Plagiarism in the online environment
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Plagiarism in the online environment

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Slides from webinar on 'Advantages and Disadvantages in Online assessment' given by Eloise Tan in the 2012 Online Assessment and Feedback Module at Dublin City University.

Slides from webinar on 'Advantages and Disadvantages in Online assessment' given by Eloise Tan in the 2012 Online Assessment and Feedback Module at Dublin City University.

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Plagiarism in the online environment Plagiarism in the online environment Presentation Transcript

  • / http://beyondtheclassroom.wikidot.com/sarah-johnston@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • LI502: Assessment and Feedback in theOnline Environment@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Plagiarism and the online environment@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Overview What is plagiarism? Plagiarism and online culture Why do students plagiarise? Preventing plagiarism Detecting plagiarism@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • What is plagiarism? Your perspectives What is plagiarism?: Chat box Have you encountered it?: yes/no poll
  • What is plagiarism?: DCU definition“Dublin City University defines plagiarism as follows: it is the deliberate act oftaking and using another person’s work as your own. It includes absentreferences, reproducing the work (even with small changes) of another, takenfrom books, journals, articles, TV programmes, the Internet, lecture notesand so on. It also includes self plagiarism, i.e. submitting own work for morethan one assessment, copying another person’s work, with or without his/herconsent. Also included is collusion where a group of people collaborate orcollude to present an assessment or a substantial part thereof, when theexaminer required individual research and outcome.”DCU Plagiarism Policy:http://www.dcu.ie/registry/examinations/plagiarism.pdf @t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit, Dublin City University
  • Do you include a statement onplagiarism in your syllabus? Yes/No@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • What is plagiarism?: Examples Submitting someone else’s whole work Copying sections of someone else’s work without referencing it Paraphrasing someone else’s work without referencing it Buying work from “Cheat sites”: essay banks and bespoke assignment services Self plagiarism: resubmitting the same piece of work more than once Fabricating research results Collusion ** Plagiarism is not exclusive to text, it can be visuals as wellHave you experienced confronting a student about plagiarism? Talk button@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Why is plagiarism important to us? Academic integrity – giving due credit to authors Academic conventions – citing and referencing are strongly valued in the academic community, induction for students into research skills Learning – if students are copying then they aren’t learning (or are they?) We value originality (or do we?)@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • The relationship between plagiarism and the onlineenvironment Is plagiarism in the internet age ‘new’?@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Related to last webinar:  Social, collaborative activity rather than an online repository of information@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • @t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • No… but… Internet makes it easy to copy and paste File sharing, proliferation of information Remix culture: “To combine or edit materials to produce something new” http://www.everythingisaremix.info/watch-the-series/ With online courses, how do we know WHO is taking the course? (See Palloff and Pratt, p.46)@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Web tour: Statistics on plagiarism http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_did_you_know.html http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/02/education/02cheat.htm@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Webquest: Take 5 minutes to see what online resources existfor students to plagiarise in your discipline@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Cheat sites: essay banks and bespoke services Taylor, M. & Butt R. (2006) Q: How do you make £1.6m a year and drive a Ferrari? A: Sell essays for £400 Market for online plagiarism estimated to be worth £200 million. “The owner of one online organisation says he employs 3,500 specialist writers who have written more than 15,000 essays for students wanting a leg- up in university courses. The company made £90,000 in one week in May and the owner has a Ferrari and a Lamborghini in his garage.” http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2006/jul/29/highereducation.education
  • Cheat sites: essay banks and bespoke services‘Write My Assignments’ is a Wicklow basedcompany that is centered on educationalprogression….Your assignment will becompleted by a postgraduate mentor whohas completed your specific course whichensures an understanding of what isrequired to achieve optimum results. “http://www.siliconrepublic.com/start-ups/item/20589-write-my-assignments-an-ohttp://writemyassignments.com/
  • Why do students plagiarise? Chat box / Talk button: Discuss why you think students plagiarise in your discipline. @t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit, Dublin City University
  • Why do students plagiarise? Ignorance: Lack of understanding of academic requirements/citing and referencing Pressure/lack of time Cultural differences To improve marks Can get away with it Overassessed
  • Note First years:  Generally have never had to paraphrase or summarise  Have never read a scholarly article/journal  Have never traced an idea or theory through the literature  Have very little disciplinary knowledge  Have never used an academic library  Cannot be assumed to have critical thinking or analytical skills  Tend to copy for accuracy – often lose sight of what is theirs and what is from other sources (Adapted from University of Minnesota) @t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit, Dublin City University
