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  • 1. Bringing It All Together: The Importance of Orchestration
  • 2. Andrew White Cloud and Smarter Infrastructure Solution Specialist IBM Corporation Mr. White has fifteen years of experience designing and managing the deployment of Systems Monitoring and Event Management software. Prior to joining IBM, Mr. White held various positions including the leader of the Monitoring and Event Management organization of a Fortune 100 company and developing solutions as a consultant for a wide variety of organizations, including the Mexican Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público, Telmex, Wal-Mart of Mexico, JP Morgan Chase, Nationwide Insurance and the US Navy Facilities and Engineering Command.
  • 3. http://weheartit.com/entry/12433848!
  • 4. Ground rules for this session… •  If you can’t tell if I am trying to be funny… –  GO AHEAD AND LAUGH! •  Feel free to text, tweet, yammer, or whatever. Use •  If you have a question, no need to wait until the end. Just interrupt me. Seriously… I don’t mind.
  • 5. I am here today to share some of what I have learned about Systems Thinking, Decision Making, and Abstraction.
  • 6. Requirements for Unity of Effort Symptoms of Missing Elements ! 1. Command and Control •  Command and control (No Leadership)! •  The team lacks a clear direction! •  Lots of activity, lack of progress! •  Shared Experience (Poor Relationships)! •  Us vs. Them mentality! 3. Situation al Awarene ss 2. Shared Experien ce •  Unhealthy competition! •  Situational Awareness (Poor Communication)! •  Focused on cooperation, not collaboration! •  Blame culture! •  Infrequent or non-existent communication!
  • 7. CIO’s turn to innovative technologies to deliver better outcomes Big Data Analytics §  Analyze an enormous variety of information sources §  Real-time insights & actions on streaming data Security Intelligence Mobile Enterprise §  Hybrid mobile " app development §  Multi-channel integration §  Device management §  Workloads on the move Cloud & Optimized Workloads §  Agile provisioning §  Elastic compute power §  Scalable storage resources §  Intelligent services §  People & identity §  Data & information §  Application security §  Security analytics IBM  CIO  Study  (2012)    
  • 8. The IT challenges Infrastructure We have a lot of tools to manage the automation tasks. Coordinating everything is challenging and takes a lot of time. Development It is crucial to accelerate delivery and improve feedback between development and production. Operations Releasing a new application in production is a lot more than creating a virtual machine. After deployment, endpoints need to be managed their entire lifecycle. This requires linking different tools, people, and departments. It takes weeks. Business Reacting quickly to market demand is a weak spot. IT is not fast enough to support the strategy and is slowing down innovation
  • 9. Why Orchestration? 1.  2.  3.  End  to  end  automa8on  of  service  delivery  to  achieve  greater  returns   Provisioning  plays  a  key  role,  but  is  just  one  of  many  steps   There  are  many  unique  requirements  to  integrate  with  exis8ng  data  center   processes  and  tools.     Provisioning
  • 10. “The only sustainable competitive advantage is an organization’s ability to learn faster than the competition.”  - Peter M. Senge, The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of The Learning Organization
  • 11. What Is a System? It is a set of interconnected actors that change over time when they are influenced by other elements of the system. Actor Actor Actor Actor Actor Actor Actor Actor
  • 12. Two Important Properties •  The causal effect between two actors will always impact the entire system •  Correlation != Causation
  • 13. How Fire Works Oxygen Heat Fuel Fire Time Oxygen Heat Fire • Actions are momentary and act as a catalyst to bring about change -AND- Fuel Match Strike • Conditions are stable and exist over time Conditions Match Strike Action
  • 14. A Real World Example DBA on honeymoon vacation in Fiji Logs are truncated manually Logs were not truncated Transaction log was unable to grow SQL Server was not processing queries The application server was timing out Company has only 1 DBA -ANDT: Drive at 0 Bytes free -AND- -ANDDR SQL Cluster Customers Complaining -AND- Trying to do business on the website -AND- One one application server exists Desired Condition Only one database cluster in use More Information Needed Space allocations are fixed DR Cluster being used for UAT testing Web Server returning 500 errors -AND- More Information Needed -AND- “Backup” DBA was not aware the logs require truncation Lack of Control
  • 15. Systems are Volatile This properties makes it difficult to control the behavior of the system. The good news is that systems are perfect. They always deliver the optimum result given a specific stimuli.
