Going Global
Considerations for global ecommerce architecture
Ilya Vinogradsky
Why go global?
SCALING →
Top countries with online users
245
82
513 101
121
What to keep in mind going global
Each geography has particular nuances
in each of the following areas:
— Language
— Curre...
Language
— European languages are left to right
— Middle Eastern languages are right to left
— Asian languages are either ...
Currency
— Different currency symbols ($₤€₱₴₴)
— Different number separators (, .)
Pricing
— Pricing in different countries is different
— Pricing in US usually ends with .99 while in other countries ends ...
Taxation
— Tax rules often change
— US merchant is supposed to charge taxes at location of store/warehouse
— In Europe eac...
Shipping methods and calculation rules
Shipping methods
— In US most typical are Standard (5-7 days delivery), Expedited (...
Payment methods
User Experience
Different expectations:
— Name and number of fields
— Numbers
— Dates
— Form validation
Order Management/Fulfillment
─ If each geographies grow independently it’s very common to have different Order Management ...
Integration with 3rd parties
analytics, product reviews, product recommendations, address
verification, tag management, sh...
Multiple ways to architect the solution
Hybrid way to architect the solution
Single global solution – Option 1
Single website that mostly focuses on your primary market, but allows orders from other ...
Single global solution – Option 2
Single website that mostly focuses on your primary market, but accommodates languages an...
Single global solution (Option 2)
Architecture requirements:
Requirements for ecommerce platform
— Single ecommerce site
—...
Separate solution for each geography
Multiple sites – each fully customized to the needs of each locale
Basic approach: ea...
Hybrid: Shared architecture with customizations
Components based architecture (Reference Application) that can be
easily c...
Ref App Approach
Ref App Evolution – V1
Ref App Evolution – V2
Ref App Evolution – V3
Ref App Pros/Cons
Pros:
─ Very flexible architecture
─ Significant code reuse
─ Allows for locale specific customizations
...
Conclusion
— Size
— Internal Management Structure
— Financing
— Ambitions
— Vision
Architectural approach should be select...
Going global
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Going global

  1. 1. Going Global Considerations for global ecommerce architecture Ilya Vinogradsky
  2. 2. Why go global? SCALING →
  3. 3. Top countries with online users 245 82 513 101 121
  4. 4. What to keep in mind going global Each geography has particular nuances in each of the following areas: — Language — Currency — Pricing — Taxation — Shipping methods and calculation rules — Payment methods — User experience — Name and number of fields — Numbers — Dates — Form validation — Order management/Fulfillment — Integrations with 3rd parties — Search Engines and Social Networks
  5. 5. Language — European languages are left to right — Middle Eastern languages are right to left — Asian languages are either right to left of up down — Same words in different languages take up different amount of space on screen
  6. 6. Currency — Different currency symbols ($₤€₱₴₴) — Different number separators (, .)
