Political Science 1 - Introduction To Political Science - Power Point #10
Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 1 US Government – Spring 2013 Power Point Presentation #10
COURSE LECTURE TOPICS• American Federalism• Powers Flow To The National Elite• Five Patterns Of Federalism• Redefining Federalism Patterns• California Political History• Pressure Groups In The Golden State• Protecting Interests From Sacramento• Citizen Use Of Media For Manipulation• Progressive Movements• Civil Rights Movement
POLITICAL MESSAGEComedy serves as thebest medium forpromoting a message.Is this the case with thiscartoon? If this is thecase then can youidentify the message?
AMERICAN FEDERALISM AMERICAN FEDERALISM: STATES AND COMMUNITIESAmerican federalism involves the distribution of powerbetween the national government and the state governments.• Constitution originally defined federalism in terms of powers government exercised.• Powers are delegated to the national government.• There is national supremacy.• Powers are reserved to the states.• Powers are denied to both government levels.• States have a role in national government composition.
FLOW OF POWERPowers flowed to the national elite.1. Necessary and proper or implied powers gave Congress numerous responsibilities.2. Commerce power of Congress was broadly defined.3. Power went to the national government through grants of money to states.American federalism evolved into different arrangements ofgovernment power and different state structures.1. There have been five patterns of federalism.2. Congress and the Supreme Court have redefined thefederalism patterns.3. There have been four patterns of elite structures in the states.4. Old community economic elites have been replaced by newcommunity political elites.
FEDERALISM DIVISION OF POWER – 1The Constitution divides power between two separate authorities,the nation and the states, each of which can directly enforce itsown laws on individuals through its own courts. There are morethan 86,000 separate governments in the US, of which more than60,000 have the power to levy taxes. The Constitution endowsstates with all governmental powers not vested specifically in thenational government or reserved to the people. All othergovernmental jurisdictions are subdivisions of states. States maycreate, alter, or abolish these other units of government byamending state laws or constitutions.
FEDERALISM DIVISION OF POWER – 2American federalism does not allow the central government theconstitutional authority to determine, alter, or abolish the power ofthe states. The American system shares authority and powerconstitutionally and practically. The Constitution definedfederalism in terms of delegated powers (powers exercised by thenational government) and the national supremacy clause, thepowers reserved to the states, powers denied by the Constitutionto both levels of government, and provisions giving the states arole in the composition of the national government.
POWERS TO CONGRESSThe Constitution lists eighteen grants of power to Congress,the last of which is the power “to make all laws which shallbe necessary and proper for carrying into execution theforegoing powers and all other powers” of the federalgovernment. This is the “necessary and proper” clause.When coupled with the assertion of “national supremacy”in Article VI, these ensure a powerful national government.
RESERVED POWERSThe states retained considerable governing power. The TenthAmendment states that “the powers not delegated to the UnitedStates . . . are reserved to the states respectively, or to thepeople.” The states generally retain control over property andcontract law, criminal and family law, education, and social-welfare activities. The states control the organization andpowers of their own local governments. Finally, the states, likethe federal government, retain the power to tax and spend.
POWERS DENIEDThe Constitution denies some powers to both national andstate government, namely, the powers to abridge individualrights. The first eight amendments apply to the nationalgovernment, and since the Fourteenth Amendment 1866,provided that the states must also adhere to fundamentalguarantees of individual liberty. The Constitution denies thestates some powers to promote national unity: to coin money,to make treaties with foreign nations, to interfere with the“obligations of contracts,” to levy taxes on imports and exports,and to engage in war, among others.
THE STATE’S ROLEThe states are the basic units in the organizational schemeof the national government. The House of Representativesapportions members to the states by population, and statelegislatures draw up their districts. Each state elects twoU.S. senators, regardless of its population. The president ischosen by the electoral votes of the states. Finally, three-fourths of the states must ratify amendments to theConstitution.
POWER FLOWS TO THE ELITEGovernmental power has centralized in Washington. Thishas come from the broad interpretation of the “necessary andproper” clause to obscure the notion of “delegated powers”and allow the national government to do anything notspecifically prohibited by the Constitution, the victory of thenational government in the Civil War, demonstrating thatstates could not successfully resist federal power by force ofarms, the establishment of a national system of civil rightsbased on the Fourteenth Amendment, the growth of federalpower under the interstate commerce clause as a nationalindustrial economy emerged, and the growth of federalgrants-in-aid to state and local governments as a majorsource of revenues for these governments and a majorsource of federal intervention into state and local affairs.
