Hoarseness

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Hoarseness

  1. 1.  In the absence of symptoms of an acute upper respiratory infection, patients with hoarseness persisting for more than two weeks should be referred for a complete otolaryngologic examination. Acute laryngitis, which is self-limited and related to acute respiratory illness or acute voice misuse
  2. 2.  Chronic laryngitis, which is related to irritants, reflux, chronic infection (such as fungal), or habitual vocal misuse. Benign vocal fold lesions, Polypoid corditis, Polyps and nodules Malignancy Neurologic dysfunction, Unilateral & Bilateral paralysis, Parkinson disease, Myasthenia gravis.
  3. 3.  The anterior compartment (also referred to as the anterosuperior compartment or retrosternal space) is anterior to the pericardium and includes the thymus, the extrapericardial aorta and its branches, the great veins, and lymphatic tissue.
  4. 4.  The middle compartment is bounded by the pericardium anteriorly, the posterior pericardial reflection, the diaphragm, and the thoracic inlet. This compartment includes the heart, intrapericardial great vessels, pericardium, and trachea.
  5. 5.  The posterior compartment extends from the posterior pericardial reflection to the posterior border of the vertebral bodies and from the first rib to the diaphragm. It includes the esophagus, vagus nerves, thoracic duct, sympathetic chain, and azygous venous system.
  6. 6.  The primary masses most often found in the anterior compartment are thymic tumors (thymomas, thymic carcinomas, thymic carcinoid tumors, and thymolipomas), thymic cysts, germ cell tumors, Hodgkin and non- Hodgkin lymphomas,intrathoracic goiter,thyroid tumors, parathyroid adenomas, connective tissue tumors (eg, lipomas, liposarcomas, lymphangiomas, lymphangiohemangiomas, hemangiomas), and pericardial cysts.
  7. 7.  Masses of the middle mediastinum include thyroid tumor or goiter, tracheal tumors, aortopulmonary paraganglioma (chemodectoma), bronchogenic cysts, and lymphomas. A middle mediastinal mass may also represent lymphadenopathy as a result of infectious, malignant (metastatic), and idiopathic (eg, sarcoidosis) etiologies. Thymic masses and pericardial cysts have been reported in the middle mediastinum, however, these lesions generally occur in the anterior mediastinum.
  8. 8.  The posterior mediastinum is the location of most neurogenic tumors.esophageal tumors and duplication cysts, hiatus hernia, and neurenteric cysts.

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