products into currency. This brings money, gold and silver, into the foray. (Sec.50)
JOHN LOCKE – 8The freedom then of man, and liberty of acting according to hisown will, is grounded on his having reason, which is able to instructhim in that law he is to govern himself by, and make him know howfar he is left to the freedom of his own will.To turn him loose to anunrestrained liberty, before he has reason to guide him, is not theallowing him the privilege of his nature to be free; but to thrust himout amongst brutes, and abandon him to a state as wretched, andas much beneath that of a man, as theirs. This is that which putsthe authority into the parents hands to govern the minority of theirchildren. God hath made it their business to employ this care ontheir offspring, and hath placed in them suitable inclinations oftenderness and concern to temper this power, to apply it, as hiswisdom designed it, to the childrens good, as long as they shouldneed to be under it. (Sec.63)
JOHN LOCKE – 9MEN being, as has been said, by nature, all free, equal, andindependent, no one can be put out of this estate, andsubjected to the political power of another, without his ownconsent. The only way whereby any one divests himself of hisnatural liberty, and puts on the bonds of civil society, is byagreeing with other men to join and unite into a community fortheir comfortable, safe, and peaceable living one amongstanother, in a secure enjoyment of their properties, and agreater security against any, that are not of it. (Sec.95)
JOHN LOCKE – 10For when any number of men have, by the consent of everyindividual, made a community, they have thereby made thatcommunity one body, with a power to act as one body, which isonly by the will and determination of the majority: for that whichacts any community, being only the consent of the individuals ofit, and it being necessary to that which is one body to move oneway; it is necessary the body should move that way whither thegreater force carries it, which is the consent of the majority: orelse it is impossible it should act or continue one body, onecommunity, which the consent of every individual that unitedinto it, agreed that it should; and so every one is bound by thatconsent to be concluded by the majority. (Sec.96)
JOHN LOCKE – 11IF man in the state of nature be so free, as has been said; if hebe absolute lord of his own person and possessions, equal tothe greatest, and subject to no body, why will he part with hisfreedom? why will he give up this empire, and subject himself tothe dominion and control of any other power? To which it isobvious to answer, that though in the state of nature he hathsuch a right, yet the enjoyment of it is very uncertain, andconstantly exposed to the invasion of others: for all being kingsas much as he, every man his equal, and the greater part nostrict observers of equity and justice, the enjoyment of theproperty he has in this state is very unsafe, very insecure.Protection of property is the primary motivator to join civilsociety. (Sec.123)
JOHN LOCKE – 12THE majority having, as has been shewed, upon mens firstuniting into society, the whole power of the community naturallyin them, may employ all that power in making laws for thecommunity from time to time, and executing those laws byofficers of their own appointing; and then the form of thegovernment is a perfect democracy: or else may put the powerof making laws into the hands of a few select men, and theirheirs or successors; and then it is an oligarchy: or else into thehands of one man, and then it is a monarchy: if to him and hisheirs, it is an hereditary monarchy: if to him only for life, butupon his death the power only of nominating a successor toreturn to them; an elective monarchy. And so accordingly ofthese the community may make compounded and mixed formsof government, as they think good. (Sec.132)
JOHN LOCKE – 13Though the legislative, whether placed in one or more, whetherit be always in being, or only by intervals, though it be thesupreme power in every common-wealth; yet,First: It is not, nor can possibly be absolutely arbitrary over thelives and fortunes of the people: for it being but the joint powerof every member of the society given up to that person, orassembly, which is legislator; it can be no more than thosepersons had in a state of nature before they entered intosociety, and gave up to the community: for no body can transferto another more power than he has in himself; and no body hasan absolute arbitrary power over himself, or over any other, todestroy his own life, or take away the life or property of another.(Sec.135)
JOHN LOCKE – 14Second: The legislative, or supreme authority, cannot assume toits self a power to rule by extemporary arbitrary decrees, but isbound to dispense justice, and decide the rights of the subject bypromulgated standing laws, and known authorized judges: for thelaw of nature being unwritten, and so no where to be found but inthe minds of men, they who through passion or interest shallmiscite, or misapply it, cannot so easily be convinced of theirmistake where there is no established judge: and so it serves not,as it ought, to determine the rights, and fence the properties ofthose that live under it, especially where every one is judge,interpreter, and executioner of it too, and that in his own case: andhe that has right on his side, having ordinarily but his own singlestrength, hath not force enough to defend himself from injuries, orto punish delinquents. (Sec.136)
