120601Design Methods of Community Cafés


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120601Design Methods of Community Cafés

  1. 1. EDRA43 / June 1, 2012 Ibasyo: Emerging Place Making by Citizens in Japan Design Methods of Community Cafés Yasuhiro Tanaka
  2. 2. Several community cafés have opened in the past decade in Japan. 2 • Almost all of community cafés were planned and are managed by neighborhood residents voluntarily.
  3. 3. Several community cafés have opened in the past decade in Japan. 3 vacant stores vacant houses community centers • Neighborhood residents have opened community cafés by utilizing vacant stores, vacant houses, and community centers. • Most of community cafés are not large, but they play many roles in the neighborhood.
  4. 4. Several community cafés have opened in the past decade in Japan. 4 • Community cafés are places that neighborhood residents can visit to chat and share local news and informations with other residents. • Occasionally, group activities and events like exhibitions, lectures, live music, and anniversary parties are held.
  5. 5. Community Café Network Association 5 • The Wonderful Aging Club (WAC) launched a Community Café Network Association in Japan. • Approximately 500 cafés are a part of this network. ~1989 1990~97 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 90% 0 5 10 15 20 25 fig. Number of Establishments Oita University Human Welfare Research Center (2011), Results of Survey on Community Cafés.
  6. 6. Backgrounds of Establishments 6 Why several community cafés are opened in the past decade in Japan? • Increasing number of retired people • Impoverished neighborhoods resulting from penetrating market fundamentalism • Inadequate investment from the private and public sectors owing to financial difficulties • etc... 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 fig. Population Aging Rate (over 65) • As residents began confronting these challenges, they came to realize the importance of rethinking neighborhoods and supporting each other. • Community cafés were opened with the aim of tackling these challenges.
  7. 7. Purpose of this study 7 is to clarify how neighborhood residents design Community Cafés. TOPOS Sakura-En Machikado-Hiroba * TOPOS=Place * Sakura = Cherry Blossoms * En=Place *Machikado = Street Corner *Hiroba = Plaza / Place This study adopted the following methods to carry out the investigation. • Open-ended interviews with managers • Observation research • Analysis of related resources such as journals and community newspapers.
  8. 8. Outline of 3 Community Cafés 8 TOPOS Sakura-En Machikado-Hiroba Open April, 1987 May, 2000 September, 2001 City Edogawa-ku, Tokyo Higashi-Yodogawa-ku, Osaka Toyonaka-city, Osaka Backgrounds of opening proposition by Ms.Sirane project by the Osaka Prefecture project by the Ministry of Construction and social experiment by the Toyonaka City Manager Ms.Sirane Ms.Wanami Ms.Akai→Mr.Yanagihara Number 0 About 12 About 12 of Volunteers (Private buisiness) Hours Monday - Friday 11am - 7pm Monday - Saturday 9am - 4pm Monday - Saturday 11am - 4pm
  9. 9. Outline of 3 Community Cafés 9 TOPOS Sakura-En Machikado-Hiroba Manager Ms.Sirane Ms.Wanami Ms.Akai→Mr.Yanagihara Number of Volunteers 0 (Private buisiness) About 12 About 12 Main visitors homemakers, children, and local patients with mental illnesses elderly elderly and schoolchildren Drinks Coffee: ¥400 (≒$5) Cafe au lait: ¥450 (≒$5.6) Tea: ¥400 (≒$5) Coffee: ¥100 (≒$1.25) Tea: ¥100 (≒$1.25) Juice: ¥100 (≒$1.25) Herbal tea: ¥150 (≒$1.9) Coffee: ¥100 (≒$1.25) Tea: ¥100 (≒$1.25) Japanese tea: ¥100 (≒$1.25) Juice: ¥100 (≒$1.25) Foods Lunch: ¥980 (≒$12.3) Toast: ¥100 (≒$1.25) Boiled egg: ¥30 (≒$0.38) −−−− ¥80 ≒ $1
  10. 10. TOPOS 10 Tokyo, 1987 -
  11. 11. TOPOS 11 化粧室 本棚 本棚 厨 房 ▲ 桜並木 本棚 カ ウ ン タ 勖 0 1 5m N 65㎡ Ms. Sirane Table and Bookshelves Counter Drawing Class Entrance
  12. 12. Sakura-En 12 Osaka, 2000 -
  13. 13. Sakura-En 13 ▼ Group Activity だんらんコーナー トイレ 喫茶コーナー 厨房カウンター 倉庫事務コーナー café corner Kitchen Group Activity Corner 0 1 5m N 75㎡ Ms. Wanami Corner Café Corner
  14. 14. Machikado-Hiroba 14 Osaka, 2001 -
  15. 15. Machikado-Hiroba 15 アーケード 長机 掲示板 掲示板カウンター 倉庫 空き店舗 美容室 ▲ ▲ アーケード 0 1 5m N Neighborhood Center Ms. Akai アーケード 掲示板 カウンター 倉庫 倉庫 酒屋 ▲ インテリアショップ 本棚 0 1 5m N The Machikado-Hiroba moved to another vacant store in 2006. 30㎡ 75㎡
  16. 16. Similarities among the 3 Cafés 16 The histories and management styles are different at each café, but research identified some similarities among them as well. 1. They are open every day. 2. People who want to spend alone time at the café are not disturbed. 3. Managers, staff, and visitors are treated equally. 4. Management styles evolved gradually.