DUAL FEDERALISMThe pattern of federal-state relations during the nation’s firsthundred years has been described as dual federalism. Thestates and the nation divided most governmental functions.The national government concentrated its attention on thedelegated powers while the states decided the importantdomestic policy issues. This separation of policyresponsibilities is like a layer cake, with local governments atthe base, state governments in the middle, and the nationalgovernment at the top.
COOPERATIVE FEDERALISMThe development of a national economy, the income tax, twoworld wars and the Great Depression all combined to end thestrict distinction between national and state concerns. The newpattern of federal–state relations was labeled cooperativefederalism. Both the nation and the states exercisedresponsibilities for welfare, health, highways, education, andcriminal justice. This merging of policy responsibilities iscompared to a marble cake. Congress generallyacknowledged that it had no direct constitutional authority toregulate public health, safety, or welfare. Congress reliedprimarily on its powers to tax and spend for the general welfarein providing financial assistance to state and localgovernments to achieve shared goals. Congress did notusually legislate directly on local matters.
CENTRALIZED FEDERALISMIt became increasingly difficult to maintain the fiction that thenational government was merely assisting the states inperforming their domestic responsibility. By the time ofJohnson and the Great Society in 1964, the federalgovernment clearly set forth national goals. Virtually allproblems confronting America were declared to be nationalproblems. Congress legislated directly on any matter it chose.The Supreme Court no longer concerned itself with thereserved powers of the states; the Tenth Amendment lost mostof its meaning. The pattern of federal–state relations becameknown as centralized federalism.
NEW FEDERALISMThe term new federalism refers to efforts to return power andresponsibility to states and communities. Nixon first used theterm in the 1970s to describe his general-revenue-sharingproposal with the direct allocation of federal tax revenues tostate and local governments to use for general purposes with nostrings attached. Later, the term referred to a series of proposalsby Reagan to reduce state and local dependency on federalrevenues and return powers to states and communities throughthe consolidation of categorical grants into block grants. Theseblock grants provide greater flexibility in the use of federal fundsand allow state and local officials to exercise more power overprograms within their jurisdictions. These efforts succeeded for atime in slowing the growth of federal grant money to the statesand in reducing state and local reliance on federal funds.
REPRESENTATIONAL FEDERALISMDespite the attempts at the new federalism, the flow of powertoward federal government continued. The Supreme Court endedall pretense of constitutional protection of state power in its 1985Garcia decision. Before this case it was generally believed thatthe states were constitutionally protected from directcongressional coercion in matters traditionally “reserved” to thestates. In this case, the Supreme Court upheld a federal lawrequiring state and local governments to obey federal wage andhour rules. The Court declared that there were no constitutionallyprotected state powers and that the only protection given thestates is in congressional and presidential elections. Thisweakened view of American federalism has been labeledrepresentational federalism.
COERCIVE FEDERALISMFederal mandates are direct orders to state and localgovernments to perform a particular activity or service tocomply with federal laws and performance of theirfunctions. Federal mandates occur in a wide variety ofareas, for example the Age Discrimination Act (1986), theSafe Drinking Water Act (1986), the Clean Air Act (1990),the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), the NationalVoter Registration Act (1993 and the No Child Left BehindAct (2001). Many of these mandates impose heavy costson state and local governments. When no federal moniesare provided to cover these costs, the mandates are saidto be unfunded mandates.
ELITES RESPONDING TO MASS PROTESTProtest movements and organizations are used to achievecivil rights and feminist goals.1. Slavery and segregation were ended by protest against them.2. Women rights were granted by protest against their denial.Equality of opportunity and equality of results are goals usedto petition the government.1. The Supreme Court said segregation was unconstitutional inBrown v. Topeka (1954).2. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964.3. Presidents ordered, Congress passed, and the Supreme Courtsupported affirmative action programs.4. Congress passed the Civil Rights and Women’s Equity of 1991
BARRIERSBarriers to equality of opportunity and equality ofresults persist.• There are mass opinions against affirmative action.• The Supreme Court is indecisive about affirmative action.• A dual labor market and earnings gaps hurt women and African Americans.• A glass ceiling prevents women from achieving many elite positions.
