Nature, Concepts and Purposes of Curriculum: Teaching-Learning Processes and Curriculum Development
(a) The needs of the learners
(b) The achievable goals and objectives to meet the needs.
(c) The selection of the content to be taught
(d) The motivation to carry out the goals
(e) The strategies most fit to carry out the goals.
(f) The evaluation process to measure learning outcomes.
Requires the teacher to implement what has been planned.
Teacher and the learner are the two important players in
Their INTERACTION is important in the accomplishment of
Will answer the question if the plans and implementation
have been successfully achieved.
In all the three phases of
teaching, a continuous process
of feedback and reflection is
Feedback is to give information as to whether the three phases were
appropriately done and gave good results.
Reflection is a process embedded in teaching where the teacher inquires
into his or her actions and provides deep and critical thinking.
That teaching is goal oriented with the change of
behaviour as the ultimate end;
The teachers are the ones who shape actively their
That teaching is rational and a reflective process;
That teachers by their actions can influence learners to change
their own thinking or desired behaviour, thus teaching is a way of
changing behaviour through the intervention of the teacher.
Guides in the Process of Good Teaching
Is one that is well planned and where activities are interrelated to each other.
Is one that provides learning experiences or situations that will ensure
understanding, application and critical thinking.
Is based on the theories of learning.
Is one where the learner is stimulated to think and reason.
Utilizes prior learning and its application to new situations.
Is governed by democratic principles.
Embeds a sound evaluation process.
To teach is to make
someone to learn.
This statement means that the end product of teaching is learning.
What is learning?
What are the ways of learning?
When do we say we have learned?
Let us now look closer at the concepts of learning as it relates to the
concept of curriculum.
A change in an individual’s behaviour caused by experiences or self-activity.
Learning can only happen through the individual’s activity or his/her own
Occurs when activities are purposely arranged for the students to participate and
Like when a learner acquires knowledge in the classroom or when one observes a
When a child touches a lighted candle and feels it is hot.
Two Principal Types of
Behavioural Learning Theories
• Emphasizes observable such as new skills, knowledge, or
attributes which can be demonstrated.
• The forms of behaviour are observable and measurable.
• According to this group of theories, if the individual has
changed behaviour, he has learned.
Cognitive Learning Theories
Are concerned with human learning in which
unobservable mental processes are used to learn
and remember new information or acquire skills.
Related to Cognitive Learning Theories
from his own
discovery of the
thus they can be self
motivated until they
find answers to their
actively involved in
their own learning,
construct their own
Learning is flexible,
Each individual is
capable of learning
how to learn.
Poses a contrast to the discovery learning of Bruner.
To Ausubel, though learners are inherently curious, they may not be able to know
what is important or relevant and they need external motivation in order to learn.
However, both theories believe that learners should be actively involved in their own
Both also emphasize that prior learning is important in order to learn new things and
because knowledge continuously changes once it is in learner’s mind.
Events of Learning
The learner must be motivated to learn by expectation that learning
will be rewarding
The learner attends or pay attention if learning has to take place.
While the learner is paying attention, the stage is set and the information
presented. Learner transforms information into meaningful form.
The newly acquired information must be transferred from short-term to long-
term memory. This may take place by means of practice, elaboration or
Recall previous learned information. To learn to gain access to that which has
been learned is a critical phase in learning.
Transfer of information to new situation allows
application of the learned information in the
context in which it was learned.
Students must receive feedback on their
performance. This will serve as reinforcer for
Learning does not
take place in an
Ways of Learning
trial and error
This type of learning is related to the stimulus-response
theory of learning.
When the reaction is wrong or negative, then it will not be repeated. Learning will take place in
Reaction, action and reaction where the beginning reaction
is due to a stimulus.
When the result is correct or satisfying then the response
will be repeated.
This type of learning is oftentimes risky and time consuming because the next step will only
follow depending on the result.
Making several errors would be very expensive in time, effort and money. However, trial and
error is the easiest way of doing things without necessarily anticipating a definite objective.
Learning By Conditioning
Conditioning theory of
Pavlov serves as the
basis of this learning.
Learning here is a product
of what the individual does
which will result to either
pleasant or unpleasant
Training is the simple term to
describe the learning here,
thus even animals can be
trained to do something but
such action does not refer to
Aside from Pavlov’s
Conditioning plays a
great role in this kind of
Drill and practice are
some learning activities
based on this
From a simple trial and error learning to
learning by conditioning, educational
psychologists believe that human beings
learn also by insights.
In this type of learning a higher level of
intelligence is being utilized.
A sudden flash of
idea or solution to a
learning as an
Insight is looking
Learning by insight
skills of the learner.
the learner will
also be capable of
Learning By Observation and Imitation
This process of
that one learns
Anchored on the social
learning of Albert Bandura,
learning by observation and
imitation requires a model,
hence it is referred to as
It is throughobservationand
imitationfrom a model that a
personwill be a able to do
Learning By Observation and Imitation
through modelling Four (4) Phases
The learner observes a
The learner copies, practice
or rehearse what has been
The learner matches their
behaviour to the model.
Learners will imitate the
behaviour for getting a chance
to be reinforced by becoming
like the one from whom the
behaviour has copied.