Emerging DB Technologies


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Emerging DB Technologies

  1. 1. Talal A. Alsubaie Emerging Database Technologies and Applications
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Mobile Database. </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia Database. </li></ul><ul><li>GIS ( Geographic Information Systems ). </li></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  3. 3. Mobile Database
  4. 4. Mobile Database <ul><li>Portable devices and wireless technology led to mobile computing. </li></ul><ul><li>Portable computing devices and wireless communication allowed the client to access data from any ware and any time . </li></ul><ul><li>There are some HW and SW problems that must be solved to make maximum exploitation of mobile computing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Database recovery. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware problems are more difficult. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless coverage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in network topology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Transmission Speed. </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  5. 5. <ul><li>Mobile Computing Architecture: </li></ul>Mobile Database Talal A. Alsubaie
  6. 6. <ul><li>Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a MANET , co-located mobile units do not need to communicate via a fixed network, but instead, form their own using cost-effective technologies such as Bluetooth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a MANET , mobile units are responsible for routing their own data, effectively acting as base stations as well as clients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MANET must be robust enough to handle changes in network topology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Such as arrival or departure of mobile unites. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MANET can fall under P2P architecture. </li></ul></ul>Mobile Database Talal A. Alsubaie
  7. 7. Characteristics of Mobile Environments <ul><ul><li>Communication latency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermittent connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited battery life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing client location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of these Characteristics impact data management in mobile computing. </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  8. 8. Characteristics of Mobile Environments (2) <ul><ul><li>The server may not be able to reach the client or vise versa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can add proxies to the client and the server to cache updates into when connection is not available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the connection is available proxy automatically forward these updates to its distention. </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  9. 9. Characteristics of Mobile Environments (3) <ul><ul><li>The latency involved in wireless communication makes scalability a problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Since latency increases the time to service each client request, so the server can handle fewer clients. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers can use Broadcasting to solve this problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast well reduces the load on the server, as clients do not have to maintain active connections to it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example weather broadcasting. </li></ul></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  10. 10. <ul><li>Client mobility also poses many data management challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers must keep track of client locations in order to efficiently route messages to them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client data should be stored in the network location that minimizes the traffic necessary to access it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The act of moving between cells must be transparent to the client. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Client mobility also allows new applications that are location-based. </li></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie Characteristics of Mobile Environments (4)
  11. 11. Data Management Issues <ul><li>Mobile databases can be distributed under two possible scenarios: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The entire database is distributed mainly among the wired components, possibly with full or partial replication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management is done in fixed hosts, with additional functionalities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The database is distributed among wired and wireless components. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management is done in both fixed hosts and mobile units. </li></ul></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  12. 12. Data Management Issues <ul><ul><li>Data distribution and replication ( Cache ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactions models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query processing ( where data is located? ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery and fault tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile database design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location-based service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  13. 13. Application: Intermittently Synchronized Databases <ul><li>The client has his own application and DBMS in his local laptop. </li></ul><ul><li>Do some updates locally and connect to the server via internet to get batch of updates ( synchronization ). </li></ul><ul><li>The primary characteristic of this scenario is that the clients are mostly disconnected; the server is not necessarily able reach them. </li></ul><ul><li>This environment has problems similar to those in distributed and client-server databases, and some from mobile databases. </li></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  14. 14. Application: Intermittently Synchronized Databases Talal A. Alsubaie InsertUpdate Data
  15. 15. Multimedia Database
  16. 16. Multimedia Databases <ul><li>In the years ahead multimedia information systems are expected to dominate our daily lives. </li></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  17. 17. Nature of Multimedia Data and Applications <ul><li>DBMSs have been constantly adding to the types of data they support. </li></ul><ul><li>Today many types of multimedia data are available in current systems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  18. 18. Nature of Multimedia Applications <ul><li>Multimedia data may be stored, delivered, and utilized in many different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Applications may be categorized based on their data management characteristics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repository applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A large amount of multimedia data as well as metadata is stored for retrieval purposes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple multimedia viewing of video or audio data. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative work using multimedia information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which engineers may execute a complex design task by merging drawings, fitting subjects to design constraints, and generating new documentation, change notifications, and so forth. </li></ul></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  19. 19. Data Management Issues <ul><li>Multimedia applications dealing with thousands of images, documents, audio and video segments, and free text data depend critically on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate modeling of the structure and content of data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing appropriate database schemas for storing and retrieving multimedia information. </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  20. 