PRESIDENTIAL USE OF FORCE LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL INTEGRATIONEach branch of the federal governmentmay “check” the other. The ExecutiveBranch, or the President, may chooseto “check” the Judicial Branch byrefusing to use force in order toenforce a judicial ruling by theSupreme Court. The 1954 Browndecision was made meaningful whenPresident Dwight D. Eisenhowerdecided to use military force in 1957 tosecure the enforcement of a federalcourt order to desegregate LittleRock’s Central High School.
GOVERNOR WALLACE RESISTINGGovernor George Wallace of Alabama is bestknown for a line used in his inaugural speechgiven on January 14, 1963, “In the name of thegreatest people that have ever trod this earth, Idraw the line in the dust and toss the gauntletbefore the feet of tyranny, and I say segregationnow, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever.”To stop desegregation by the enrollment of blackstudents, he stood in from of Foster Auditorium atthe University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. Heonly stood aside after being confronted by federalmarshals, Deputy Attorney General NicholasKatzenbach, and the Alabama National Guard.Enjoy this example of presidential use of force.
HOW ELITES MAKE DECISIONSPublic Policy Making is the Power Domain of the Elite.• There is an elite preference in the policy process.• Elites achieve policy goals through foundations, policy-planning organizations, the media, and other elites in government.• Agenda setting is the result of decisions and non decisions by the same institutional structures.Republicanism and Federalism are Elite Protection AgainstMass Threats to the Status Quo.• Early elites like James Madison recommended a republican and federal government to regulate agenda setting.• Today elites use the republican, federal government to realize their preferences in the policy process.
PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENTS – 1What was to be a peaceful march forCivil Rights instead became abloody clash in 1965 in Selma,Alabama. A voter registration protestresulted in a violent clash with policeat the Edmund Pettus bridge. Knownthereafter as “Bloody Sunday” thisconfrontation helped to fosternational attention and passage ofthe Voting Rights Act .
PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENTS – 2This is the famous march onWashington DC where Dr. MartinLuther King Jr. made his famous“I Have A Dream” speech. Manyof you have watched just thespeech in past classes or athome. What makes this videointeresting is that it is not clipped.This was shown to the nation inits entirety. Enjoy the video.
PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENTS – 3Producer Richard D. Heffner of theNBC Sunday television program"The Open Mind" interviews Kingand former federal Judge J.Waties Waring, who wrote the soledissenting decision against schoolsegregation in Briggs v. Elliott.NAACP youth secretary HerbertWright helped enlist King for thisNBC Negro History Week programon "The New Negro." Heffnersfirst question followed a briefintroduction of his two guests.
HOW THE MASSES PERCEIVE THE PARTIESActivists are most likely to participatein campaign activities. These are themost partisan among typical voters.Two of the most common activitiesaside from voting is donating personallabor and financial resources. Politicalpandering refers to how parties caterto their core base of activists. Thosefound in the Republican Party tend tobe more conservative than theaverage Republican voter.Democratic activists on the otherhand tend to be more liberal than theaverage Democratic voter.
HOW THE MASSES VIEW THE PARTIESLet us now see how Hollywood views the parties from the perspective of theaverage Joe or Jane. Our example comes from the movie “Bulworth” starringWarren Beatty. Two scenes are shown to demonstrate pandering as seen from theperspective of Hollywood. What are your thoughts after watching these clips? Dothey coincide with your personal belief systems in any way? Race Based Politics Hollywood + Religion
OBAMA & APPLEConstituents have witnessed influential campaign advertisementsthat are authored by the average person. The clip on the left wascreated from an Obama supporter with commonly available computerequipment who manipulated the famous 1984 Apple commercial thatintroduced the world to Macintosh.
CULTURAL CONFLICT - NEW COLD WAR?• Tensions between civilizations are supplanting the political and ideological rivalries persistent during the Cold War.• Samuel Huntington argue, "the values that are most important in the West are least important worldwide.”• World politics will be directed in the future by conflicts that according to Kishore Mahbubani will be between "the West and the Rest".• Samuel P. Huntington adds "...and the responses of non-Western civilizations to Western power and values.”
CONFLICT, VIOLENCE, AND WAR1. Non-Western civilizations isolate themselves from the Western-dominated global community.2. "Band-Wagoning" can lead non-Western countries to join with the West and accept its values and institutions.3. Non-Western countries can attempt to "balance" the West by developing an alternative economic and military power and ally with one another to effective counter Western dominance.
CAUSES OF WAR• Nationalism• Ethnicity• Religion• Culture• Natural Resources
“KIN-COUNTRY” SYNDROME• States try to rally support from states that share a similar culture.• Replaces political ideology and traditional balance of power as the principal basis for cooperation and coalitions.