  • 16. Reality IT Manifestation
  • 17. How a Plan Comes Together Strategy Tactic Tactic Actions Objective Strategy Tactic Actions Actions Strategy
  • 18. How a Plan Comes Together Objective Decisions are made here Strategy Tactic Tactic Actions Strategy Tactic Actions Actions Strategy This is the basis for a project workbreakdown-structure
  • 19. Let’s Use Me As An Example Sell $XX By 2H2013 Find New Clients Leverage My CRM Network Actions Grow Existing Clients Inside Sales Leads Actions Actions Strategy
  • 20. Key Concepts to Understand •  Objective: a desired outcome.  The terms Strategy and Objective are not interchangeable. An objective defines the results that supporting strategies must achieve. •  Strategy: a method for achieving an objective.  Each objective has a "necessary and sufficient set" of strategies (roughly 2-8) which define it; each strategy aims to achieve a single objective.  •  Tactic: how the strategy is implemented. Each strategy has a group of tactics (usually 2-8) to define how the strategy will be implemented and when.  Each tactic has a single strategy it aims to accomplish.
  • 21. It isn’t a strategy if you aren’t forcing decisions to be made.
  • 22. The average grocery store carries 48,750 items including: •  91 different shampoos •  93 varieties of toothpaste •  115 types of household cleaners http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fredmeyer.jpg
  • 23. Two Types of Decision Making Programmed Decisions –  –  –  –  Routine Repetitive Well-Structured Predetermined Decision Rules Non-Programmed Decisions –  –  –  –  Unique Presence of Risk Presence of Uncertainty Black Swans
  • 24. How To Automate Decision Making •  Programmed Decision Making –  –  –  –  Collect evidence Identify the problem Select a solution Implement and evaluate the outcome •  Non-Programmed Decision Making –  Narrow evidence down to the ideal level –  Apply heuristics to limit the impact of cognitive bias –  Present options to a human for a decision
  • 25. The rationality of individuals is limited by the information they have. This causes “The Tragedy of the Commons.”
  • 26. Decisions Being Automated in the Cloud Packing •  Compressing workloads to the fewest number of physical servers •  Maximizing cost efficiencies Striping •  Spreading workloads across as many physical servers as possible •  Ensuring higher performance levels and reducing risk due to component failure Load-Awareness •  Allocating new workloads to the servers with the lowest load •  Maximizing the performance of the workloads HA-Awareness •  Ensuring workloads are distributed across pods •  Matching availability levels with service requirements and cost targets Energy Awareness •  Placing workloads according to energy costs •  Ending workloads to reduce energy consumption or rescheduling them for offpeak hours Affinity-Awareness •  Placing workloads close to critical resource dependencies •  Collocating compatible workloads to maximize available resources Platform Awareness •  Allocate workloads to best platform •  Migrating workloads to least expensive platform still capable of delivering required service levels Topology Awareness •  Allocating resources within a service group near each other •  Isolate single-points-of-failure
  • 27. You can't judge my choices without understanding my reasons. -Unknown
  • 28. Feedback Loops Unfortunately feedback has taken on both positive and negative indications. In reality, positive feedback is not “praise” and negative feedback is not “criticism.” Positive feedback reinforces while negative feedback balances. Reinforcing Profits Cost Cutting Balancing Productivity
  • 29. Be Careful of Good Intentions Change Process (+) Release Process (+) (-) (+) Business Demand (+) (-) Change Change Frequency Size (+) (+) (+) Change (+) Change (-) Backlog (+) Change Capability Risk (-) (+) Business Value (+) (-) Availability Adapted From: http://www.lean4it.com/2013/05/devops-cld-part-2.html
  • 30. Be Careful of Good Intentions Change Process (+) Release Process Business Demand (+) (-) (+) (+) (+) (-) Change Change Frequency Size (+) (+) (+) Change (+) Change (-) Backlog (+) Change Capability Risk (-) (-) Change Automation (+) Business Value (+) (-) Availability (-) Adapted From: http://www.lean4it.com/2013/05/devops-cld-part-2.html
  • 31. Organizations don’t fail because they take the wrong path, they fail because they can’t imagine a better path than the one they are on. -- Marty Neumeier
  • 32. Service Orientation 1 Standard Services 2 Abstraction 3 5 6 Loose Coupling 4 Goals of Service Orientation Reusability Autonomy Composability
  • 33. Divide and Conquer Service A Your Application Small Problem Service B Small Problem Service C
  • 34. Enlightenment Bias: Sub-parts of a complex system are simpler and easier to manage A stable system is made from very hard and durable sub-parts
  • 35. Creating Composite Applications Service E Service F Service A Service G Composite Application Service I Service H Service B Service C Service D
  • 36. Turning Services Into Solutions Business  Service   Offering   Choreography   Orchestra1on   Billing   Order  Fulfillment   Automa1on   Customer   Management   Order   Management   Service  Interface   Add  Customer   Assign  Service  to   Customer   Provisioning     Deploy  Device   Configure  Device  
  • 37. Automating Processes Access to rich libraries (toolkits) of reusable automation assets that enable to speed automation creation Rich tooling functions to edit, version, debug, optimize workflows Graphical editor for composing and connecting workflows Rich set of actions types, flow control, data handling primitives that simplify creation of complex automations Palette of library assets enable easy workflow composition through drag and drop Easy workflow action editing for managing: data mapping, error recovery options, implementation details , etc.
