Table of Contents Presente Ser & Estar Gustar & Verbs Like Gustar Nouns/articles/adjectives Preterite vs. Imperfect Subjunctive in Noun Clauses Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses Commands Object Pronouns Possessive Adjectives & Pronouns Demonstrative Adjectives & Pronouns Reflexives Por & Para To Become: Hacerse, Ponerse, Volverse & Llegar a Ser
Presente -ar -er -iryo O O OTu As Es EsEl/Ella/ A E EUstedNosotros Amos Emos Imos(as)Ellos (as)/ An En EnUstedes
The present tense of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending –ar, -er, or -ir and adding personal endings The present tense is used to express actions or situations that are going on at the present time and to express general truths.
e ie Stem Changers o ue eI u ueAlso called boot verbs. There is no stemchange in the nosotros/vosotros
Irregulars -oy(dar) -go(tener) -zco(conocer) doy damos tengo tenemos conozco das dais tienes tieneis conoces conoseis da dan tiene tienen conoce conocen ***Irregular “YO” verbs only change in the yo form
Ser and Estar Estarestoyestásestáestamosestáisestán soy Ser eres es somos sois son
Ser and estar can both be translated as "to be.“ Ser shows nationality and place of origin, profession or occupation, characteristics of people, animals and things, generalizations, possession, material of composition, time, date or season, or where or when an event takes place. Ser is used to express the idea of permanence. Estar is used to express temporality. Estar shows location or spatial relationships, health, physical states and conditions, emotional states, certain weather expression, ongoing actions, or results of actions.
Verbs like Gustar aburrir to bore fascinar to be fascinating to When gustar is followed by one or more bastar to be sufficient verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of importar to be important to gustar is always used. Gustar is often used caer bien (mal) to (not) suit interesar to be interesting to in the conditional to soften a request. dar asco to be loathsome molestar to be a bother Since the subject of the sentence must be disgustar to hate something either singular (book) or plural parecer to appear to be (books), the only forms of gustar you will doler (o:ue) to be painful picar to itch use are "gusta" and "gustan.“ encantar to "love" something quedar to be left over, remain Remember, gustar becomes either gusta or faltar to be lacking something gustan, depending upon whether the volver (o:ue) loco to be crazy about subject of the sentence is singular or plural. It has nothing to do with which IO pronoun is used.
Nouns,Articles, and Adjectives Nouns Nouns ending in –o, -or, -l, -s, or –ma are masculine. Nouns ending in –a, -ora, -ión, -d, or –z are feminine. There are few exceptions. Articles Definite and indefinite: articles agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. el --masculine singular Un-- masculinesingular la --feminine singular l una -feminine singular os --masculine plural unos -masculine plural las --feminine plural unas -feminine plural Adjectives agree in gender and number with the nouns they describe. Masculine- 0,0s-e,es-le,les Feminine- a,as-e,es-le,les
Preterite Vs. Imperfect The preterite tells us specifically when an action took place. The imperfect tells us in general when an action took place.Some words signal the use of preterite or imperfect. Preterite- ayer, anteayer, anoche, desde el primer momento, durante dos siglos, el otro día Imperfect-menudo, a veces, cada día, cada semana, cada mes, cada año, con frecuencia
Preterite Preterite: regular -ar verbs The preterite form allows-é you to refer to specific-aste past actions.-ó-amos-asteis At a fixed point in time-aron Preterite: regular –ir/er verbs-í-iste A specific number of times-ió-imos-isteis During an elapsed amount-ieron of time
Impersonal Expressions Es bueno que… Es mejor que… Es malo que… Es importante que… Es nevesario que… Es urgente que…
Expressions of Emotion Alegrarse (de)- to be happy Esperar- to hope, to wish Sentir(e-ie)- to be sorry, to regret Sporender- to surprise Terner- to be afraid; to dear Es triste- its sad Ojala(que)- I hope (that); I with (that)
Expressions of doubt, disbelief, and denial Dudar-to doubt Negar(e-ie)- to deny Es imposible- its impossible Es improbable- its improbable No es cierto- its not true, its not certain No es seguro- its not certain No es verdad- its not true
Verbs of will and influence Acobsejar- to advise Importar- to be important; to matter Insistir(en)-to insist(on) Mandar- to order Prohibir-to prohibit Rcomendar (e-ie)- to recommend Rogar (o-ue)-to beg, to plead Sugerir (e-ie)- to suggest
Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses Main clause + connector + subordinate clause The subjunctive is used in questions with adjective clauses when the speaker is trying to find out information about which he or she is uncertain. When the antecedent of an adjective is a negative pronoun the subjunctive is used.
