2012 Grammer Book    TIANA ANTHONY
Table of Contents   Presente   Ser & Estar   Gustar & Verbs Like Gustar   Nouns/articles/adjectives   Preterite vs. I...
Presente                   -ar        -er        -iryo            O          O          OTu            As         Es      ...
 The present tense of regular verbs is formed by  dropping the infinitive ending –ar, -er, or -ir and  adding personal en...
 e  ie                                   Stem Changers                   o  ue                                         ...
Irregulars      -oy(dar)        -go(tener)          -zco(conocer)    doy damos       tengo tenemos        conozco    das d...
Ser and Estar              Estarestoyestásestáestamosestáisestán     soy                 Ser     eres     es     somos    ...
 Ser and estar can both be translated as "to be.“ Ser shows nationality and place of  origin, profession or occupation, ...
Verbs like Gustar   aburrir to bore   fascinar to be fascinating to           When gustar is followed by one or more   ...
Nouns,Articles, and Adjectives Nouns     Nouns ending in –o, -or, -l, -s, or –ma are masculine. Nouns ending      in –a,...
Preterite Vs. Imperfect The preterite tells us specifically when an action  took place. The imperfect tells us in genera...
Preterite Preterite: regular -ar verbs               The preterite form allows-é                                         ...
Imperfect Imperfect: regular -ar verbs   Imperfect: regular –er/ir-aba                             -ía-abas              ...
Preterite- Car/Gar/ZarCar               Gar             ZarQué               Gué                                   Cé     ...
Irregular verbs   Ir/ser       Dar/Ver          HacerFui           d/vi             hiceFuiste       d/viste          hici...
“Cucaracha” verbs   Andar: anduv-   Estar: estuv-   Poder: Pud-   Poner: Pus-                               -e   Quer...
Subjunctive in Noun Clause Subjunctive mood: attitudes, uncertain, hypothetical Main Clause + Connector + subordinate cl...
Impersonal Expressions Es bueno que… Es mejor que… Es malo que… Es importante que… Es nevesario que… Es urgente que…
Expressions of Emotion Alegrarse (de)- to be happy Esperar- to hope, to wish Sentir(e-ie)- to be sorry, to regret Spor...
Expressions of doubt, disbelief, and denial Dudar-to doubt Negar(e-ie)- to deny Es imposible- its impossible Es improb...
Verbs of will and influence Acobsejar- to advise Importar- to be important; to matter Insistir(en)-to insist(on) Manda...
Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses Main clause + connector + subordinate clause The subjunctive is used in questions with ...
Commands                                                         Ud./Uds.- put it in the „yo‟ form and change to          ...
Object Pronoun                                         Direct          PronounsIndirect          Pronouns               Ob...
Object Pronouns etc. When object pronouns are attacked to infinitives,participles, or commands, a written accent is often...
Possessive Adjectives and PronounsAdjectives                           Possessive adjectives agree with the               ...
Possessive Pronouns and AdjectivesPronouns                    Possessive pronouns have the same                           ...
Demonstrative Adjectives and PronounsDemonstrative adjectives specify to which noun a speaker is  referring, and they prec...
Demonstrative Pronouns and AdjectivesFar                    Ese          Esos                       Esa          Esas     ...
Reflexive verbsme (myself)                              Example: aburrir - to bore                                        ...
Por vs. ParaPor                                          Para-to express gratitude or apology             -to indicate des...
To Become: Hacerse, Ponerse, Volverse, and Llegar a                      Ser TO BECOME                 Hacerse can be    ...
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  1. 1. 2012 Grammer Book TIANA ANTHONY
  2. 2. Table of Contents Presente Ser & Estar Gustar & Verbs Like Gustar Nouns/articles/adjectives Preterite vs. Imperfect Subjunctive in Noun Clauses Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses Commands Object Pronouns Possessive Adjectives & Pronouns Demonstrative Adjectives & Pronouns Reflexives Por & Para To Become: Hacerse, Ponerse, Volverse & Llegar a Ser
  3. 3. Presente -ar -er -iryo O O OTu As Es EsEl/Ella/ A E EUstedNosotros Amos Emos Imos(as)Ellos (as)/ An En EnUstedes
  4. 4.  The present tense of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending –ar, -er, or -ir and adding personal endings The present tense is used to express actions or situations that are going on at the present time and to express general truths.
