Critical Thinking


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Critical Thinking

  1. 1. Alianza Cultural Uruguay- Estados Unidos Prof. Development Session CRITICAL THINKING Stella Agocs Teresa Alonso Feb. 2011
  2. 2. What is Critical Thinking? Critical thinking is the identification and evaluation of evidence to guide decision making. A critical thinker uses broad, in-depth analysis of evidence to make decisions and communicate his/her beliefs clearly and accurately.
  3. 3. Characteristics of a Critical Thinker <ul><li>Is open-minded and mindful of alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Tries to be well-informed </li></ul><ul><li>Judges well the credibility of sources </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies conclusions, reasons and assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Judges the quality of an argument </li></ul><ul><li>Develops and defends a reasonable position </li></ul><ul><li>Asks appropriate, clarifying questions </li></ul><ul><li>Formulates hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Draws cautious conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates all items in this list </li></ul>
  4. 4. Elements of Thought
  5. 5. Elements of thought <ul><li>Purpose : What is the purpose of the reasoner? </li></ul><ul><li>Question : Is the question at issue well stated? </li></ul><ul><li>Information : Is the information accurate? </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts : Does the writer clarify key concepts when necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions : Does the writer show a sensitivity to what he/she is taking for granted or assuming? </li></ul><ul><li>Inferences : Does the writer develop a line of reasoning explaining well how s/he is arriving at a conclusion? </li></ul><ul><li>Point of View : Does the writer show a sensitivity to alternative relevant points of view or lines of reasoning? </li></ul><ul><li>Implications : Does the writer show a sensitivity to the implications and consequences of the position s/he is taking? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Universal Intellectual Standards <ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Could you elaborate further? </li></ul><ul><li>Could you give me an example? </li></ul><ul><li>Could you illustrate what you mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy How could we check on that? </li></ul><ul><li>How could we find out if that is true? </li></ul><ul><li>How could we verify or test that? </li></ul><ul><li>Precision Could you be more specific? </li></ul><ul><li>Could you give more details? </li></ul><ul><li>Could you be more exact? </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance How does that relate to the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>How does that bear on the question? </li></ul><ul><li>How does that help us with the issue? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Universal Intellectual Standards <ul><li>Depth </li></ul><ul><li>What factors make this a difficult problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the complexities of this question? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the difficulties we need to deal with? </li></ul><ul><li>Breadth </li></ul><ul><li>Do we need to look at this from another perspective? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we need to consider another point of view? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we need to look at this in other ways? </li></ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Does all this make sense together? </li></ul><ul><li>Does your first paragraph fit in with your last? </li></ul><ul><li>Does what you say follow from the evidence? </li></ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul><ul><li>Is this the central idea to focus on? </li></ul><ul><li>Which of these facts are most important? </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Are we considering all relevant viewpoints in good faith? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we distorting some information to maintain our biased perspective? </li></ul><ul><li>Am I sympathetically representing the view points of others? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Essential Intellectual Traits <ul><ul><li>Intellectual Humility vs Intellectual Arrogance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Courage vs Intellectual Cowardice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Empathy vs Intellectual Narrow-mindedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Autonomy vs Intellectual Conformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Integrity vs Intellectual Hypocrisy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Perseverance vs Intellectual Laziness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence in Reason vs Distrust of Reason and Evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairmindedness vs Intellectual Unfairness </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Two traits related to lack of Critical Thinking <ul><li>Incompetence </li></ul><ul><li>Unethical Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and Strategies that foster CT </li></ul><ul><li>Literature (Detective stories) </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom’s Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Socratic Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Other settings </li></ul>
  10. 10. 35 Dimensions of Critical Thought <ul><li>Affective Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>S-4 exploring thoughts underlying feelings </li></ul><ul><li>S-7 developing intellectual good faith and integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Strategies/ Macro-abilities </li></ul><ul><li>S-17 questioning deeply, raising and pursuing significant questions </li></ul><ul><li>S-22 listening critically, the art of silent dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Strategies/ Micro skills </li></ul><ul><li>S-30 examining and evaluating assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>S-31 distinguishing relevant from irrelevant facts </li></ul>
  11. 11. Socratic Dialog <ul><li>Respond to all answers with further questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat all assertions as a connection to further thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat all thought as in need of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Any thought can only exist in a network of connected thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>All thinking presupposes prior thinking. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Terminology changes &quot;The graphic is a representation of the NEW verbage associated with the long familiar Bloom's Taxonomy. Note the change from Nouns to Verbs [e.g., Application to Applying] to describe the different levels of the taxonomy. Note that the top two levels are essentially exchanged from the Old to the New version.&quot; (Schultz, 2005) (Evaluation moved from the top to Evaluating in the second from the top, Synthesis moved from second on top to the top as Creating.) Source:
  13. 13. Sample Application of Bloom’s Taxonomy <ul><li>Analysis of the story Goldilocks and the Three Bears using the Revised </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomy.There is a lesson objective for every one of the six levels of </li></ul><ul><li>the Cognitive Process. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember : Describe where Goldilocks lived. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand : Summarize what the Goldilocks story was about. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply : Construct a theory as to why Goldilocks went into the house. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze : Differentiate between how Goldilocks reacted and how you would react in each story event. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate : Assess whether or not you think this really happened to Goldilocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Create : Compose a song, skit, poem, or rap to convey the Goldilocks story in a new form. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Critical Thinking Exercise: Applying CT Guidelines <ul><li>Ask questions; be willing to wonder </li></ul><ul><li>Define the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid emotional reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use either / or thinking or over-generalize. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider other interpretations. </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerate uncertainty. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>&quot;The principal goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done; men and women who are creative, inventive and discoverers, who can be critical and verify, and not accept, everything they are offered.&quot; Jean Piaget, Swiss philosopher and scientist </li></ul>
  16. 16. Watch your thoughts : they become your words. Watch your words : they become your actions. Watch your actions : they become your habits. Watch your habits : they become your character. Watch your character: it becomes your destiny
  17. 17. Related Videos <ul><li>Indoctrination vs Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking: a reasoning experience </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>