SEEING WITH THE HEART: THE LINKBETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEAND CULTUREPROFESSOR DR ANNE BAMFORD2013
• The child is a possessor of culture, imagination and language, thecreator of worlds, a co-researcher, and a critical reflector. Thechild is not just as an adjunct to the adult project of educating butis a member of a viable and different group known as childrenthat must be understood and honoured if education is going tohave success.
SUCCESSES IN LIFE AND SUCCESSES INEXAMINATIONS DO NOT SHOW A HIGH LEVEL OFCORRELATION.In a results orientated society it is by no means strange that the reputations of politicians,parents, and teachers are usually based on short-term measurable outcomes.
FACTORS INFLUENCING SUCCESS:• That no results of test are published in the press• That in no application or testimonial related to a teaching postshall there be reference to such results• That personal interview is the best practice for determiningsuitable transfers• That it be understood that there is as much , if not more virtue ineducating the child who never passes an exam as there is inteaching a clever child.• “It is a changed outlook that will be the greatest value in puttingthe whole question of examinations in its proper place.”
ASHRIDGE STUDY1. Doing is more important than knowing2. A need for immediacy3. Trial and error approach to problem solving4. Low boredom threshold5. Multitasking and parallel processing6. Visual, nonlinear and virtual learning7. Collaborative learning8. Constructivist approach
… AND SKILLS THEY LACK• Budgeting and finance• Self-awareness• Self criticism• Risk assessment• Taking criticism• Written English• Deeper level thinking• Self-management• Loyalty
ChildrenI want a school where there is:• A feeling of well-being, including funand happiness• A connection between the teachersand the pupils• Meaning making – a chance for me tomake sense of what I learn and to askquestions• Communication – people talk with menot always at me• Enlivened perception and alertness – Iam not bored and tired all day• Sensations – significant experiencesthat I remember and want to talk about
“ABOVE ALL, IT HAS TO BE REMEMBERED THATTHE CHILD IS STILL A CHILD”• Some method is needed in order to determine the type of education to which the child ismost fitted to proceed• At present, much avoidable suffering and unhappiness is caused by the haphazardmanner by which the selection of individuals is made.
• The aim of the school should be to give a more abundant life,not to covert the child into a stuffed machine that lets out theappropriate package when the coin is inserted. Formalinstruction there must be. The child must learn to read, writeand carryout mathematical processes. But education is widerthan this. Free physical activities, the rudiments of the arts, thechild’s use of the power of dramatization, a fostering of curiositythrough the study of nature, open air education… all these havea part to play. (1933)
The needs of the hour are:• Independent thought• A school that encourages the childto be full of interest and full of zest
CHILDHOOD IS EVOLVING FASTER THAN EVERBEFORE• The significant decrease in strength scores since 1990indicate that over the last 20 years children have becomeless emotionally expressive, less energetic, less talkativeand verbally expressive, less humorous, less imaginative,less unconventional, less lively and passionate, lessperceptive, less apt to connect seemingly irrelevant things,less synthesising and less likely to see things for adifferent angle. (Meta-analysis of test scores for over300,000 American children and adults (Kyung Hee Kim,2011)• In a study where children were fitted with accelerometersfor a school day, it was found that children aged 7-8 spenta higher proportion of their time in moderate levels ofphysical activity in play sessions (61% ) than in PE (38%),school break (4%), or lunch (36%)
A PEDAGOGUE IS A LOVER OF GROWTH• Dialogical learning model (Ruf and winter, 2008)… classroominstruction is a dynamic system of offer and taking up the offer. It iseffective if it succeeds in getting all persons involved and encouragesthem to actively apply resources and competencies.• Lived experiences are to the mind and soul what breath is to the body.So-called ecstatic moments when a pupil is deeply moved by someact of the teaching are life enhancing incidents. Dr David Brierley• A total autotelic experience (auto=self, telos=goal) in a school lifeoften makes work meaningful which enables the worker to generatenew ideas, turning away from the mundane. Work becomes more thana job… it becomes a vocation because it is personalized- it ismeaningful.
EMOTIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING SUCCESS:• The strength of the passions – the total amount of energyavailable• The amount of energy graded or under control• The strength of controlWe must relate to each other whenever possible, equally we needto help students proceed from recognition to admiration and fromadmiration to the enduring desire to pursue truth, beauty andgoodness. - Howard Gardner
Everyone has the right freelyto participate in the culturallife of the community, toenjoy the arts
United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights,10 December 1948. United Nations, InternationalCovenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,adopted by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of16 December 1966 and entry into force 3 January 1976.UNESCO, Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity,adopted on 20 November 2001. See www.unesco.org,legal instruments. UNESCO, Convention on theProtection and Promotion of the Diversity of CulturalExpressions, adopted on 20 October 2005. UNESCO,Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural andNatural Heritage, adopted on 16 November 1972.UNESCO, Convention for the Safeguarding of theIntangible Cultural Heritage, adopted on 27 October2003.Council of Europe treaty series, no. 199,Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritagefor Society, Faro, 27 October 2005. United Nations,Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging toNational or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities,92nd plenary meeting, 18 December 1992
TEN ASPECTS OF QUALITY:• Levels of risk taking• Partnerships• Flexibility of organisational structures• Permeable personal and organisational boundaries• Shared and collaborative planning• Detailed reflection and evaluation practices• Accessibility• Utilization of local contexts• Opportunities for presentation/publication• Professional development
CURIOSITY• Observing a task• Investigating• Asking questions• Seeking related materials• Demonstrating levels of interest• Extending the nature of his/her involvement with people/activities/theprovision• Initiating involvement and interaction• Extending the length of time he/she remains interested in an activity• Interacting and communicating
CONFIDENCE• Level of talking during activities• When they approach and ask questions• Initiation of talk with different people• Trying new things – “having a go”• Showing another how to do something• Willingness to interact• If they asked for materials to make/do something• The ease with which relationships are formed and who they areformed with• The extent to which they use the provision independently
INDEPENDENCE• Carry on doing things by themselves• Select activities by themselves• Patterns of play and interaction• Links made between activities and how these are discussed• Initiated planning• Self direction and independent repetition• Cooperative learning and helping one another• Physical bearing and presence• Taking risks• Initiating new ideas• Imaginative use of resources and space
CONCENTRATION• Length of time taken at any one activity• Body language in group activities• The degree of interest in an activity• Ability to question or add to discussions• Involvement• Nature of activities undertaken and any changes
Dance is the art form that communicatesthrough the body. Roland Barthes, “My body isa thought”
AN INCREASING ‘SENSEOF COMMUNITY’• Work and play cooperatively• Get involved in group activities• Make connections between events in their lives and at home andat the cultural space• Make connections between what has happened and what is goingto happen
CHANGES INLANGUAGES• Observations including the types of languages (verbal, non-verbal, dramatic, visual, musical etc) interacted with and theirbehaviour within it• Portfolios (samples of creative expressions)• Photographs• Involvement• Confidence in their work and play• Willingness to discuss what they are doing and to share it
SENSE OF IDENTITYAND CULTURE• Observations of what they wear and the roles they play• Discussion e.g. How they talk about their home/lives andthe connections they make between their lives andexperiences• The connections that they make between their ownbeliefs and culture and those of others• Listening e.g. How they speak with each other / staffregarding what they do
PILLARS OF INNOVATIONTHE EUROPEAN INNOVATION SCOREBOARD (EIS) BASED ON 29 INDICATORS OF INNOVATION• Human capital• Openness and diversity• Cultural environment• Technology• Institutional and regulatory environment• Creative outputs
HUMAN CAPITAL• Hours on arts and cultural education in schools• Number of arts schools per million people• Tertiary students studying in the field of culture• Cultural employment as a % of overall employment
EMPLOYABILITYSurveys show that soft skills such as adaptability were more valuable toemployers than education or qualificationsNESTA have received evidence that suggests the soft skills employersare looking for are (in order of stated importance):• Communication skills• Team working skills• Confidence
PORTRAIT OF AN ARTS-RICH 20 YEAROLDCATTERALL 2009 USA• More likely to enrol in college/highereducation (> 17.6%)• More likely to volunteer (15.4%)• More likely to have strong friendships(8.6%)• More likely to vote (20%)• 10% less likely to not be in eitheremployment or education at aged 20.
