Usa Solar Thermal market Overview


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Usa Solar Thermal market Overview

  1. 1. Are you ready for the NEW Market? The SUN rises in the WEST
  2. 2. Index <ul><li>Market situation The SUN rises in the WEST </li></ul><ul><li>Competitors </li></ul><ul><li>US-Department of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Approvals and ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Market penetration </li></ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul>
  3. 3. SHW Companies in the USA <ul><li>A1 Sun, Inc.   Berkeley </li></ul><ul><li>ACR Solar International Corporation   Carmichael </li></ul><ul><li>Acro Solar Lasers   El Paso </li></ul><ul><li>Aircogen CHP Solutions, Inc.   Barnesville </li></ul><ul><li>AirGenerate, LLC   Houston </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Concepts and Technology (ACT)   Orlando </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Thermodynamics   Middlesex </li></ul><ul><li>Artha Sustainable Living Center   Amherst </li></ul><ul><li>Bell Energy System Team, Inc.   Saratoga Springs </li></ul><ul><li>Bella Energy   Louisville </li></ul><ul><li>BeUtilityFree, Inc. (BUF)   Fort Lupton </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Chip Solar & Wind   Cincinnati </li></ul><ul><li>Boston Solar Living   Medford </li></ul><ul><li>California Solar   Simi Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Chesapeake Solar LLC   Jessup </li></ul><ul><li>Dawn Solar Systems, Inc.   Brentwood </li></ul><ul><li>EBM Consulting Services, Inc.   Millbrook </li></ul><ul><li>Eco y Eco   Santee </li></ul><ul><li>Espinoza Energy, LLC   Austin </li></ul><ul><li>GreenSpark Energy Solutions   Baltimore </li></ul><ul><li>Heliotropics LLC   Tacoma </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Box Solar   Horseheads </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Power Corporation (IPC)   Reno </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative Power Systems (IPS)   Minneapolis </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative Solar Solutions   Charlotte </li></ul><ul><li>Light Energy Systems   Concord </li></ul>Puget Sound Solar LLC   Seattle QuikWater, Inc.   Sand Springs ReGen Power Systems, LLC   Stamford Silicon Solar, Inc.   Bainbridge Smart Energy of New England   Colebrook Solar Development, Inc.   Riviera Beach Solar Direct   Bradenton Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA)   Washington Solar Night Industries, Inc. (SNI)   Saint Louis Solar Panels Plus, LLC   Chesapeake Solar Technologies   Santa Cruz SolarAttic, Inc.   Elk River Solargenix Energy, LLC   Chicago SolarPower Restoration Systems, Inc.   Santa Cruz Sun Ovens International, Inc.   Elburn Sun Works Company   Sacramento Sunergy Systems   Seattle Sunsearch LLC   Guilford Switch, LLC   Montgomery Village Town & Country Mechanical   Richmond VanHee Heating   Rochester
  4. 4. US Market situation <ul><li>Over all the Market for Solar hot water panel is growing </li></ul><ul><li>The end user are not well informed they think solar power is only Photovoltaic </li></ul><ul><li>The customers are confused about solar energy “solar=electricity or pool heating” </li></ul><ul><li>There are two main “streams” of applications: the evacuated tube in the North and flat panel in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Government has not yet announced new financial programs for end users for 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers have wrong solar image ( solar= electricity = expensive ) </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of information available on the web is not current </li></ul><ul><li>Information about Solar Hot water are not up to date companies are using data dated 2005 ( the oil price was very low) </li></ul><ul><li>There are not enough installers available to cover the demand </li></ul><ul><li>In many states installers must have a HWS installer license </li></ul>
  5. 5. US Energy Prices comparison
  6. 6. Get a solar Loan <ul><li>Solar Loans </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Loans benefits </li></ul><ul><li>THE TWO SIDES OF THE EEM COIN </li></ul><ul><li>E nergy E fficient M ortgage </li></ul>
  7. 7. Solar Loans <ul><li>Although competition is driving prices down, solar panel systems can require you departing with a chunk of change. Fortunately, the mortgage industry wants to talk to you about a solar loan. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are considering improving your home with a solar panel system , hot Water solar systems or Geo thermal , you need to learn three little letters – E…E…M. EEM stands for energy efficient mortgage , the best solar loan around. It also stands for avoiding out of pocket costs to improve your home with a solar. EEM came to be because of a nudge from the government to lenders in an effort to promote the use of solar energy as a power source. Put another way, the government told lenders to do it and do it now. So, what exactly is an energy efficient mortgage? </li></ul>Source:
  8. 8. Solar Loans benefits <ul><li>WHO BENEFITS FROM THE ENERGY EFFICIENT MORTGAGE? Buyers: Qualify for a larger loan on a better home! Get a more comfortable home NOW. Save money every month from Day One. Increase the potential resale value of your home. </li></ul><ul><li>Sellers: Sell your home more quickly. Make your house affordable to more people. Attract attention in a competitive market. </li></ul><ul><li>Remodelers/Refinancers: Get all the EEM benefits without moving. Make improvements which will actually save you money. Increase the potential resale value of your home. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay for energy improvements easily, through your mortgage. Your lender can increase your loan to cover energy improvement costs. Monthly mortgage payments increase slightly, but you actually save money because your energy bills will be lower! </li></ul>Source:
  9. 9. THE TWO SIDES OF THE EEM COIN <ul><li>Finance energy improvements! </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-effective energy-saving measures may be financed as part of the mortgage! </li></ul><ul><li>Make an older, less efficient home more comfortable and affordable! </li></ul><ul><li>Increase your buying power! </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch debt-to-income qualifying ratios on loans for energy-efficient homes! </li></ul><ul><li>Qualify for a larger loan amount! Buy a better, more energy efficient home! </li></ul>
  10. 10. E nergy E fficient M ortgage <ul><li>An energy efficient mortgage is a loan that allows the owner to incorporate the cost of its solar improvements his mortgage loan. The improvements can cost up to 15 % of the total value of your home. The lender will calculate the energy savings for you home because of the new solar system and will add that to the total loan value, letting you borrow more than normal. Put another way, it doesn’t matter how much equity the loaner currently have in his home, the solar financing is added on top of the loan. </li></ul>
  11. 11. E nergy E fficient M ortgage <ul><li>This, of course, lets him get a solar system without much out of pocket expense and he get to recover a good chunk of the cost through an increased mortgage interest deduction. Throw in tax credits, rebates and net metering incentives, and solar is getting mighty cheap if he know how to work the system. </li></ul>
  12. 12. E nergy E fficient M ortgage <ul><li>Energy efficient mortgages have very few restrictions. The loaner can get them for new construction or existing homes. The can be issued for single family residents, duplexes, condos and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>The Fact is that banks are very tide to approve any loan because of the bank liquidity problems </li></ul>
  13. 13. Home Energy Tune Up <ul><li>The Four Easy Steps Of Home Energy TUNE - up </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1 INSPECTION A certified energy inspector examines and measures the home to find all the opportunities for saving energy. Step 2 DETAILED ANALYSIS Specialized software produces a report which shows savings and costs for energy efficiency improvements and provides tips on ways to save more energy and reduce energy bills. Step 3 IMPLEMENTATION The report provides access to a database of contractors, a direct line to an energy expert, and access to other energy products and services. Step 4: FINANCING The report lists the improvements that, when financed, will save more than they cost. It includes information on the Streamlined (k) Limited Repair Program by which homebuyers and homeowners can finance up to an additional $35,000 into their mortgage for energy-efficiency improvements identified by their home inspector. </li></ul>Source : JRV Home Inspection Services LLC
  14. 14. Sample 1 <ul><li>Flat Plate List Price 2950 </li></ul><ul><li>Pre Packaged Systems 50 Gallon: Silicon Solar offers pre-packaged solar hot water heating systems for both the do-it-yourself customer and the professional installer. </li></ul><ul><li>Each system includes the primary components required when installing a solar hot water heating system. </li></ul><ul><li>Flat Plate Solar Collectors are typically more efficient in warmer climates than other Solar Collectors, but they can suffer from inefficient performance and a lack of freeze protection in colder weather. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are in a warm climate zone, Flat Plate Solar Collectors are likely to be the most cost-effective choice for you. However, if you are in a colder climate zone you may want to instead consider a system based around our SunMaxx Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications : </li></ul><ul><li>Weight: 400 lbs Dimensions: Required 23&quot; x 50&quot; space for storage tank, 6.6ft x 3.25ft of roof space for solar collector Packaging: Ships via freight on a pallet or is available for local pickup (1 pallet is available for residential or commercial delivery) Installation: 1-2 days (Installer) 4-5 days (DIY Customer) Manufacturer: Silicon Solar Inc Warranty: 3 year tank, 1 year pump and controller, 1 year on balance of system components. Fitting: 3/4&quot; NPT </li></ul><ul><li>Included </li></ul><ul><li>(1) xxx Flat Plate Solar Collector </li></ul><ul><li>(1) 40 Gallon solar hot water storage tank with 1 heat exchanger (internal) </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Circulating pumps with expansion tank, </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Control meter for system circulation </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Pump flanges </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Installation Instructions   </li></ul><ul><li>(1) SUPPORT TEAM (to help you when you need it) </li></ul><ul><li>Sold $1580 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Preferred Site characteristics <ul><li>Various site-specific characteristics affect the productivity and/or installation costs of solar systems. It is preferable to have: </li></ul><ul><li>Unobstructed southerly site exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Flat roof or low-angle slope (or nearby fields or parking lots for ground-mounted or canopy arrays) </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 60 feet above ground for roof mounted systems (preferably 1-2 stories) </li></ul><ul><li>Structurally sound roof to bear weight of solar array without </li></ul><ul><li>significant obstruction from dormers, mechanical equipment, vents or shading from sunlight </li></ul>
  16. 16. Solar critical mass <ul><li>Morphogenetic Fields -Critical Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Morphogenetic fields are basically non-physical blueprints that give birth to forms. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>According to its founder, the biologist Rupert Sheldrake, a morphogenetic field, is an equivalent to an electromagnetic field that carries information only, not energy, and are available throughout time and space without any loss of intensity after they have been created. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Morphogenetic fields are created by the patterns of physical forms. They help guide the formation of later similar systems where a newly forming system &quot;tunes into&quot; a previous system by having within it a &quot;seed&quot; that resonates with a similar seed in the earlier form. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Morphogenetic fields can be used to describe how the human Solar consciousness is shared. The Morphogenetic fields therefore play the main role in the idea that humanity at one point in time will go thru a dramatic collective shift in Solar consciousness. A shift that will happen when the critical mass for a shift is reached, or in other words, when a certain number of environmental awakened individuals are reached. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Solar consciousness <ul><li>How to increase Solar Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>School experiments with solar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers approvals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents approvals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visits Connecticut GREEN LINE (solar wind thermal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Street shows visual samples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar bath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geo thermal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local chanels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dvd/CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs & youtube –animation solar story </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Solar fed-action in USA <ul><li>Of course, blatant federal inaction is being overshadowed in many cases by overwhelming support from the collective states. Here's a rough list of programs going on around the country: </li></ul><ul><li>26 states with tax credits and deductions for renewable energy (federal policy expires Dec. 31) </li></ul><ul><li>29 states with property tax incentives for renewable energy (no federal policy) </li></ul><ul><li>21 states with state sales tax exemptions for renewable energy (no federal policy) </li></ul><ul><li>38 states with rebate programs for renewable energy (no federal policy) </li></ul><ul><li>31 states with loan programs for