Commands Ud./Uds.- put it in the „yo‟ form and change to Tu- simply drop the „s‟ opposite vowel Los Irregulares- di, har, ve, pon,sal, se, ten, ven Los irregulares- TVDISHES DOP-IOP + se can attach to an infinitive. DOP-IOP + se must go before the irreguar commandTu- put it in the „yo‟ form and change the opposite Ud./Uds.- same as above vowel, and add an „s‟ Los irregulares-TVDISHES Los irregulares- TVDISHES
Object Pronoun Direct PronounsIndirect Pronouns ObjectObject Me NosCan be a personMe Nos Te OsTe Os Le/La Les/LasLe Les Can be an object Can be a person When you have both a direct object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun in the Whenever both pronouns begin with the letter "l" change the first pronoun to "se."
Object Pronouns etc. When object pronouns are attacked to infinitives,participles, or commands, a written accent is often required to maintain proper word stress Infinitive: Cantarmela Present Participle: Escribiendole Command: Acompaneme
Possessive Adjectives and PronounsAdjectives Possessive adjectives agree with the nouns they modify. That is, they mi(s) agree with the thing possessed, not my the possessor. tu(s) your (fam. sing.) su(s) his, her, your (formal), their nuestro(-a, -os, -as) our vuestro(-a, -os, -as) your (fam. pl.)
Possessive Pronouns and AdjectivesPronouns Possessive pronouns have the same form as stressed possessive adjectivesSingular Plural and are preceded by a definite article.el mío los míos The pronouns agree in gender andla mía las mías number with the nouns they replace.el tuyo los tuyosla tuya las tuyasel suyo los suyosla suya las suyasel nuestro los nuestrosla nuestra las nuestrasel vuestro los vuestrosla vuestra las vuestras
Demonstrative Adjectives and PronounsDemonstrative adjectives specify to which noun a speaker is referring, and they precede the nouns they modify and agree in gender and number. Este points out nouns that are close to the speaker and the listener. Ese modifies nouns nouns that are close to the listener but not the speaker. Aquel refers to nouns that are far away from both the speaker and the listener.Demonstrative Pronouns are identical to the adjectives, except that most use accent marks and that there is a neuter form (adjectives dont have a neuter form). The accents do not affect the pronunciation, but are used merely to distinguish adjectives and pronouns.
Demonstrative Pronouns and AdjectivesFar Ese Esos Esa Esas Esta EstasNear Esta EstasOver there Aquel Aquellos Aquella Aquella
Reflexive verbsme (myself) Example: aburrir - to bore aburrirse - to be boredte (yourself) acordar - to agree acordarse de - to rememberse (himself, herself, yourself) acostar - to put to bed despedir - to firenos (ourselves) despedirse de - to say goodbyeos (yourselves) dormir - to sleep dormirse - to fall asleepse (themselves, yourselves) parecerse a - to resemble poner - to put ponerse - to put on probar - to try, to tasteThe subject of reflexive verbs both probarse - to try onperforms and receives the action. quitar - to take awayReflexive verbs are always preceded by quitarse - to take offreflexive pronouns.
Por vs. ParaPor Para-to express gratitude or apology -to indicate destination-for multiplication and division -to show the use or purpose of a thing-for velocity, frequency and proportion - -to mean "in order to" or "for themeaning "through," "along," "by" or "in purpose of"the area of" -to indicate a recipient-to mean "on behalf of," or "in favor of," -to express a deadline or specific time-to express a length of time -to express a contrast from what is-to express an undetermined, or general expectedtime, meaning "during" -to express an action that will soon be-for means of communication or completedtransportation-when followed by an infinitive, toexpress an action that remains to becompleted, use por + infinitive-to express cause or reason
To Become: Hacerse, Ponerse, Volverse, and Llegar a Ser TO BECOME Hacerse can be Ponerse + [adjective] followed by a noun expresses a change in or an adjective, and mental, emotional, it often implies a or physical state that change that results is usually not long- from the subject‟s lasting. own efforts. Volverse + Llegar a ser may be [adjective] expresses followed by a noun a radical mental or or an adjective, and psychological it indicated a change change, and it often over time and does conveys a gradual or not imply the irreversible change subject‟s voluntary in character. effort.