PORTRAIT OF AN ARTS-RICH 26 YEAROLDCATTERALL 2009 USA,• Continue to do better than people whoattended non-arts-rich schools.• Found better jobs(Arts poor students were 5times as likely to reportdependence on publicassistance at age 26.)
IN MALTA• The National Curriculum Conference (2000) identified a series ofnational and international measures which had negatively impactedupon creativity• E.g. a rigid timetable, formal class-management protocol, syllabusoverload, discouragement of students from taking ownership oflearning, emphasis on competition and external rewards andteachers own limitations in the creative sector• In 2002, the Education Division introduced the post of "creativityteachers" with the aim of accelerating artistic development in schools.There are currently around 150 ‘creativity teachers’ in schools inMalta.
BRAIN ACTIVATION• Highly creative individuals had significantlyhigher activation in both the left and rightcerebral hemispheres, specifically in theareas associated with fluency, originalityand flexibility• Higher activation in these areas could berelated to the vivid experience of insight,emotions and perceptions present inhighly creative individuals.• These combined with higher symbolicabilities possessed mainly in the activatedfrontal lobes might enable highly creativeindividual to translate their experiences intocreative works.Rosa Aurora Chavez-Eakle 2009
When I make art I feel alive. It is SO good. Itis good to show what you can do. I feel like Ihave a lot to give. I can sing. It is vital to me.I really wish I could give you the words foryour report about just how important the artsare to me, but it is not just about theEnglish. I have the same problem inNorwegian. I really cant say what it means.The arts are beyond words. When I am onstage it comes out through my singing andthrough my dancing. Then you can see whatI mean, but I really want you to capture thatthing you cant describe in your report.Pupil comment made during the study, January 2011
There seemed to be between17-28% (averaged ataround 22%) negativeimpacts of poor qualityprogrammes. Put crudely,this meant that in a globalsense about ¼ of all thearts and culturaleducation a child receivesis likely to have a negativeimpact
• Can we afford NOT to plan for childrensculture in the school system?
EDUCATION REQUIRES A GREAT DEAL OFPATIENCE. HUMANISATION TAKES TIME.
THE RESULT OF CREATING FAST SCHOOLS ISINSTITUTIONAL INDIGESTION, AND SIGNS OFDISCOMFORT ARE NOW APPEARING.
SLOWLY DOES IT….It is helpful to identify some aspects of the slow food movement:• life is about more than rushed meals• it draws upon tradition and character -- eating well means respectingculinary knowledge and recognizing that eating is a social activity thatbrings its own benefits. A respect for tradition also honours complexity-- most sauces have familiar ingredients, but how they are combinedand cooked vitally influences the result.• Slow food is about moral choices -- it is better to have laws that allowrare varieties of cheese to be produced, it is better to take time tojudge, to digest, and to reflect upon the nature of "quiet materialpleasure" and how everyone can pursue it.
IN JAPAN…Schools will pursue a radically different curriculum that offers students much more free time --a deliberate departure from the extreme formality and relentless drilling so admired a decadeago as the paradigmatic example of what schools should be like to regain the lead in theglobal economy. A senior official of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Ken Terawaki, has aconvincing explanation:"Our current system, just telling kids to study, study, study, has been a failure. Endless studyworked in the past, when . . . Japan was rebuilding. . . . But that is no longer the case . . .telling them to study more will no longer work. . . . We want to give them some time to think."
THE CLOTHS OF HEAVENHad I the heavens embroidered cloths,Enwrought with golden and silver light,The blue and the dim and the dark clothsOf night and light and the half-light;I would spread the cloths under your feet:But I, being poor, have only my dreams;I have spread my dreams under your feet;Tread softly because you tread on my dreams.W. B. Yeats