20. Data Management Issues (cont.) <ul><li>Multimedia information systems are very complex and embrace a large set of issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex Objects, dealing with large number of types of data (Graphics). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual, logical, and physical design of multimedia has not been addressed fully, and it remains an area of active research. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia data on standard disk devices presents problems of representation, compression, mapping to device hierarchies, archiving, and buffering during the input/output operation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS has presented the BLOB type (Binary Large Object). </li></ul></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  21. 21. Data Management Issues (cont.) Talal A. Alsubaie <ul><li>Multimedia information systems are very complex and embrace a large set of issues (cont.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queries and retrieval: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The database way of retrieving information is based on query languages and internal index structures. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia applications involving only documents and text, performance constraints are subjectively determined by the user. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applications involving video playback or audio-video synchronization, physical limitations dominate. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Multimedia Database Applications <ul><ul><li>Documents and records management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge dissemination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing, advertising, retailing, entertainment, and travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time control and monitoring </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  23. 23. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
  24. 24. Geographic Information Systems <ul><li>Geographic information systems(GIS): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A systematic integration of hardware and software for capturing, storing, displaying, updating manipulating and analyzing spatial data . </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  25. 25. title <ul><li>GIS can be divided into two formats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector data represents geometric objects such as points, lines, and polygons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raster data is characterized as an array of points, where each point represents the value of an attribute for a real-world location. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informally, raster images are n-dimensional array where each entry is a unit of the image and represents an attribute </li></ul></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie Geographic Information Systems
  26. 26. Talal A. Alsubaie Geographic Information Systems
  27. 27. Characteristics of Data in GIS <ul><li>There are several aspects of the geographical objects need to be considered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex Spatial Features. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object ID. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Quality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  28. 28. Characteristics of Data in GIS <ul><li>The geographic context, topologic relations and other spatial relationships are fundamentally important in order to define spatial integrity rules . </li></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  29. 29. Constraints in GIS <ul><li>Topology Integrity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deals with the behavior of features and the spatial relationship between them. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic Integrity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deals with the meaning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User Defined Integrity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punctual and Durable . </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  30. 30. Conceptual Data Models for GIS <ul><li>Briefly describes the common conceptual models for storing spatial data in GIS. </li></ul><ul><li>Some conceptual data models: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raster data model : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for analytical applications. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector data model: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis is done using a well defined set of tools. </li></ul></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  31. 31. Conceptual Data Models for GIS <ul><li>Some conceptual data models (cont.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network model: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define how lines connect to each other in a point. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules are stored in a connectivity table. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example of everyday application, optimizing a school bus route. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TIN data model: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triangular Irregular Network. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a vector-based approach. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>models surfaces by connecting sample points as vector </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>of triangles. </li></ul></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  32. 32. DBMS Enhancements for GIS <ul><li>Until the mid 1990s, GIS system was based mainly on file-based systems. </li></ul><ul><li>No transfer standards was defined, which limited vendors in terms of sharing. </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in a geo-structure and attributes was stored in DBMS. </li></ul><ul><li>The spatial features was kept in a file and linked to the attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Could not take FULL advantage of commercial RDBMS. </li></ul><ul><li>Database extensions has been released by vendors like DB2 spatial extender, and OracleSpatial and OracleLocator to support GIS data. </li></ul><ul><li>These extensions allowed the user to store, manage, and retrieve geo-objects. </li></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  33. 33. GIS Standers and Operations <ul><li>Spatial Relationship Standard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intersect. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… and more. </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  34. 34. GIS Standers and Operations <ul><li>Spatial Analysis Standard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Returns the shortest distance between any two points in two geometries. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Returns a geometry that represents all points whose distance from the given geometry is less than or equal to distance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convex Hull. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And more. </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  35. 35. GIS Standers and Operations <ul><li>CREATE TABLE STATES ( </li></ul><ul><li>Sname VARCHAR(50 ) NOT NULL , </li></ul><ul><li>State_shape POLYGON NOT NULL , </li></ul><ul><li>Country VARCHAR(50 ) NOT NULL , </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY KEY (Sname), </li></ul><ul><li>FOREIGN KEY (Country) REFERENCES COUNTRIES (Cname) </li></ul><ul><li>); </li></ul><ul><li>SELECT Sname </li></ul><ul><li>FROM STATS </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE ( AREA (State_shape) > 50000) </li></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  36. 36. Future of GIS <ul><li>There are some challenges in developing GIS applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Source. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile GIS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized DBMS for GIS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>Talal A. Alsubaie
  37. 37. Questions ?
  38. 38. Thanks