  • Prevention vs. Detection@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Preventing plagiarism? (1): Raising student awareness Inform students of plagiarism policy Tell students that their work will be checked for plagiarism Let students know that you are aware of essay writing services etc Provide guidance on academic writing and on citing/referencing:  DCU ‘LETs’ tutorial: http://www.library.dcu.ie/lets/index.htm@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Make sure they know You may need to explain plagiarism in detail, preferably with examples of good/bad practice Use positive reinforcement  Give guidelines with each assignment  Use Turnitin as a ‘Health Check’ rather than a ‘Gotcha’ mechanism@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Assessment type Consider alternatives to the ‘essay’: e.g: Portfolios, presentations, blogs, poster presentation, online journals, student created audio/video podcasts etc… When using essays consider if you set up your assessment to look for critical original thinking, or primarily for collation of information. For example, Discuss the differences between democratic and autocratic leadership styles in management studies. Could become… ? @t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit, Dublin City University
  • Assessment type Group work: consider allocating marks towards the process (editing, contributing, sharing, reviewing). Related to social learning reading: are you assessing for process or product?@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Assessment design Involve students in assessment design Avoid using the same assessment year after year Request drafts, lists of sources, progress reports etc in advance of the assessment ‘Personalise’ assignments: ask students to draw on their own experiences o/ select a personally relevant topic Give each student/groups of students unique data sets or contexts Avoid designing assessments where there is one correct answer Avoid designing assessments that simply ask students to “describe’ or ‘explain’: ask them to: critique. justify, evaluate, interpret, invent, create, revise etc.@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • How can we improve these assignments? Group task: Create a 20 minute presentation on the Irish banking crisis Essay: 2500 words on the history of Irish education @t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit, Dublin City University
  • Detecting plagiarismWarning signs: A sense that something is just not right Inconsistencies in writing style Inconsistencies in font/layout Very high standard of work, or changes in the standard of work American spellings/phraseology Citing sources that are not available locally Out of date sources (on topical issues) Lack of non-Irish examples, irrelevant examples Failure to answer the question Student absent from all/most classes, or has not participated in class activities, yet submits a ‘perfect’ assignment
  • Detecting plagiarism Provides a more objective view on plagiarism Compares a student’s work with Internet sources, journal articles and other students’ work
  • How does Turnitin work? AssignmentStudent compared with Originality reportassignment database: •Web •Journals •E-books •Other student assignments
  • How can Turnitin relate to: Principles ofeffective online assessment (p.30) Learner-centred Encourage self reflection Include rubrics for discussion / assignments / collaboration Encourage self and peer assessment Contextual and aligned to learning outcomes Include learner input@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • (Palloff and Pratt, 2009, p.47) “Rather than using the tools punitively, having students run their own work through the software and then using the report generated as a teaching tool”@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Avoidance The goal is to enable students to demonstrate what they know/understand Make it harder to plagiarise Good citing and referencing are skills that must be learned – they are not automatic Try to ensure that inadvertent plagiarism is minimised so that anything that looks like plagiarism is deliberate@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Tips: Research Papers(1) Have students submit their bibliography in advance of the paper  An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. (www.library.cornell.edu/olinuris/ref/research/skill28.htm) This could even be an assignment in its own right or the first part of a two-part assignment Try to incorporate thinking/opinions in assignments@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Tips: Research Papers(2) Oral presentation/marking Assign papers less than 6 pages (Paper mill lower limit!) Restrict sources to a small number Add a ‘personal’/’tailored’ section worth a few marks on its own but as a determinant of understanding and of final grade Have a number of staggered deliverables Use a research log/journal@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Tips: Research Papers(3) Change topics regularly Try to specify topics narrowly in the early years Use debating techniques – takes sides on something quite local Incorporate current affairs/media commentary, local/national matters Require papers to be mapped to topics being studied@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Tips: Research Papers (4) Use detection techniques up front:  Ask for photocopies of sources quoted  Say an oral interview may/will be used to finalise marks  Say students will be chosen randomly for interview/oral presentation  Add a small number of personalised questions which can only be answered if the work was done by the student@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Some useful demos: turnitin Turnitin Training videoshttp:// www.youtube.com/user/TurnitinAcademy?feature=watch Using Peer Mark (Peer assessment) through Turnitinhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GvvjcBGFS-4@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Current Featured Resource on Moodle  www.plagiarismadvice.org@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University
  • Questions?@t_eloise Dr. Eloise Tan, Learning Innovation Unit,Dublin City University