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How could Open Badges Transform ePortfolio Practices and Technologies!

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Looking at the history of ePortfolio practice and technologies over the last 10 years, one is entitled in asking: what has changed? Is the ePortfolio technology we have today that different from what …

Looking at the history of ePortfolio practice and technologies over the last 10 years, one is entitled in asking: what has changed? Is the ePortfolio technology we have today that different from what we had 10 years ago? While there is certainly a wider spread of ePortfolios, have ePortfolios transformed practice or been assimilated by institutions?

Open Badges are the opportunity to reinvent ePortfolio technology and practice, and create the conditions for an effective shift of the locus of power from institutions to individuals and communities. Shall we be able to seize this opportunity?

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  • 1. How could Open Badges Transform ePortfolio Practices and Technologies! What might we learn from the last 10 years of ePortfolio developments? Serge Ravet EUROPORTFOLIO ADPIOS, EUROPORTFOLIO The EUROPORTFOLIO / EPNET project is funded with support from the European Commission. Europortfolio Webinar 20 May 2014 Monday, 26 May 14
  • 2. 2004 While the question five years ago was: "should every student and employee have an email?" Today the question is: "should every student and employee have an ePortfolio ?" Monday, 26 May 14
  • 3. While ten years ago the question was: "should every student and employee have an ePortfolio ?" Today's question could be: How could Open Badges transform learning... and ePortfolio Practices and Technologies? 2014 Monday, 26 May 14
  • 4. ?What has changed in the ePortfolio world since 2003? Monday, 26 May 14
  • 5. Adoption ?Monday, 26 May 14
  • 6. Do not reuse or reference these charts: they are based on fragmented observations! Systematic collection of data in progress... 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Adoption in at least one discipline Primary Secondary Tertiary Work 1% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Adoption across disciplines Primary Secondary Tertiary Work ? Adoption ? Monday, 26 May 14
  • 7. Adoption The NES (NHS Education for Scotland) ePortfolio has grown rapidly since its inception in August 2005 and now comprises over 20 versions for over 35,000 healthcare trainees within Scotland (Nursing, Midwifery, Dentistry and Pharmacy), across the United Kingdom (Medicine), and The Republic of Ireland (Medicine). Monday, 26 May 14
  • 8. Transformation ?Monday, 26 May 14
  • 9. Transformation Have ePorfolios transformed education? Have ePorfolios been transformed by educational institutions? Or ?Monday, 26 May 14
  • 10. http://www.change.org/petitions/clemson-university-eliminate-the-eportfolio I started this petition because I believe the ePortfolio is a complete waste of time and effort for all Clemson students. I understand the reason behind having an ePortfolio, with the capabilities to see the work completed by various students to meet set requirements. However, I find this "assignment" to be a complete waste of time and a burden on our students. Like most all of my classmates, I put work into my classes and receive grades, as I should. It is as simple as that.Why should we be required to create a portfolio that just reiterates the fact that we have completed a course? Why should we be submitting work to an online portfolio that does not give us any credit? [...] The ePortfolio only creates another task for students to worry about, a task that accomplishes nothing. I wrote an essay for my English class, I got an A on it, that led to me receive an A in the course, and I successfully earned those credits. Nowhere in there do I see a gap that must be filled in with an ePortfolio. Many of us have friends at other prestigious universities. Not once have I heard of an ePortfolio assignment from any of them. I firmly believe that eliminating the ePortfolio at Clemson University will truly enable students to be more focused on their actual coursework and have a more positive mindset about school.After all, this campus is supposed to have the "happiest students." Petition by Jamie Harding Cranberry Township, PA Eliminate the ePortfolio Petitioning Clemson university Monday, 26 May 14
  • 11. "ePortfolio assignments" are total nonsense! Jamie Harding is right! Monday, 26 May 14
  • 12. Grades, degrade education! Yet, Jamie misses one key point: But that's another story... Monday, 26 May 14
  • 13. Technologies ?Monday, 26 May 14