JOHN LOCKE – 15Absolute arbitrary power, or governing without settled standinglaws, can neither of them consist with the ends of society andgovernment, which men would not quit the freedom of the stateof nature for, and tie themselves up under, were it not topreserve their lives, liberties and fortunes, and by stated rulesof right and property to secure their peace and quiet.This wereto put themselves into a worse condition than the state ofnature, wherein they had a liberty to defend their right againstthe injuries of others, and were upon equal terms of force tomaintain it, whether invaded by a single man, or many incombination. (Sec.137)
JOHN LOCKE – 16Thirdly, The supreme power cannot take from any man any partof his property without his own consent: for the preservation ofproperty being the end of government, and that for which menenter into society, it necessarily supposes and requires, that thepeople should have property, without which they must besupposed to lose that, by entering into society, which was theend for which they entered into it; too gross an absurdity for anyman to own. (Sec.138)
JOHN LOCKE – 17Legislative Powers Of The Commonwealth:• Govern by promulgated established laws, not to be varied in particular cases, but to have one rule for rich and poor, for the favorite at court, and the country man at plough.• Laws also ought to be designed for no other end ultimately, but the good of the people.• They must not raise taxes on the property of the people, without the consent of the people, given by themselves, or their deputies.• The legislative neither must nor can transfer the power of making laws to any body else, or place it any where, but where the people have. (Sec.142)
JOHN LOCKE – 18• But because the laws, that are at once, and in a short time made, have a constant and lasting force, and need a perpetual execution, or an attendance thereunto; therefore it is necessary there should be a power always in being, which should see to the execution of the laws that are made, and remain in force. And thus the legislative and executive power come often to be separated. (Sec.144)• Executive and federative, though they be really distinct in themselves, yet one comprehending the execution of the municipal laws of the society within its self, upon all that are parts of it; the other the management of the security and interest of the public without, with all those that it may receive benefit or damage from, yet they are always almost united. (Sec.147)
JOHN LOCKE – 19In a constituted common-wealth, standing upon its own basis,and acting according to its own nature, that is, acting for thepreservation of the community, there can be but one supremepower, which is the legislative, to which all the rest are and mustbe subordinate, yet the legislative being only a fiduciary powerto act for certain ends, there remains still in the people asupreme power to remove or alter the legislative, when they findthe legislative act contrary to the trust reposed in them: for allpower given with trust for the attaining an end, being limited bythat end, whenever that end is manifestly neglected, oropposed, the trust must necessarily be forfeited, and the powerdevolve into the hands of those that gave it. (sec.149)
JOHN LOCKE – 20WHERE the legislative and executive power are in distincthands, (as they are in all moderated monarchies, and well-framed governments) there the good of the society requires,that several things should be left to the discretion of him thathas the executive power: for the legislators not being able toforesee, and provide by laws, for all that may be useful to thecommunity, the executor of the laws having the power in hishands, has by the common law of nature a right to make use ofit for the good of the society, in many cases, where themunicipal law has given no direction, till the legislative canconveniently be assembled to provide for it. (Sec.159)
JOHN LOCKE – 21Because the miscarriages of the father are no faults of thechildren, and they may be rational and peaceable,notwithstanding the brutishness and injustice of the father; thefather, by his miscarriages and violence, can forfeit but his ownlife, but involves not his children in his guilt or destruction. Hisgoods, which nature, that willeth the preservation of all mankindas much as is possible, hath made to belong to the children tokeep them from perishing, do still continue to belong to hischildren: for supposing them not to have joined in the war,either through infancy, absence, or choice, they have donenothing to forfeit them: nor has the conqueror any right to takethem away. (Sec.182)
JOHN LOCKE – 22AS usurpation is the exercise of power, which another hath aright to; so tyranny is the exercise of power beyond right,which no body can have a right to. And this is making use ofthe power any one has in his hands, not for the good of thosewho are under it, but for his own private separate advantage.When the governor, however entitled, makes not the law, buthis will, the rule; and his commands and actions are notdirected to the preservation of the properties of his people, butthe satisfaction of his own ambition, revenge, covetousness,or any other irregular passion. (Sec.199)
JOHN LOCKE – 23Where-ever law ends, tyranny begins, if the law betransgressed to anothers harm; and whosoever in authorityexceeds the power given him by the law, and makes use ofthe force he has under his command, to compass that uponthe subject, which the law allows not, ceases in that to be amagistrate; and, acting without authority, may be opposed,as any other man, who by force invades the right of another.This is acknowledged in subordinate magistrates. He thathath authority to seize my person in the street, may beopposed as a thief and a robber, if he endeavors to breakinto my house to execute a writ, notwithstanding that I knowhe has such a warrant, and such a legal authority, as willempower him to arrest me abroad. (Sec. 202)