  • 38. Or!ches!tra!tion [AWR-kuh-strey-shun]   1.  the act of arranging a piece of music 2.  the planning or execution of events in order to achieve a desired effect 3.  The technique of arranging or manipulating, especially by means of clever or thorough planning or maneuvering •  A central process controls everything and coordinates the execution of different operations involved in the operation •  The services do not "know” that they are involved in a composite process •  Only the central coordinator of the orchestration is aware of the desired outcome, •  The orchestration leverages explicit process definitions to operate the services in the correct order of invocation
  • 39. Orchestration Illustration Web Service 1 Web Service 2 Orchestrator Web Service 3 Web Service 4
  • 40. Cho!re!og!ra!phy [kawr-ee-OG-ruh-fee]   1.  the art of composing ballets and other dances 2.  the method of representing the various movements in dancing by a system of notation 3.  The arrangement or manipulation of actions leading up to an event •  •  •  •  Choreography does not rely on a central coordinator. Each service knows exactly who and when to execute Focuses on the exchange of messages and information All services need to be aware of the business process, operations to execute, messages to exchange, timing, etc.
  • 41. Orchestration Illustration Send Receive Web Service 2 Invoke Web Service 4 Web Service 3 Invoke Invoke Web Service 1
  • 42. Choreography vs. Orchestration •  From the perspective of composing services to execute business processes, orchestration is a more flexible paradigm and has the following advantages over choreography: –  The coordination of component processes is centrally managed by a known coordinator. –  Web services can be incorporated without their being aware that they are taking part in a larger business process. –  Alternative scenarios can be put in place in case faults occur. Page  43  
  • 43. Orchestration Requirements Event-based processing Coordinate asynchronously between services Correlate messages being exchanged Provide for parallel processing Allow for transaction roll-back Manipulate and transform data between messaging partners •  Be able to manage long running business transactions and activities •  Have a robust mechanism for fault and error handling •  •  •  •  •  • 
  • 44. Structured Activities Basic Activities Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) Message Exchange Data Manipulation Event Processing and Timers Exception and Error Handling Miscellaneous Invoke Assign Pick / Select Throw Wait Receive Scope Sequence Catch Validate onEvent Compensate Empty Reply Parallel Processing Flow Control For Each If … Else Flow While Until
  • 45. Why use an event-based orchestration engine? to have the ability to receive real-time feedback to assist its decision making processes
  • 46. When decisions are not made based on information, it’s called gambling.
  • 47. Here comes the elevator pitch… 48
  • 48. IBM SmartCloud Orchestrator Design IBM SmartCloud Orchestrator Cost Management BPM Automation Modeling UI Endpoint Management Service Catalog & Orchestration UI Integration APIs Event Management Monitoring & Analytics BPM Automation Engine Composite Pattern Manager OpenStack APIs OpenStack Third Party Solution Nova-Compute Integration Software Controller Resource Resource KVM vCenter
  • 49. Extending Workload Deployment with Custom Automation SCO 1 SCO REST API 3 Once per registered event operation Pre-process event Operation context Post-process event 4 5 SCO REST API Custom" Custom" Data Data Operation context BPM" Human" Service Core pattern processing 2 Operation context A BPM" A Process pre-provision " event operation Operation context B B post-provision " event operation
  • 50. Let’s keep the conversation going… APWhite@us.ibm.com! Andrew.P.White@Gmail.com! @SystemsMgmtZen! SystemsManagementZen.Wordpress.com! systemsmanagementzen.wordpress.com/feed/! ReverendDrew! ReverendDrew! 614-306-3434!