  5. 5.  e  ie Stem Changers o  ue eI u ueAlso called boot verbs. There is no stemchange in the nosotros/vosotros
  6. 6. Irregulars -oy(dar) -go(tener) -zco(conocer) doy damos tengo tenemos conozco das dais tienes tieneis conoces conoseis da dan tiene tienen conoce conocen ***Irregular “YO” verbs only change in the yo form
  7. 7. Ser and Estar Estarestoyestásestáestamosestáisestán soy Ser eres es somos sois son
  8. 8.  Ser and estar can both be translated as "to be.“ Ser shows nationality and place of origin, profession or occupation, characteristics of people, animals and things, generalizations, possession, material of composition, time, date or season, or where or when an event takes place. Ser is used to express the idea of permanence. Estar is used to express temporality. Estar shows location or spatial relationships, health, physical states and conditions, emotional states, certain weather expression, ongoing actions, or results of actions.
  9. 9. Verbs like Gustar aburrir to bore fascinar to be fascinating to When gustar is followed by one or more bastar to be sufficient verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of importar to be important to gustar is always used. Gustar is often used caer bien (mal) to (not) suit interesar to be interesting to in the conditional to soften a request. dar asco to be loathsome molestar to be a bother Since the subject of the sentence must be disgustar to hate something either singular (book) or plural parecer to appear to be (books), the only forms of gustar you will doler (o:ue) to be painful picar to itch use are "gusta" and "gustan.“ encantar to "love" something quedar to be left over, remain Remember, gustar becomes either gusta or faltar to be lacking something gustan, depending upon whether the volver (o:ue) loco to be crazy about subject of the sentence is singular or plural. It has nothing to do with which IO pronoun is used.
  10. 10. Nouns,Articles, and Adjectives Nouns  Nouns ending in –o, -or, -l, -s, or –ma are masculine. Nouns ending in –a, -ora, -ión, -d, or –z are feminine. There are few exceptions. Articles  Definite and indefinite: articles agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. el --masculine singular Un-- masculinesingular la --feminine singular l una -feminine singular os --masculine plural unos -masculine plural las --feminine plural unas -feminine plural Adjectives  agree in gender and number with the nouns they describe.  Masculine- 0,0s-e,es-le,les  Feminine- a,as-e,es-le,les
  11. 11. Preterite Vs. Imperfect The preterite tells us specifically when an action took place. The imperfect tells us in general when an action took place.Some words signal the use of preterite or imperfect. Preterite- ayer, anteayer, anoche, desde el primer momento, durante dos siglos, el otro día Imperfect-menudo, a veces, cada día, cada semana, cada mes, cada año, con frecuencia
  12. 12. Preterite Preterite: regular -ar verbs The preterite form allows-é you to refer to specific-aste past actions.-ó-amos-asteis At a fixed point in time-aron Preterite: regular –ir/er verbs-í-iste A specific number of times-ió-imos-isteis During an elapsed amount-ieron of time
  13. 13. Imperfect Imperfect: regular -ar verbs Imperfect: regular –er/ir-aba -ía-abas -ías-aba -ía-ábamos -íamos-abais -íais-aban -ían
  14. 14. Preterite- Car/Gar/ZarCar Gar ZarQué Gué Cé GasteAste Aste Ó ó Amos ÓAmos Asteis AmosAsteis Aron AsteisAron Aron
  15. 15. Irregular verbs Ir/ser Dar/Ver HacerFui d/vi hiceFuiste d/viste hicisteFue d/vio hizoFuimos d/vimos hicimosFueron d/vieron hicieron
  16. 16. “Cucaracha” verbs Andar: anduv- Estar: estuv- Poder: Pud- Poner: Pus- -e Querer: Quis- -iste Saber: sup- -o Tener: tuv- -imos Venir: Vin- -isteis Conductir: conduj- -ieron Productir: produj- Traducir: traduj- Decir: dij- Traer: tra-
  17. 17. Subjunctive in Noun Clause Subjunctive mood: attitudes, uncertain, hypothetical Main Clause + Connector + subordinate clause -ar--------------e,es,e,emos,en -er/ir-----------a,as,a,amos,an Irregular: Tenga Venga Dé/diga I vaya Sea Haga/haya Esté Sepa Wishing/wanting Emotions Doubt Disbelief Impersonal expressions Negation God/grief
  18. 18. Impersonal Expressions Es bueno que… Es mejor que… Es malo que… Es importante que… Es nevesario que… Es urgente que…
  19. 19. Expressions of Emotion Alegrarse (de)- to be happy Esperar- to hope, to wish Sentir(e-ie)- to be sorry, to regret Sporender- to surprise Terner- to be afraid; to dear Es triste- its sad Ojala(que)- I hope (that); I with (that)
  20. 20. Expressions of doubt, disbelief, and denial Dudar-to doubt Negar(e-ie)- to deny Es imposible- its impossible Es improbable- its improbable No es cierto- its not true, its not certain No es seguro- its not certain No es verdad- its not true
  21. 21. Verbs of will and influence Acobsejar- to advise Importar- to be important; to matter Insistir(en)-to insist(on) Mandar- to order Prohibir-to prohibit Rcomendar (e-ie)- to recommend Rogar (o-ue)-to beg, to plead Sugerir (e-ie)- to suggest
  22. 22. Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses Main clause + connector + subordinate clause The subjunctive is used in questions with adjective clauses when the speaker is trying to find out information about which he or she is uncertain. When the antecedent of an adjective is a negative pronoun the subjunctive is used.