  • 14. Technologies ? What do we have today that was missing 10 years ago? What is missing today that was already missing 10 years ago? Monday, 26 May 14
  • 15. For the 7th ePortfolio conference, and in order to give directions to our work towards our 2010 goal (ePortfolio for all), EIfEL has decided to address a number of challenges to the ePortfolio community and beyond —many of the problems the ePortfolio community faces today will not be resolved if they are not addressed beyond the ePortfolio silo. The goal of these challenges is to move beyond the current state of ePortfolio development, in particular in the field of interoperability as interoperability is not just a technical issue, but a means to enable new practices and the emergence of truly lifelong and life wide ePortfolios. Our main objective is to create the conditions for the emergence of MultiPortfolio organisations (one organisation can interact with many different ePortfolio platforms) and MultiOrganisation ePortfolios (have one ePortfolio to interact with many different institutions with their own platform). 1. Universal ePortfolio Repository —a unified view of all my assets Context: Today, the digital assets used to create an ePortfolio can be hosted in many different systems managed by many different organisations. Issue: How can we provide a unified view of all the assets belonging to one person, so she/he can seamlessly create ePortfolios without having to navigate through multiple sites? How can I reunite my digital identity? Direction: Identity and access management (IAM) technologies, such as federation of identities and services need to be fully explored by the ePortfolio community. NB: a universal repository is not equivalent to a unique repository; it can be universal while being distributed over a number of loosely connected and heterogeneous systems. 2. Universal Competency Identifiers —share competency definitions across systems Context: A number of ePortfolio platforms, and other applications in the field of education, employment, accreditation and human resource use competency frameworks. Today, the dominant delivery format of competency frameworks is a PDF file, forcing each system to import or recreate them from scratch. Issue: How can we share competency definitions across systems and applications? How can we elicit emerging competencies through interactive technologies? Direction: The creation of a competency wiki providing shared, distributed, multilingual URIs (Unique Resource Identifiers) to competency definitions. The solution to unique resource identifiers for competency definition has already been discussed by Simon Grant (Representing frameworks of skill and competence for interoperability). We have the technology required, what is missing is the political impetus and commitment. 3. ePortfolio social —share assets, knowledge and processes across communities Context: The idea of using social computing for ePortfolios is growing and a number of platforms have integrated such features. Nevertheless, the current implementation of social networking technology is mainly limited to connecting individuals as silos of information. Issue: Let’s imagine a group of 100 people belonging to the same community (company, school, etc.) among which 10 are writing their own CV. Can we design a technology that will make it possible that at the end of the process, each of the 100 people will have (part of) their own CV written? How can we automatically generate and updated ePortfolios and CVs through social interaction? Direction: Imagine that each time a person writes an elementary entry into their CV describing a professional experience, they have to name the people that shared the same experience; then for each person named, the entry is added to their ‘CV’, with the ability to edit it and share it back with the original author or create their own edited version of the entry. This way, each CV would be thread weaving a collective story. For the reader, being able to judge how an individual CV is connected to other stories, could even be an indicator of trustworthiness. The same reasoning could of course apply to ePortfolios. 4. ePortfolio semantic editors —make sense of what I write, connect, etc. Context: In 2003, during the first international ePortfolio conference in Poitiers, Christopher Tan presented Knowledge Community, a platform scaffolding learners reflection through semantic annotation, i.e. identifying key words and labelling them with semantic value, e.g. evidence, theory, example, etc. Since then, not a single editor of ePortfolio tools has included any form of semantic annotation. Issue: We need ePortfolio editors that scaffold reflective thinking, not just enrich text with bolds, italics and ‘pink on purple’ effects. We need proper, simple semantic editors, as semantic annotation is a way to structure reflection, connect ideas, facts and people. Direction: RDFa editors provide the blueprint for ePortfolio editors that fully support the components of a reflective process. At minima, be able to tag parts of texts/images, not just the whole document. 