JOHN LOCKE – 24HE that will with any clearness speak of the dissolution ofgovernment, ought in the first place to distinguish between thedissolution of the society and the dissolution of the government.That which makes the community, and brings men out of theloose state of nature, into one politic society, is the agreementwhich every one has with the rest to incorporate, and act as onebody, and so be one distinct commonwealth. The usual, andalmost only way whereby this union is dissolved, is the inroad offoreign force. Thus conquerors swords often cut up governmentsby the roots, and mangle societies to pieces, separating thesubdued or scattered multitude from the protection of, anddependence on, that society which ought to have preserved themfrom violence.. Besides this over-turning from without,governments are dissolved from within. (Sec. 211)
JOHN LOCKE – 25First, When the legislative is altered. Civil society being a stateof peace, amongst those who are of it, from whom the state ofwar is excluded by the umpirage, which they have provided intheir legislative, for the ending all differences that may ariseamongst any of them, it is in their legislative, that the membersof a commonwealth are united, and combined together into onecoherent living body. (Sec.212)
CAPITALISM & DEMOCRACY ARE SIMILAR – 1For freedom to rein it is required for the market place to determinethe fate of all products, services and ideas. No interference canburden this process. Oversight is not necessarily detrimental as isthe policy of the United States to regulate various industries. Thedeath kneel comes when powerful spheres of influence serve tosquash competition. John Locke argues it best when he suggeststhat liberalism can never exist without capitalism. This is thephilosophy of Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” where he explainshow markets determine the fate of all competing interests seekingsociety’s acceptance. We are today living in a time ofunprecedented technological innovation that is helping to propelhumanity further the ladder of evolution. This would not be possibleif vested interests were prevented from pursuing marketacceptance.
CAPITALISM & DEMOCRACY ARE SIMILAR – 2John Locke and Adam Smith would agree that there is no fundamentaldifference between a marketed product, service or even political idea.All interest groups competing in the marketplace are engaged in thesame pursuit: acceptance. Companies competing for market dollarsstrive to offer the most cost efficient product or service that is also themost innovative. This in turn encourages competing peers to furthermaximize efficiency while also stretching the bounds of innovation inorder to offer the best value. Marketing ideas is in essence the samewe have witnessed with political campaigns striving for societalacceptance. Political organizations seeking for example the election ofa particular individual to office must secure a majority of the marketwithin a certain region. Competing campaigns offer different ideas tothe market that seek to offer a better value. This constant battle allowsall individuals to decide for themselves what “product” “service” oreven “idea” is best. We all benefit from conflict.
CAPITALISM & DEMOCRACY ARE SIMILAR – 3Let us look at the example of telecommunications tounderstand the benefits of conflict. Prior to 1996, thereexisted in Southern California like most other regions in theUnited States, two cellular telephone companies. These werethe days of analog communications, or AMPS (AdvancedMobile Phone System). Southern California was home toAirtouch and LA Cellular prior to 1996. Both companiesmaintained prices that prevented the average consumer fromfully utilizing their services, or even purchasing them at all.Everything changed with the signage of the 1996Telecommunications Act by President Bill Clinton. The billallowed for more efficient use of spectrum, thereby allowingeasier access for companies to compete in wirelesscommunications.
CAPITALISM & DEMOCRACY ARE SIMILAR – 4Various competitors entered to compete for marketacceptance, requiring all companies to strive for greaterefficiency, while also providing even greater services.Consumers today face a wide selection of companies whoindividually offer greater communication services that gobeyond voice services to encompass video calling andbroadband internet. The invisible hand eliminates thosecompanies that do not provide the greatest benefit forconsumers.
CAPITALISM & DEMOCRACY ARE SIMILAR – 5The ultimate nightmare may be the elimination of debate.Many have unwittingly called for this in the halls ofgovernment. It is not debate that threatens society, but thelack of contesting ideas. Policies enacted to prevent overlypowerful monopolies help to maintain open competition. Tohave one overly powerful sphere of interest prevent debate isdestructive to the system itself. Pluralism emphasizes bothconflict and compromise with interest groups engaged in aconstant pursuit of power that naturally results in establishedalliances to compete with peer spheres that are doing thesame, resulting in the formation of two major spheres.
CAPITALISM & DEMOCRACY ARE SIMILAR – 6Public policy would thereby stall until reaching a compromisebetween these two majority powers. This in turn helps toprotect the majority of those residing in society. Every policyrequires constant improvement for humanity to arrive closerto perfection. Those that call for the elimination of specialinterest groups or even the restriction of political debate areignorant for this process benefits society immensely.