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Different Jobs Need Different Cultures

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Presentation in the Track 24 at the Euram Conference in Rome 20.05.2010

Presentation in the Track 24 at the Euram Conference in Rome 20.05.2010

Published in: Business, Technology

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    • 1. Different Jobs Need Different Cultures European Academy of Management Rome, May 20th, 2010 Tobias Scholz Track 22: Leveraging the positive in multicultural teams
    • 2. Current Situation Tobias Scholz: Different Jobs Need Different Cultures
    • 3. Tobias Scholz: Different Jobs Need Different Cultures We live in a flat world, cultural differences are a problem to solve (Heeks et al. 2001). Research sees cultural differences as an obstacle (Krishna et al. 2004). Cultural Values have a negative impact on team performance (Dibbern et al. 2008). In creative industries are cultural differences beneficial to innovation and team performance (Tschang 2007).
    • 4. Outline Tobias Scholz: Different Jobs Need Different Cultures
      • Research Model
      • Archetypes
      • Survey Design
      • Results
      • Limitations
      • Contributions
    • 5. Reason for these Constructs Cultural Values (Hofstede, 1980) well known and well researched definitions of cultural values. Cultural Intelligence (Ang and Inkpen, 2008) is the individual ability to adapt to new cultural settings. Mindfulness (Langer and Moldoveanu, 2000) is drawing novel distinctions and the awareness of the context of our actions. Teamwork Quality (Hoegl and Gemuenden, 2001) is the interaction between teams (e.g. communication, coordination). Team Performance (Hoegl and Gemuenden, 2001) is described as effectiveness and efficiency, here based on quality and cost. Tobias Scholz: Different Jobs Need Different Cultures
    • 6. Research Model (PLS) Tobias Scholz: Different Jobs Need Different Cultures Teamwork Quality Individualism/Collectivism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Cultural Intelligence Mindfulness Team Performance
    • 7. Archetypes Tobias Scholz: Different Jobs Need Different Cultures Artists and Audio Designer creative, innovative Community Manager and Quality Assurance controlling, information-sharing, interaction Producer and Programmer planning, creating and coding Game Designer visionary, creative, leader Source Ferrer 2008
    • 8. Survey Design Tobias Scholz: Different Jobs Need Different Cultures
      • Sample
      • Members of the International Game Developers Association (about 1000 contacts)
      • Bulletin Boards (e.g. IGDA, usf3.de and gamedev.net)
      • Respondents
      • 179 complete questionnaires
    • 9. Results Tobias Scholz: Different Jobs Need Different Cultures Teamwork Quality Individualis/Collectivism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Cultural Intelligence Mindfulness Team Performance Teamwork Quality Individual/Collectivism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Cultural Intelligence Mindfulness Team Performance Teamwork Quality Individual/Collectivism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Cultural Intelligence Mindfulness Team Performance Teamwork Quality Individual/Collectivism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Cultural Intelligence Mindfulness Team Performance Artists and Audio Designer (n=19) Community Manager and Quality Assurance (n=20) Game Designer (n=37) Producer and Programmer (n=90) 0,826 0,457 0,067 0,424 -0,342 0,411
    • 10. Limitations Tobias Scholz: Different Jobs Need Different Cultures Group Research is not significant in many cases due to small numbers. Cultural Intelligence construct is not as well tested as the other constructs. Mindfulness is on an individual level the other constructs on an organizational level. Recent research describes mindfulness as a facet of cultural intelligence (Thomas 2006).
    • 11. Tobias Scholz: What can we learn from Game Leadership? Contributions (1) Combination of different known scales into a new research model. Empirical survey in the video-game industry to show the positive influence of cultural differences on a creative and innovative industry. Video-game industry attracts a global audience and therefore needs diverse teams. Game development teams have to handle diverse task in their distinct teams.
    • 12. Contributions (2): Another View on Archetypes Tobias Scholz: Different Jobs Need Different Cultures Artists and Audio Designer need to be mindful and cultural intelligent with a strong uncertainty avoidance. Community Manager and Quality Assurance need to be mindful and cultural intelligent with a strong uncertainty avoidance, additional highly individualistic but with a small power distance. Producer and Programmer need to be highly collectivistic with a small power distance and less mindful and less cultural intelligent. Game Designer need to be highly collectivistic and highly cultural intelligent, low on uncertainty avoidance.
    • 13. What did we learn? Tobias Scholz: Different Jobs Need Different Cultures
      • Job-fields have distinct requirements on the cultural values.
      • Culture intelligence help to fit into the requirements for the job-field.
      • Cultural differences can improve the team performance
        • if the team is selected based on a fit between job-field and culture of employee.
        • if the team tries to use the cultural differences for their advantage.
        • if the team tries to learn from the different cultures.
    • 14. Tobias Scholz [email_address] Thank you! Questions? Tobias Scholz: Different Jobs Need Different Cultures