5. ePortfolio Readers —read any ePortfolio through consistent and multiple views Context: There are a number of ePortfolio platforms, each one with their own user interfaces and some people create ePortfolios without using any dedicated ePortfolio platform (e.g. content management system). And people want to be free to express their identity without being kept in the straightjacket of predefined templates. Issue: How can we leave total freedom to ePortfolio author’s creativity, while providing readers with their own view through a consistent navigational interface, e.g. evidence on the left, competency framework on the right, etc.? Direction: We might have to define different readers, depending on the process being involved, so the same ePortfolio could have different views generated by different tools. Such tools could be used by ePortfolio authors as tools to verify that their ePortfolio is properly structured and contains all the relevant semantic information. 6. Open & Trusted Service Architecture Context: Today each ePortfolio platform provides a limited number of services and adding new services require the development of idiosyncratic plug-ins, when this possibility is offered. Issue: How can we provide ePortfolio owners with an unlimited number of services without forcing service providers to develop multiple plug-ins for multiple applications? How can we trust the usage made by services of our personal data? Direction: This is connected to the idea of Universal Repository, exploited and enriched by service providers. Schools, universities, employers, professional bodies etc. need to provide conversational systems through trusted web services —a technology currently under development by different initiatives, such as TAS3. 7. ePortfolio based performance support system —make the ePortfolio part of my work Context: One of the current problems with ePortfolio adoption at the workplace is the fact that ePortfolios can be seen as something either nice to have or adding to the regular work. Moreover, the current level of integration of ePortfolios with other information systems is still low. Issue: How can we make ePortfolio construction part of everyday activities? How can we demonstrate ePortfolio benefits through business benefits? Direction: Use ePortfolio technology and methods to develop next generation electronic performance support systems, integrate reflection as part of routine work processes, so the ePortfolio is built through naturally occurring business activities. 8. ePortfolio discovery mechanism —find people, competencies, resources Context: While there are a number of methods for learning resources discovery (c.f. the learning resources exchange (LRE) repository of European Schoolnet) there are not yet universal mechanism to discover ePortfolios on the Internet, each individual relying on ad-hoc services. Issue: How can we easily find an ePortfolio or a resource contained in an ePortfolio? Direction: OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative's Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) is a possible method to create large indexes of ePortfolios per organisation, sector or even territory. Other methods could be the publication of ePortfolios in trusted parties' indexes. 9. URIs as tags Context: Tag is a popular form to connect things together. within an ePortfolio. Unfortunately the meaning of tags is context dependent, and different tags can share the same meaning. Issue: How can we create tags that are not context dependent? Direction: make tags RDF triplets: name (what is displayed as ‘tag’); URI to definition (an hidden hypertext link); link type (is, is part of, etc.). NB: this is an extension of challenge #2. Two tags are close if they share the same URI and identical if they are identical triplets. 10. Universal Metadata Context: ePortfolio construction is about connecting data together. Metadata are not just ‘comments’ about data, but links between all the data sharing the same metadata. If data are assimilated to neurones, metadata can be seen as.the synapses connecting neurones together.. Issue: How can we enrich distributed data with ‘personal/social metadata repositories Direction: keep metadata repositories apart from data, on the model of social bookmarking. e P o r t f o l i o c h a l l e n g e s 1. Universal ePortfolio Repository 2. Universal Competency Identifiers 3. ePortfolio social 4. ePortfolio semantic editors 5. ePortfolio Readers 6. Open & Trusted Service Architecture 7. ePortfolio based performance support system 8. ePortfolio discovery mechanism 9. URIs as tags 10. Universal Metadata 2009 10 ePortfolio challenges Monday, 26 May 14