  23. 23. Commands Ud./Uds.- put it in the „yo‟ form and change to Tu- simply drop the „s‟ opposite vowel Los Irregulares- di, har, ve, pon,sal, se, ten, ven Los irregulares- TVDISHES DOP-IOP + se can attach to an infinitive. DOP-IOP + se must go before the irreguar commandTu- put it in the „yo‟ form and change the opposite Ud./Uds.- same as above vowel, and add an „s‟ Los irregulares-TVDISHES Los irregulares- TVDISHES
  24. 24. Object Pronoun Direct PronounsIndirect Pronouns ObjectObject Me NosCan be a personMe Nos Te OsTe Os Le/La Les/LasLe Les Can be an object Can be a person When you have both a direct object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun in the Whenever both pronouns begin with the letter "l" change the first pronoun to "se."
  25. 25. Object Pronouns etc. When object pronouns are attacked to infinitives,participles, or commands, a written accent is often required to maintain proper word stress  Infinitive: Cantarmela  Present Participle: Escribiendole  Command: Acompaneme
  26. 26. Possessive Adjectives and PronounsAdjectives Possessive adjectives agree with the nouns they modify. That is, they mi(s) agree with the thing possessed, not my the possessor. tu(s) your (fam. sing.) su(s) his, her, your (formal), their nuestro(-a, -os, -as) our vuestro(-a, -os, -as) your (fam. pl.)
  27. 27. Possessive Pronouns and AdjectivesPronouns Possessive pronouns have the same form as stressed possessive adjectivesSingular Plural and are preceded by a definite article.el mío los míos The pronouns agree in gender andla mía las mías number with the nouns they replace.el tuyo los tuyosla tuya las tuyasel suyo los suyosla suya las suyasel nuestro los nuestrosla nuestra las nuestrasel vuestro los vuestrosla vuestra las vuestras
  28. 28. Demonstrative Adjectives and PronounsDemonstrative adjectives specify to which noun a speaker is referring, and they precede the nouns they modify and agree in gender and number. Este points out nouns that are close to the speaker and the listener. Ese modifies nouns nouns that are close to the listener but not the speaker. Aquel refers to nouns that are far away from both the speaker and the listener.Demonstrative Pronouns are identical to the adjectives, except that most use accent marks and that there is a neuter form (adjectives dont have a neuter form). The accents do not affect the pronunciation, but are used merely to distinguish adjectives and pronouns.
  29. 29. Demonstrative Pronouns and AdjectivesFar Ese Esos Esa Esas Esta EstasNear Esta EstasOver there Aquel Aquellos Aquella Aquella
  30. 30. Reflexive verbsme (myself) Example: aburrir - to bore aburrirse - to be boredte (yourself) acordar - to agree acordarse de - to rememberse (himself, herself, yourself) acostar - to put to bed despedir - to firenos (ourselves) despedirse de - to say goodbyeos (yourselves) dormir - to sleep dormirse - to fall asleepse (themselves, yourselves) parecerse a - to resemble poner - to put ponerse - to put on probar - to try, to tasteThe subject of reflexive verbs both probarse - to try onperforms and receives the action. quitar - to take awayReflexive verbs are always preceded by quitarse - to take offreflexive pronouns.
  31. 31. Por vs. ParaPor Para-to express gratitude or apology -to indicate destination-for multiplication and division -to show the use or purpose of a thing-for velocity, frequency and proportion - -to mean "in order to" or "for themeaning "through," "along," "by" or "in purpose of"the area of" -to indicate a recipient-to mean "on behalf of," or "in favor of," -to express a deadline or specific time-to express a length of time -to express a contrast from what is-to express an undetermined, or general expectedtime, meaning "during" -to express an action that will soon be-for means of communication or completedtransportation-when followed by an infinitive, toexpress an action that remains to becompleted, use por + infinitive-to express cause or reason
  32. 32. To Become: Hacerse, Ponerse, Volverse, and Llegar a Ser TO BECOME Hacerse can be Ponerse + [adjective] followed by a noun expresses a change in or an adjective, and mental, emotional, it often implies a or physical state that change that results is usually not long- from the subject‟s lasting. own efforts. Volverse + Llegar a ser may be [adjective] expresses followed by a noun a radical mental or or an adjective, and psychological it indicated a change change, and it often over time and does conveys a gradual or not imply the irreversible change subject‟s voluntary in character. effort.
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