Part 3
Analogy and Metaphor
Overview
Session 1

Session 2

English Vs Japanese
Using Power Point
Handling Questions

Structuring your Presentation
Chu...
Quick Hints #1
for controlling your state
• Clothes
• Practice
• Think of a Time You Have Done This Before
(Anchoring)
• B...
Today’s Session
• Review Last Week
• Using Analogy and Metaphor
• Technical Vocabulary
- The difference between a presenta...
Review
Think of your presentation as a 5
minute chance to teach your paper
• Introduction:

-Self
-Academic

10-20 Seconds
30-40 ...
Structuring Your presentation

Big Picture

Details

Introduction

Conclusion

Main Body
Example topic
Level of Detail
Big Picture

Details

• Life on Earth
• Sensing
• Cellular VS
Organism
• Ion Channels
• TRP ...
Know your Audience
What are the judges
looking for?
• Content
– New Ideas
– Relevance

• Presentation
– Pronunciation
– Ac...
Types of Questions
• Basic to the understanding of the topic.
– Must be answered!

• Difficult or long questions about the...
Presenting with
Analogy and Metaphor
Y=X±Z

2011/10/12

Copywrite Francesco Bolstad

11
Describing Objects
and
Defining Concepts
• “Defining in a general sense is simply
pointing out the unique,
distinguishing ...
Metaphor is a Natural Process

Bouba and Kiki

2011/10/12

Copywrite Francesco Bolstad

13
Metaphors in Science
The Cell
The word cell comes from the Latin cellula,
meaning "a small room". The descriptive term
for...
The Cell Metaphor
Monk’s Cell

2011/10/12

Honeycomb Cell

Copywrite Francesco Bolstad

Cork Cell

15
16
Copywrite Francesco Bolstad
2011/10/12

This figure is from our Prentice Hall Science Explorer Cells
and Heredity, book...
City model, cell structure, cell
function
• Construction Site: ribosome - builds new structures
• Transport Company: endop...
Other Metaphors in Science
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Metaphors
Flowing Water
Wave
Wall
Highways
Blueprint
Police Force
A Peach
Ca...
Metaphor Topics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Life
Learning a language
The economy
A nuclear reaction
Love
Being a student
University e...
Technical Vocabulary
• How is a presentation different to a paper?
– Time
– Audience
– Control

2011/10/12

Copywrite Fran...
Example
presentation
(Ivory Ban)
2011/10/4

Francesco Bolstad

21
Bad
Key issues identified in conserving elephant
populations

• Enfroceable Property Rights

• Biodiversity

• Externalities

...
The effectiveness of the ivory trade ban depends on the
availability of substitutes, the enforcement of property
rights an...
The ban on rhino horn was ineffective because
substitutes were unavailable

Ban on Rhino Horn
S (poaching)

P ($)

Ban on ...
The transfer of property and management rights to
farmers will internalize externalities and increase the
number of elepha...
Total revenue and cost ($)

The optimal harvest rate will be chosen to secure
profit maximization which will ensure a sust...
Currently management of elephant populations are
nationalized and uncoordinated

“Elephant conservation and public welfare...
Good
Ivory trade ban and elephant
conservation
by
Francis Bolstad
Environmental Economics
And the Ivory trade ban
Agenda
• Background

• The Ban
• Key Economic Issues
• Conclusion

The elephant picture in the left corner is adapted from...
African and Asian elephants have different identifying
features, as …

http://www.hedweb.com/ eleplone.htm

Introduction
3...
Elephant populations dropped by half between 1976 1989, this lead to listing on CITES
Appendix I thus prohibiting trade in...
Ban opponents argue that the trade of elephant
products will lead to increased funding for wildlife
conservation and compe...
Ban proponents argue that the trade of elephant
products will endanger the wildlife conservation
efforts through fuelling ...
Anti-ivory campaigns have been effective in
decreasing demand. However an illegal trade has
remained to meet intrinsic dem...
Key issues identified in conserving elephant
populations