  • 16. Technologies ? Consolidation Little or no innovation Monday, 26 May 14
  • 17. ? How could Open Badges Transform ePortfolio Practices and Technologies? Monday, 26 May 14
  • 18. 1. Simplicity: it is an uncomplicated object, easy to adopt — the  Lego™ bloc of learning achievements! 2. Granularity: it is possible to get a badge for something big or small and to combine them into something meaningful 3. Openness: the Open Badge Infrastructure (OBI) is open, so many services and applications can plug-in 4. Innovation: new ideas emerge and are rapidly integrated into the Open Badge architecture and in learning practice 5. Integration: there is a tight integration between technology and practice (practice re-shapes technology which re-shapes practice...) 6. Trust: Open Badges are the elementary building blocks of a native trust network to support trusted identities Open Badges vs ePortfolios Monday, 26 May 14
  • 19. Open Badges are true learning objects! Open Badges are the outcome of a thriving learning community Monday, 26 May 14
  • 20. Definitions Monday, 26 May 14
  • 21. digital records of achievements, skills, interests, affiliations or roles (Mozilla) Open Badges ePortfolios collection of electronic evidence assembled and managed by a user, usually on theWeb (Wikipedia) Weakipedia? Monday, 26 May 14
  • 22. digital records of achievements, skills, interests, affiliations or roles (Mozilla) Open Badges ePortfolios organised collection of evidence demonstrating reflective learning (me) criterion-based trust statements (me) collection of electronic evidence assembled and managed by a user, usually on theWeb (Wikipedia) Monday, 26 May 14
  • 23. ?Open BadgesePortfolios What relation between & Monday, 26 May 14
  • 24. Open Badges ePortfolios Individuation* * G. Simondon ePortfolios are more abstract than Open Badges Monday, 26 May 14
  • 25. Open Badges ePortfolios Individuation CPU Mainframes Helen Barrett, 2010ENIAC, 1947 Monday, 26 May 14
  • 26. What do Open Badges bring to ePortfolios? ?Monday, 26 May 14
  • 27. TRUST !Monday, 26 May 14
  • 28. Anatomy of an Open Badge Remixed from Kyle Bowen Monday, 26 May 14
  • 29. Criteria Evidence Remixed from Kyle Bowen Image Narratives Issuer Holder Assertion Anatomy of an Open Badge Monday, 26 May 14
  • 30. I trust you Criteria Evidence Remixed from Kyle Bowen Image Narratives Issuer Holder Assertion Anatomy of an Open Badge Monday, 26 May 14
  • 31. Criteria Evidence Remixed from Kyle Bowen Image to do this Narratives Issuer Holder Assertion Anatomy of an Open Badge Monday, 26 May 14
  • 32. Anatomy of an Open Badge Criteria Evidence Remixed from Kyle Bowen Image I trust you Narratives to do this Based on that evidence Issuer Holder Assertion Monday, 26 May 14
  • 33. Open Badges? ut degrees, certificates, diplomas?) Anatomy of an Open Badge Criteria Evidence Remixed from Kyle Bowen Image Narratives My trust is also represented by this image Issuer Holder Assertion Monday, 26 May 14
  • 34. Open Badges? ut degrees, certificates, diplomas?) Anatomy of an Open Badge Criteria Evidence Remixed from Kyle Bowen Image Narratives My trust is also represented by this image Issuer Holder Assertion Monday, 26 May 14
  • 35. Open Badges? ut degrees, certificates, diplomas?) Anatomy of an Open Badge Criteria Evidence Remixed from Kyle Bowen Image Issuer Holder Narratives Assertion Monday, 26 May 14
  • 36. competency fact Collection competency Aggregation knowledge, skills, attitudes & values Mastery skill skill skill skill fact fact fact fact fact fact fact Granularity Monday, 26 May 14
  • 37. Monday, 26 May 14
  • 38. Open Badges are connectors! People, Information, Places, Events, ... Monday, 26 May 14
  • 39. Social NetworkSemantic Network People sharing the same badge / location / pathway / goals Badge Holder Criteria Skills Knowledge Attitudes Values Evidence Issuer Resources sharing the same 'tag' 19/5/2014 Poitiers - Google Maps Map data ©2014 Google 500 m Traffic · Bicycling · Terrain Poitiers, France I can fix a lawnmower I can teach nuclear physics I cook South Italian cuisine I am a qualified tax accountant Monday, 26 May 14
  • 40. ePortfolio Revisited Monday, 26 May 14
  • 41. ePortfolio Revisited Monday, 26 May 14
  • 42. I did this and this in order to achieve this Badge, and I have these pieces of evidence to prove it. My role was:... This is how it connects to my previous knowledge & experience:... ePortfolio Revisited Monday, 26 May 14
  • 43. ePortfolio Repository narrative narrative narrative narrative narrative narrative narrative Monday, 26 May 14