renewable energy (no federal policy) </li></ul><ul><li>24 states with grant programs for renewable energy (no federal policy) </li></ul><ul><li>42 states (plus D.C.) with net metering laws (no federal policy) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Solar Installers and the Investment Tax Credit <ul><li>The solar investment tax credit (ITC) provisions will: · Extend for 8 years the 30-percent tax credit for both residential and commercial solar installations; · Eliminate the $2,000 monetary cap for residential solar electric installations, creating a true 30-percent tax credit (effective for property placed in service after December 31, 2008); · Eliminate the prohibition on utilities from benefiting from the credit; · Allow Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) filers, both businesses and individuals, to take the credit; · Authorize $800 million for clean energy bonds for renewable energy generating facilities, including solar. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Green panic <ul><li>By the way, three cheers are in order for Arkansas, the only state that has none of the above policies, putting them on the same playing field as the federal government. But I digress. </li></ul><ul><li>Even with states picking up some of the legislative slack—California and New Jersey are particularly favorable areas—a lack of funding from the federal side has been enough to temporarily stall the industry. </li></ul><ul><li>But it's not all bad. And as green investors, we can leverage the panic to make some nice profits </li></ul>
  21. 21. US-HWS Market <ul><li>In the absence of coherent national policies, from 1997 until 2005, the U.S. solar water heating and solar space heating market showed little growth, averaging about 6,000 installations per year. In the past couple years, numerous states have created or expanded incentives to complement the new federal tax credits. Accordingly, the market is has increased quite a bit. Solar water heating can be done at same time as PV. </li></ul><ul><li>PV installer can easily install HWS. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The big vacuum myth? <ul><li>We hear a lot about vacuum tubes and how good they are and …you know the answers. </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a valve to measure if there is still vacuum in the tube? </li></ul><ul><li>If one or more tubes a leaking…which tube would you change? </li></ul><ul><li>If the vacuum tube is so good than why in north Europe is not “vacuum” yet? </li></ul>
  23. 23. The big vacuum myth? <ul><li>Lets see some numbers </li></ul>When comparing collectors, it is better to use efficiency values from the normal operating range rather than peak efficiency levels, as this will better represent average annual performance. The &quot;normal operating range&quot; refers to the normal delta-t range (Tm - Ta) that the collector is exposed to. For domestic water heating an average value of 30-40 o C is common. Every region has different ambient temperatures and different insolation levels, but for the purpose of a comparison we can use a &quot;standard&quot; set of environmental conditions. In a moderate climate, an &quot;average&quot; intermittently clouded day in Spring can provide an insolation level of 3.5kWh/m 2 /day. The solar radiation distribution throughout the day from sunrise to sunset is displayed in the following graph.                                        
  24. 24. The big vacuum myth? It can be seen that 90% of the radiation falls between 9:00am and 4:00pm with an average insolation level during this period of 400W/m2. We now have a full set of factors in order to do a comparison: Insolation Level = 400Watts/m2 (G) (Tm-Ta) = 35K (Tm-Ta)/G = 0.0875 (x) 4. Leading vacuum tube panel : - Performance variables: h0 = 0.717, a1 = 1.52, a2 = 0.0085 ( SPF ) - IAM adjustment = 1.2(K) 5. Leading Flat Plate: - Performance variables: h0 = 0.8, a1 = 2.99, a2 = 0.023 ( SPF ) - IAM adjustment = 0.97(K) The calculations for the two collectors are therefore as follows. vacuum : Performance = 1.2 * 0.717 - (1.52 * 0.0875) - (0.0085 * 400 * 0.08752) = 1.2*0.717-0.133-0.026 = 70% Flat Plate: Performance = 0.97 * 0.8 - (2.99 *0.0875) - (0.023 * 400 * 0.08752) = 0.97*0.8-0.26-0.07 = 44.6% Difference: + 25%
  25. 25. The Role of Renewable Energy in USA
