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Transcript

  • 1. An Introduction to Ethics IB Philosophy
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
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  • 6. Watch short video Hong Kong photo scandal exposed
  • 7. Rank in order who is most WRONG in this scandal
    • Edison Chen (the photographer)
    • Gillian Chung and Cecilia Chung who were part of the pictures.
    • The computer shop guy who downloaded the pictures
    • The distributors who took the pictures and broadcast them and maybe tried to make some money
  • 8. Do the right thing…
  • 9. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? ‘ One of the things that distinguishes humans from other animals is our ability to make moral decisions.’
  • 10. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? WHAT IS ETHICS? What makes an action moral? Are moral standards universal/absolute or relative?
  • 11. ‘ If you’re going to study ethics seriously, you must be prepared to examine your views critically and be open to a range of ideas that may be quite different from your own’. R.Bowie Are you ready for the challenge of studying ethics??
  • 12. What is ethics?
    • Ethics : from Greek word ethikos, meaning ‘character’. Refers to customary way to behave in society
    • Morality : from Latin word moralis, concerned with which actions are right and which are wrong
    • Today terms are used interchangeably
  • 13. Ways of doing ethics
    • Descriptive ethics
    • Normative ethics
    • Meta-ethics
    • Applied ethics
  • 14. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? WHAT makes an action come within the scope of morality? WHAT sorts of things is morality all about? WHAT makes an act enter the moral arena? WHAT criteria do we use in order to identify moral actions?
  • 15. Task : What makes something moral?
    • Discuss a range of moral situations and try to decide on what the right or wrong thing to do would be in each case
    • The Liar, indecent proposal, 5 workers on a train track, dolphin or baby, masked stranger (see file)
    • Homework
    • Examine a range of magazine tabloid articles / newspaper headline. Bring into next lesson one good example of a moral issue as presented in the media. Decide on what you think is the moral way to act, the immoral way to act and be prepared to talk through your example with the class next lesson.
  • 16. What makes an action ‘moral’?
    • A moral act involves an agent
    • A moral act involves intention
    • A moral act affects others
  • 17. KEY CONCEPT:
    • AGENCY : The capacity to reflect and decide what to do.
    • Can only humans be moral AGENTS?
  • 18. IS IT ALL RELATIVE? IS IT ALL RELATIVE?
  • 19. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? Are there situations when an action might be right and other situations when the same action might be wrong? Is one culture or religious view of morality as good as that of another culture or religion? Are there some actions which are ALWAYS right? Are there certain moral rules that exist for all times and for all places?
  • 20. The nomadic Masai of East Africa practice polygamy and wife-lending between men of the same age group. Some Westerners practise open marriages, whereby spouses engage other spouses in shared and open sexual relations. Christians practice monogamy. Is any one way morally better or morally worse than another?
  • 21. Indecent Proposal
  • 22. KEY CONCEPT:
    • RELATIVISM : Theory that the truth is different for different people
    • ABSOLUTISM : Theory that there are moral principles that are always and everywhere applicable
  • 23. KEY CONCEPT:
    • ETHICAL RELATIVISM : Morality relative to the norms of ones culture. No universal moral standards.
    • Individual ethical relativism
    • Cultural ethical relativism
  • 24. IS IT ALL RELATIVE? Can you think of any criticisms of relativism?
  • 25. KEY CONCEPT:
    • ETHICAL ABSOLUTISM : Theory that there are moral principles that are always and everywhere applicable.
    • Right and wrong based on constant objective moral principles
    • Moral quality of an act inherent in the quality of the act itself.
  • 26. IS IT ALL RELATIVE? Can you think of any criticisms of absolutism?
  • 27. Research Task
    • Visit http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/
    • Find out more about ‘Honour Crimes’ and ‘Forced marriage’, ‘Slavery’
    • Summarize the cases / issues for the class
    • What is your response to the issues?
    • How would a Ethical relativist respond?
    • How would a Ethical absolutist respond?
  • 28. Next Lesson
    • Complete the handout in booklet – Definitions for
    • 1. Descriptive ethics
    • 2. Normative ethics
    • 3. Meta-ethics
    • 4. Applied ethics
    • 5. Realism
    • 6. Irrealism/anti-realism