REDEFINING CIVILIZATION IDENTITYSamuel Huntington’s Three Requirements For TornCountries To Redefine Its Civilization Identity:• The Country’s economic and political elites have to enthusiastically endorse the transition.• Its public has to endorse whatever new definition is adopted.• Dominant groups in the recipient civilization have to embrace the convert.
WEST VS. THE REST• Samuel P. Huntington stresses that civilization- consciousness is increasing and that global politics will be focused on "the West and the Rest".• This applies to conflicts between the Western powers, especially the United States, against "others".• The first conflict(s) will be between the West and several Islamic-Confucian states.• Samuel Huntington made these arguments in the article “The Clash of Civilizations (1993)”.
AMERICAN MILITARY POWER• The main reasons for the US to maintain such a high military expenditure are:• US commitments on a global basis. US military forces must be able to project power to regions located thousands of miles away.• US forces require high technology in order to defeat its enemies with limited casualties.• US maintains a much more expensive all-volunteer force.
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS – ETHICS (1) Human beings are the ultimate weapon. Biological weapon development is presented in this PBS Special “The Living Weapon. All slides from this point incorporate information from the PBS website dedicated to “The Living Weapon”: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/weapon/index.html. Chapter 1: (2:37) "Teaser" introduction for The Living Weapon on American Experience. Chapter 2: (3:15) In December 1942, the U.S. government holds a secret meeting at the National Academy of Sciences to discuss a biological warfare program.
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS – ETHICS (2) Chapter 3: (4:16) During the summer of 1942, the British conduct secret anthrax tests on the Scottish island of Gruinard. Chapter 4: (5:11) American scientists begin secret biological warfare research at Camp Detrick in Maryland. Chapter 5: (4:00) New weapons of mass destruction are deployed during World War II. Chapter 6: (10:32) Surprising news of German and Japanese biowarfare research emerge at the end of World War II.
BIOLOGICAN WEAPONS – ETHICS (3) Chapter 7: (5:59) The U.S. biological weapons program escalates during the Cold War. Chapter 8: (10:05) In 1954, American scientists begin testing biological agents on human subjects. Chapter 9: (5:13) The U.S. biological weapons program comes under public scrutiny. Chapter 10: (1:38) The United States ratifies international agreements leading to the end of the U.S. biological weapons program.
BIOLOGICAN WEAPONS – ETHICS (4) Title Unknown (Botulism) (9:43) This experiment was conducted to determine whether primates would make suitable research subjects in a study of botulism. Researchers inject a monkey with botulisum toxin to determine if he will exhibit the same effects as human victims. Operation Cover Up (9:04) This film questions how long military personnel would be able to remain in protective suits and gas masks in the event of an operation within a biological or chemical weapons area. Incapacitation by Enterotoxin (5:40) The film shows the effect of enterotoxin, a form of food poisoning, when delivered as an aerosol spray to monkeys.
MAKING FOREIGN POLICY (1)• Foreign policies are the strategies governments use to guide their actions in the international arena. – Spell out the objectives state leaders have decided to pursue in a given relationship or situation. – Foreign policy process: How policies are arrived at and implemented.
PUBLIC INFLUENCES POLICY (1)• Range of views on foreign policy issues held by the citizens of a state.• Has a greater influence on foreign policy in democracies than in authoritarian governments. – Legitimacy – Propaganda – Journalists as gatekeepers
PUBLIC INFLUENCES POLICY (2)• In democracies, public opinion generally has less effect on foreign policy than on domestic policy. – Attentive public – Foreign policy elite – Rally ’round the flag syndrome – Diversionary foreign policy
MAKING FOREIGN POLICY (2)• Comparative foreign policy. – Study of foreign policy in various states in order to discover whether similar types of societies or governments consistently have similar types of foreign policies.• Foreign policy outcomes result from multiple forces at various levels of analysis.
LEGISLATURES (1)• Conduit through which interest groups and public opinion can wield influence. – Presidential systems; separate elections. • Legislatures play a direct role in making foreign policy. • Different rules apply, however, to the use of military force. – Rally ’round the flag. – May challenge the president if they have power of the “purse”.
LEGISLATURES (2)• Parliamentary systems; political parties are dominant • Often parliamentary executives do not need to submit treaties or policies for formal approval by the legislature. • Call elections; new executive • Legislatures play a key role in designing and implementing foreign policy.