  26. 26. Solar Thermal manufacturing <ul><li>In 2006, there were 44 companies active in solar-related activities (manufacturing, importing, and/or exporting), a significant increase from the 25 operating in 2005. Of the 44 active companies shipping solar thermal collectors, 5 are planning to introduce new low-temperature collectors, 14 are planning new medium-temperature collectors, and 5 expect to introduce new high-temperature collectors in 2007 (Table 2.12). In 2006, the industry remained highly concentrated, with the 5 largest companies accounting for 89 percent of total shipments. However, this percentage of the concentration was the lowest since 1998 (Table 2.13). Employment tripled during the year 2006, in part due to the construction of the Nevada Solar One project, the first concentrated solar power facility built in the U.S. in more than 15 years (Table 2.14). A total of 37 companies were involved in the design of collectors or systems, 19 were involved in prototype collector development, and 19 were active in prototype system development (Table 2.15). Twenty-seven companies had 90 percent or more of their total company-wide revenues in solar collectors, seven companies had 50 to 89 percent, four companies had 10 to 49 percent, and six companies had less than 10 percent (Table 2.16). </li></ul>
  27. 27. Solar Thermal Collector Shipments 2006 Figure 2.3. Solar Thermal Collector Shipments Top Domestic Destinations, 2006                                                                                    Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, &quot;Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey.&quot;
  28. 28. Solar Thermal Collector Average Price Figure 2.4. Solar Thermal Collector Average Price, 1997-2006 Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, &quot;Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey.&quot;
  29. 29. Companies Involved in Solar Thermal Collector Activities Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, &quot;Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey.&quot; 19 10   Noncollector System Component Manufacture 19 9   Installation 20 11   Retail Distribution 38 23   Wholesale Distribution 19 11   Prototype System Development 19 11   Prototype Collector Development 37 22   Collector or System Design 2006 2005 Type of Activity Table 2.15 Companies Involved in Solar Thermal Collector Activities by Type, 2005 and 2006
  30. 30. Companies Expecting to Introduce New Solar Thermal Collector Products Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, &quot;Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey.&quot; 8 Noncollector Components 5 High-Temperature Collectors 14 Medium-Temperature Collectors 5 Low-Temperature Collectors Number of Companies New Product Type Table 2.12 Number of Companies Expecting to Introduce New Solar Thermal Collector Products in 2007
  31. 31. Renewables Portfolio Standards State Goal <ul><li>PA: 18% ** by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>NJ: 22.5% by 2021 </li></ul>CT: 23% by 2020 MA: 15% by 2020 + 1% annual increase (Class I Renewables) WI : requirement varies by utility; 10% by 2015 goal IA: 105 MW MN: 25% by 2025 (Xcel: 30% by 2020) TX: 5,880 MW by 2015 <ul><li>AZ: 15% by 2025 </li></ul>CA: 20% by 2010 <ul><li>* NV: 20% by 2015 </li></ul>ME: 30% by 2000 10% by 2017 - new RE State RPS <ul><li>Minimum solar or customer-sited RE requirement </li></ul><ul><li>* Increased credit for solar or customer-sited RE </li></ul><ul><li>**Includes separate tier of non-renewable “alternative” energy resources </li></ul>HI: 20% by 2020 RI: 16% by 2020 <ul><li>CO: 20% by 2020 (IOUs) </li></ul><ul><li>*10% by 2020 (co-ops & large munis ) </li></ul><ul><li>DC: 11% by 2022 </li></ul><ul><li>NY: 24% by 2013 </li></ul>MT: 15% by 2015 IL: 25% by 2025 VT: (1) RE meets any increase in retail sales by 2012; (2) 20% by 2017 *WA: 15% by 2020 <ul><li>MD: 20% by 2022 </li></ul><ul><li>NH: 23.8% in 2025 </li></ul>OR: 25% by 2025 (large utilities ) 5% - 10% by 2025 (smaller utilities) *VA: 12% by 2022 MO: 11% by 2020 <ul><li>*DE: 20% by 2019 </li></ul><ul><li>NM: 20% by 2020 (IOUs) </li></ul><ul><li>10% by 2020 (co-ops) </li></ul><ul><li>NC: 12.5% by 2021 (IOUs) </li></ul><ul><li>10% by 2018 (co-ops & munis) </li></ul>ND: 10% by 2015 SD: 10% by 2015 * UT: 20% by 2025 <ul><li>OH: 25%** by 2025 </li></ul>Solar water heating eligible
  32. 32. Solar/DG Provisions in RPS Policies NM: 4% solar electric by 2020 0.6% DG by 2015 AZ: 4.5% DG by 2025 NV: 1% solar by 2015; 2.4 to 2.45 multiplier for PV MD: 2% solar electric in 2022 CO: 0.8% solar electric by 2020 DC: 0.386% solar electric by 2022 1.1 multiplier for solar NY: 0.1542% customer-sited by 2013 DE: 2.005% solar PV by 2019; triple credit for PV Solar water heating counts towards solar set-aside WA: double credit for DG NH: 0.3% solar electric by 2014 NJ: 2.12% solar electric by 2021 PA: 0.5% solar PV by 2020 NC: 0 . 2% solar by 2018 OH*: 0 . 5% solar by 2025 * It is unclear at this point if solar water heating is eligible for OH’s solar carve-out.
  33. 33. State Sales Tax Exemptions for Renewables D.C. Puerto Rico State has a Sales Tax Exemption State has Local Option for Sales Tax Exemption
  34. 34. Loan Programs for Renewables State & utility/local programs State program Utility or local programs D.C.