  7. 7. Pricing — Pricing in different countries is different — Pricing in US usually ends with .99 while in other countries ends with .00 — Some countries don’t show fractions at all
  8. 8. Taxation — Tax rules often change — US merchant is supposed to charge taxes at location of store/warehouse — In Europe each country has different rules for taxation Crocs (NY State) Crocs (GB) Crocs (ESP)
  9. 9. Shipping methods and calculation rules Shipping methods — In US most typical are Standard (5-7 days delivery), Expedited (2 days), Overnight (1 day) — In Eastern Europe and Asia Cash on Delivery is very important Calculations — Can be done by a standard shipping table — By integration with shipping provider — Some companies offer free shipping for online orders
  10. 10. Payment methods
  11. 11. User Experience Different expectations: — Name and number of fields — Numbers — Dates — Form validation
  12. 12. Order Management/Fulfillment ─ If each geographies grow independently it’s very common to have different Order Management systems ─ Integration with all of these order management system may be difficult ─ Standardization of a single Order Management system for multiple geographies can save time, but is not realistic everywhere due to valid business reasons, as well as internal company politics
  13. 13. Integration with 3rd parties analytics, product reviews, product recommendations, address verification, tag management, shopping comparison engines, order auto replenishment, video hosting, social
  14. 14. Multiple ways to architect the solution
  15. 15. Hybrid way to architect the solution
  16. 16. Single global solution – Option 1 Single website that mostly focuses on your primary market, but allows orders from other geographies to be placed and fulfilled. Basic approach: keep everything, including single currency and language, but add ability to ship globally Pros: ─ Least expensive solution ─ Cheaper to maintain from development and business point of view ─ Single code base ─ Hosted in one location ─ Shipping from one global location ─ Minimal changes to functionality of the site, forms manipulation ─ Minimal requirements for ecommerce platform Cons: ─ Low conversion rate for customers coming from other geographies ─ User experience cannot be fully optimized ─ Shipping costs are high to secondary geographies ─ Doesn’t accommodate local payment methods ─ Search engines will not rank site high in non-primary geographies ─ Site loads slower in secondary geographies, because of Internet latency (can be mitigated somewhat by using Content Delivery Networks such as Akamai)
  17. 17. Single global solution – Option 2 Single website that mostly focuses on your primary market, but accommodates languages and pricing for secondary markets and allows orders from other geographies to be placed and fulfilled. Basic approach: keep everything, add currency and language options, ability to ship globally Pros: ─ Single code base ─ Hosted in one location ─ Shipping from one global location ─ Minimal changes to functionality of the site, forms manipulation ─ Minimal requirements for ecommerce platform Cons: ─ Conversion rate for customers coming from other geographies is better, but still lower than from primary geography ─ User experience cannot be fully optimized ─ Shipping costs are high to secondary geographies ─ Doesn’t accommodate local payment methods ─ Search engines will not rank site high in non-primary geographies ─ Site loads slower in secondary geographies, because of Internet latency (can be mitigated somewhat by using Content Delivery Networks such as Akamai) ─ A little more expensive to maintain than Option 1 ─ Business team must provide translations and pricing for each geography as well as maintain site content for each language
  18. 18. Single global solution (Option 2) Architecture requirements: Requirements for ecommerce platform — Single ecommerce site — Multiple languages — Multiple currencies — Multiple price lists – one for each geography Requirements for site implementation — Manipulation of site forms to accommodate each geography — Implementation of geography and language selection manually or based on geo location — Page implementation to accommodate different length of words within same area of the page — Integration with payment gateway that accepts multiple currencies
  19. 19. Separate solution for each geography Multiple sites – each fully customized to the needs of each locale Basic approach: each new site is a full copy of the existing code base, which is customized and managed separately going forward. Pros: ─ Accommodates all needs of each geography fully ─ Simple development architecture ─ Can be managed by each individual local team ─ No network latency when each site is hosting in dedicated locale Cons: ─ High cost for implementation, hosting and maintenance ─ Not a lot of code reuse ─ No centralized control over branding, technical direction and functionality
  20. 20. Hybrid: Shared architecture with customizations Components based architecture (Reference Application) that can be easily customized and configured for plugging in and out features and integrations. Provides 80+% functionality needed to launch sites internationally. Provides standard storefront and user experience optimized for brands user base. Multiple sites built on top of shared Ref App code base with some site specific customizations.
  21. 21. Ref App Approach
  22. 22. Ref App Evolution – V1
  23. 23. Ref App Evolution – V2
  24. 24. Ref App Evolution – V3
  25. 25. Ref App Pros/Cons Pros: ─ Very flexible architecture ─ Significant code reuse ─ Allows for locale specific customizations ─ Hosted in one location ─ Significant saving in effort and time for large (50+ site) global rollout Cons: ─ Requires advanced ecommerce platform ─ Complex architecture ─ Requires strong centralized management and global vision
  26. 26. Conclusion — Size — Internal Management Structure — Financing — Ambitions — Vision Architectural approach should be selected based on each companies
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