  17. 17. Everydayness 17 Many places allow only residents who have made reservations, but few allow people to visit for any length of time without reservations. Thus, the managers at the 3 cafés emphasized that they wanted their cafés open every day, so that residents can visit for as long as they want. Table. Opening Hours TOPOS Sakura-En Machikado-Hiroba Hours Monday - Friday 11am - 7pm Monday - Saturday 9am - 4pm Monday - Saturday 11am - 4pm Ms.Akai (Machikado-Hiroba): "Before we opened the Machikado-Hiroba, we determined that we would be open every day. We need to be open every day if we want neighborhood residents to feel free to come here." Ms. Wanami (Sakura-En) "I believe that if we didn’t open the Sakura-En every day, it would be just like other normal community centers. We don’t require more of those, because we already have a community center near here."
  18. 18. People who want to spend alone time are not disturbed. 18 In many Japanese community centers, visitors are required to participate in conversation with the staff or other visitors. However, the 3 managers believe that there is positive meaning in being together without conversation. TOPOS Sakura-En Machikado-Hiroba Ms. Sirane: "When I planned this place, I believed that it was important for visitors not to feel isolated, even if they were sitting alone." Ms. Akai: "It is of course pleasant when everyone sits around a big table and chats with others. But I believe that everyone needs to spend time without conversation occasionally." Ms. Wanami "When I see people who want to pass their time alone here, I do not talk to them, but I always keep an eye on them from a different table."
  19. 19. 19 Managers, staff, and visitors are treated equally. The manager of each café believes that their neighbors should not be divided into the strict categories of those who provide service and those who receive it. Each manager reported that their places provide much opportunity both for staff to chat with visitors and for visitors to assist the staff with their duties. Machikado-Hiroba Sakura-En Staff Staff Manager Staff Visitors Visitors Visitors Ms. Akai: "Neighborhood residents can not only visit here as guests but also participate in management as volunteer staff members. I believe this situation has created the friendly and casual atmosphere we have here." Ms. Wanami "I believe that the staff and visitors are equal here. Because of this equality, everyone gets along well together. I can say that they are like a real family."
  20. 20. Management styles evolved gradually. 20 To be responsive to residents’ ongoing needs, these 3 managers emphasized that they should not try to rigidly adhere to any initial plans but should let policies form gradually. Table. Activities and Events Held in the TOPOS 1990 2000 2010 chorus 1st & 3rd Mon 1st & 3rd Mon × Read the Bible 2nd Tue Fri 1st Sat Gathering for talking about life and death 2nd Sat 4th Mon 4th Mon Reading party 4th Mon × × Service time for children and youth Wed & Sat Wed & Sat Wed & Sat Drawing Class × Wed & Thu Wed & Thu Hibiki no Kai × 3rd Thu 3rd Thu English Conversation Class × Tue × Exhibition (flowers) × May × Exhibition (Friends) × Sep Once in a year Ms. Sirane: "New roles here have been formed as I meet new visitors. I believe they have gradually made this place more attractive."
  21. 21. Management styles evolved gradually. 21 The Sakura-En had been planned with 2 different corners—one for the café and the other for group activities. Planners and neighborhood residents who participated in the planning process originally considered the group activity corner to be more important than the café corner. However, it was gradually discovered that visitors preferred chatting together or enjoying a cup of coffee or tea alone to participating in group activities. group activity corner café corner ▼ だんらんコーナー トイレ 喫茶コーナー 厨房カウンター 倉庫事務コーナー 0 1 5m N The café area were expanded into the group activity corner.
  22. 22. Conclusion 22 these services have moved from the home to special institutions. • It is now possible for everyone to receive professional services no matter where they come from or live. • But the shift away from providing most services at home has led to fragmentation in our daily lives. • In addition, both the private and public sectors have experienced shortages of funds to provide the kinds of services that were once performed at home. Modernization Nursing Home Neighborhood residents opened community cafés to reintegrate our segmented lives by themselves. Formerly Home Medical care Education Nurshing Funeral School Hospital Nursery school Office Museum shopping center Other Institutions Community Cafes
  23. 23. Design Methods of Community Cafés 23 1. While people only visit institutions for some specific purpose, community cafés are open to everyone. Community cafés have achieved their goal of inclusiveness. 2. While roles are clearly defined and differentiated in institutions, they are more fluid in community cafés. People can visit community cafés as guests or volunteer to take up managerial roles, and people can talk with each other or simply spend alone time without conversation. 3. Community cafés are not managed according to previously outlined rules or manuals—they evolve in response to visitors needs. 4. The roles and purposes of institutions are defined at the outset. In contrast, because community cafés are flexibly managed, their roles and purposes are formed gradually. The longer the community cafés operate, the clearer their roles, purpose, and management styles all become. These design methods for community cafés have the capacity to help us reintegrate our segmented lives. As more community cafés open, they will play a more significant role than ever in Japan’s future.
  24. 24. Thank you very much for your kind attention.