  35. 35. State Solar Contractor Licensing Requirements D.C. State has special solar licensing requirements
  36. 36. LEED POINTS <ul><li>LEED points are awarded by the non-profit organization U.S. Green Building Council to certify that a building is environmentally sustainable and meets various environmental standards set by the USGBC. </li></ul><ul><li>LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. LEED points give a structure environmental credibility and are used by architects, engineers, developers and builders as well as government and non-profit organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>LEED emphasizes sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials and resource selection and indoor environmental quality. The USGBC certifies sustainable businesses, homes, hospitals, schools and neighborhoods. </li></ul><ul><li>All phases of development and construction are rated with LEED points. </li></ul><ul><li>This voluntary rating system helps improve better building integration </li></ul><ul><li>practices and raises environmental awareness. This rating system also </li></ul><ul><li>recognizesenvironmentalleaders in the building industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately, LEED points promote cleaner, safer living and working </li></ul><ul><li>The benefits of LEED certification include:lower operating costs increased asset value reduction of environmental pollution conservation of natural resources qualification for tax rebates and other incentives demonstration of owner's commitment to a safer, cleaner environment </li></ul>
  37. 37. calculations Solar Hot Water (SHW) We calculated and mapped system costs and efficiencies using the following assumptions and equations. <ul><li>Current SIR given current conditions SIR = ( I × E × 365 days/yr × CE × PW ) ÷ CS </li></ul><ul><li>Current payback period given current conditions Payback = CS ÷ ( I × 365 days/yr × CE × E ) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy cost (electricity rate) required to result in a SIR > 1 nationwide CE = CS ÷ ( I × E × 365 days/yr × PW ) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy cost (electricity rate) required to result in a payback period < 10 years nationwide CE = CS ÷ ( I × E × 365 days/yr × 10 yrs ) </li></ul><ul><li>System cost required to result in a SIR > 1 nationwide CS = I × E × 365 days/yr × CE × PW </li></ul><ul><li>System cost required to result in a payback period < 10 years nationwide CS = I × E × 365 days/yr × CE × 10 yrs </li></ul>$900 per sq. m.   SHW System Costs CS: 17.41 yrs = Present worth PW: $/kWh = Energy cost CE: 40% = System efficiency E: 5.3 hrs/day = e.g. 5.3 kWh/m2/day   hrs/day, for hours when array is providing peak output, = where kWh/m2/day   latitude collector = Annual average solar radiation on tilt I:
  38. 38. Recycle old solar panels <ul><li>The Solar Industry Tries to Stay One Step Ahead of Regulators As solar panels become more mainstream and a higher volume of them is produced, they are bound to attract more attention from regulators. Many of the biggest companies that make solar panels have decided to preempt that wave of regulation by voluntarily joining up and creating the first large-scale scheme to recycle solar panels in Europe. The goal is to have the system in place by the end of this year. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;We will be the first in Europe to establish such a system. And I could well imagine that it will become a model for other countries,&quot; said PV Cycle President Karsten Wambach, who also heads SolarWorld's Solar Material division. </li></ul><ul><li>The new PV Cycle association embraces about 17 solar companies including Q-Cells, SolarWorld, Sharp, Kyocera and First Solar, as well as German solar industry association BSW and the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA). </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling of solar panels should stay pretty low for a while, though. Solar cells have a useful life of many decades if nothing out of the ordinary happens to them, and so far most recycled panels have been flawed or damaged modules. </li></ul><ul><li>But these numbers are bound to trend up. About 16,000 tonnes are expected to be sent back in Europe by 2015, compared to 2,000 tonnes last year. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Get hot water with $90/ month <ul><li>Average total </li></ul>
  40. 40. Annual sunshine
  41. 41. New Big box stores in MA <ul><li>Best Buy in Everett, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Best Buy in Leominster, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Best Buy in Wareham, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Best Buy in Mansfield, MA Best Buy in Boston, MA Kohl's in Mansfield, MA Lowe's in Wareham, MA Lowe's in West Bridgewater, MA Lowe's in Leominster, MA Lowe's in Leominster, MA Target in Wareham, MA Wal-Mart in Quinsigamond Village, MA </li></ul>