The most obvious inputs of waste is through pipes directly discharging wastes into the sea . Very often municipal waste and sewage from residences and hotels in coastal towns are directly discharged into the sea.
Pesticides and fertilizers from agriculture which are washed off the land by rain, enter water courses and eventually reach the sea.
Oil is also harmful for sea birds and fishes - clogging of gills and other structures
The most important commercial damage can however also come from tainting which imparts an unpleasant flavour to fish and seafood and is detectable at extremely low levels of contamination. This reduces the market value of seafood.