  • 44. ePortfolio ePortfolio ePortfolio I did this and this in order to achieve this Badge, and I have these pieces of evidence to prove it. My role was:... This is how it connects to my previous knowledge & experience:... Fractal ePortfolio Monday, 26 May 14
  • 45. The 'fractal' nature of ePortfolios is mirrored in Open Badges... Monday, 26 May 14
  • 46. ePortfolios of ePortfolios of ePortfolios of ePortfolios of ePortfolios of ... ... Open Badges of Open Badges of Open Badges of Open Badges of Open Badges of ... ... Monday, 26 May 14
  • 47. Mise en abyme Monday, 26 May 14
  • 48. Limits & Potential Risks !Monday, 26 May 14
  • 49. Open Badges used as Glorified-Digital-Gold-Stars Use Open Badges to celebrate achievements, not as rewards Assimilation Solution: Monday, 26 May 14
  • 50. Open Badges used to create subservient learners, rather than empowered innovators Solution: Standardisation Co-design Open Badges with learners and the learning community at large Monday, 26 May 14
  • 51. Asymmetry Reinforcing the power of traditional institutions ... Monday, 26 May 14
  • 52. At the 2010 European Adult Education Association (EAEA) / Nordic network for adult learning conference [...] many participants had reservations and anxieties towards qualifications frameworks and associated validation of non-formal and informal learning. It was suggested for example that there is a risk in this sector that accredited courses might give learners the impression that they belong to the formal system, which may deter those with previous negative experiences of education from taking part. Delegates stressed that ‘learning for learning’s sake’ remains important and that there should still be support and financing for non-formal learning, study circles and development of social competences even if the learners choose this type of learning for personal development and do not intend to validate the competences.The conference delegates emphasised that it should be up to the learner to choose what should be validated and not.” Source: 2010 update of the European inventory on validation of non-formal and informal learning Monday, 26 May 14
  • 53. Reinforcing the power of traditional institutions Everyone is an Open Badge issuer & recepient! Solution: Asymmetry Monday, 26 May 14
  • 54. Open Badges criteria Idiosyncrasy Develop criteria registries, Compedia (CompetencyWikipedia) Solution: Fragmentation Monday, 26 May 14
  • 55. Open Badges Storage Centralisation Develop a federation of Backpacks, using Personal Data Stores Solution: Dependency Monday, 26 May 14
  • 56. An archaic vision of identity: where do you come from, what did you do?... Develop badges of my/our futures, dream badges, badges for ePortfolies (≠ ePortfolios) Solution: Backwards Looking Monday, 26 May 14
  • 57. Opportunities !Monday, 26 May 14
  • 58. Informal recognition of informal learning can become as trustworthy as the formal recognition of formal learning in real time the actual competencies of a person, organisation, territory, a sector. Mapping Trust Monday, 26 May 14
  • 59. Open Badges for an Open Society Monday, 26 May 14
  • 60. Open Services Open Data Learning Analytics Quality Assurance Learning Analytics Open ... Open Trust Open Society Open Learning Open Business Personal Data Store (Backpack, LRS, ...) Personal Devices (Iinternet of Objects) Open Government Open ... Open ... Personal Proxy (Iinternet of Subjects) Shared Infrastructure Open Knowledge Open search & Data Mining Organisational Infrastructure Open Badges & ePortfolio services Open Employment Monday, 26 May 14
  • 61. The University today faces the possibility of being itself transformed by the cyberspace culture generated by its computing centres and networks. Just as the printing press spelled the demise of monastic institutions and ushered in the modern university, cyberspace may dissolve the bricks and mortar campuses of today into a de-centred knowledge culture, a networked "virtual" site of intellectual exchange that renders obsolete old ivied quadrangles as well as institutional and political borders, creating something akin to H.G. Wells's vision of a ‘World Brain’. Peter Childers & Paul Delany (1994) World Brain: The Idea of a PermanentWorld Encyclopaedia, H.G.Wells Contribution to the new Encyclopédie Française, August1937 Monday, 26 May 14
  • 62. Could Open Badges be the neurones embedding H.G.Wells' vision of a "World Brain?" Monday, 26 May 14
  • 63. Serge Ravet EUROPORTFOLIO ADPIOS, EUROPORTFOLIO @Szerge, learningfutures.eu epforum.eu, europortfolio.org, iosf.org Join the Europortfolio community! www.europortfolio.org The EUROPORTFOLIO / EPNET project is funded with support from the European Commission. Merci! Monday, 26 May 14