Catholic reform
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Catholic reform Catholic reform Presentation Transcript

  • Church Reform & Religious Communities
  • Council of Trent 1545-1547; 1551-1552; 1562-1563 Paul III; Julius III; Pius IV Lutheran split 1530; Anglican split 1534 Respond to Reformers, clarify doctrine, strengthen church from within, enhance uniformity and appeal Anathema sit … Let him be condemned!
  • Walls, yes … bridges, no
  • Response to Reformers Sola Scriptura  Scripture AND Tradition  Church alone can interpret scripture  Latin Vulgate is the ideal translation  “And for anyone who says scripture and tradition are not equal, let him be anathema.”
  • Justification/Salvation Salvation Through Grace By Faith  Without grace, we are doomed … ○ BUT … we must cooperate with grace ○ Grace is only the beginning  Devotions and good works affirmed, but abuses (like selling indulgences) stopped Faith AND works
  • Priesthood of All Believers Hierarchy still stands The “character” of orders is indelible (permanent, unchangeable, inerasable) However … the clergy needs reform  Seminary in every diocese  Bishops must live in diocese  Priests and bishops must preach  Priestly celibacy
  • Other Results Publications  Catechism  Breviary  Missal Index of Forbidden Books New religious orders; reform within others Bulk of the changes/teachings/publications hold solid until 1960s, with Vatican II
  • Society of Jesus (Jesuits) Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) Injured as soldier  Soldier for Christ Military background  chain of command  Fourth Vow– absolute personal obedience to Pope “The Spiritual Exercises” Intellectuals, theologians, missionaries  Practical, this-world … not withdrawal, sacrifice  Task for “soldiers”: Combat Protestantism
  • Spiritual/Mystics Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)  Doctor of the Church  “The Interior Castle”  Discalced Carmelites John of the Cross
  • Vincentians/Charitys Vincent de Paul (1581-1660)  Focus on the poor; preach to, teach commoners Louise de Marillac  Daughters of Charity  Bypass cloister rules by taking private annual vows
  • Christian Brothers John Baptist de La Salle (1652-1719)  Educate poor children  escape poverty, crime  Began classroom teaching (not private tutors)  Considered a founder of modern education
  • John Carroll 1735-1815; elected bishop in 1789 (American Catholics feared foreign bishop) Balanced democracy with Vatican loyalty Began St. Mary’s Seminary (Baltimore), Georgetown College (DC), dioceses 1790 – 30,000 American Catholics 1815 – 200,000 American Catholics
  • Elizabeth Ann Seton 1774-1821 First American-born saint (canonized 1975) Convert; began Baltimore school Sisters of Charity (Emmitsburg) – first religious order begun in the U.S. Credited with beginning the parochial school system
  • Others Women’s Orders  Philippine Duchesne – Religious of Sacred Heart  Cornelia Connelly – began Society of Holy Child  Katharine Drexel – Blessed Sacrament sisters, helping poor blacks & Indians  Rose Hawthorne Lathrop – help incurable cancer Colleges/Universities  Notre Dame (Holy Cross fathers); St. John’s (Benedictines); St. Mary’s, Texas (Marianists)