• Enfroceable Property Rights

• Biodiversity

• Externalities

...
The increased numbers of elephants under the ban
has come at a high cost

-

Increasing cost of enforcing anti-poaching la...
The effectiveness of the ivory trade ban depends on the
availability of substitutes, the enforcement of property
rights an...
The ban on rhino horn was ineffective because
substitutes were unavailable

Ban on Rhino Horn
S (poaching)

P ($)

Ban on ...
The transfer of property and management rights to
farmers will internalize externalities and increase the
number of elepha...
Total revenue and cost ($)

The optimal harvest rate will be chosen to secure
profit maximization which will ensure a sust...
Currently management of elephant populations are
nationalized and uncoordinated

“Elephant conservation and public welfare...
Questions
This is your chance to ask specific
questions about your presentation !

2011/10/12

Copywrite Francesco Bolstad...
The Structure of Humor

2011/10/12

Copywrite Francesco Bolstad

45
Why are Jokes Funny?
A story within a story.
The twist
Revealing the truth

2011/10/12

Copywrite Francesco Bolstad

46
Other Types of Humor
• Self Depreciation

2011/10/12

Copywrite Francesco Bolstad

47
Questions
Questions
and more
Questions

2011/10/12

Copywrite Francesco Bolstad

48
Where to from Here
Making your presentation
Rehearsing
Adjusting for your target audience

2011/10/12

Copywrite Francesco...
Good Luck

2011/10/12

Copywrite Francesco Bolstad

50
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Presenting with analogy and metaphor

  1. 1. Part 3 Analogy and Metaphor
  2. 2. Overview Session 1 Session 2 English Vs Japanese Using Power Point Handling Questions Structuring your Presentation Chunking it Right Body Language Session 3 Session 4 Analogy and Metaphor Technical Vocabulary Presentation Practice 2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 2
  3. 3. Quick Hints #1 for controlling your state • Clothes • Practice • Think of a Time You Have Done This Before (Anchoring) • Be Early • Resources 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 3
  4. 4. Today’s Session • Review Last Week • Using Analogy and Metaphor • Technical Vocabulary - The difference between a presentation and a paper • Example Presentation and/or Students’ Presentations • Question Time 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 4
  5. 5. Review
  6. 6. Think of your presentation as a 5 minute chance to teach your paper • Introduction: -Self -Academic 10-20 Seconds 30-40 Seconds • Main Body: -Point 1 -Point 2 -Point 3 1 minute 1 minute 1 minute • Conclusion 1 minute • Questions 5 minutes 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 6
  7. 7. Structuring Your presentation Big Picture Details Introduction Conclusion Main Body
  8. 8. Example topic Level of Detail Big Picture Details • Life on Earth • Sensing • Cellular VS Organism • Ion Channels • TRP Channels • TRP A1 • Inflammatory Mediators • NO, H2O2 Target Audience Everyone Biologists Microbiologists TRP Channel Specialists TRP A1 Specialists
  9. 9. Know your Audience What are the judges looking for? • Content – New Ideas – Relevance • Presentation – Pronunciation – Accuracy and Fluency – Body Language • Slides – Format – Spelling and Grammar 2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 9
  10. 10. Types of Questions • Basic to the understanding of the topic. – Must be answered! • Difficult or long questions about the topic. – Give a quick answer (showing that you know the answer) then offer to talk more after your presentation. • “What if Questions” Unrelated questions or questions that ask you to guess about the future. – Leave the question for later. – Remember to be polite.
  11. 11. Presenting with Analogy and Metaphor Y=X±Z 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 11
  12. 12. Describing Objects and Defining Concepts • “Defining in a general sense is simply pointing out the unique, distinguishing properties of a concept in a particular context” Giving Academic Presentations Susan M. Reinhart 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 12
  13. 13. Metaphor is a Natural Process Bouba and Kiki 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 13
  14. 14. Metaphors in Science The Cell The word cell comes from the Latin cellula, meaning "a small room". The descriptive term for the smallest living biological structure was coined by Robert Hooke in a book he published in 1665 when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the small rooms monks lived in. "... I could exceedingly plainly perceive it to be all perforated and porous, much like a Honey-comb, but that the pores of it were not regular [..] these pores, or cells, [..] were indeed the first microscopical pores I ever saw, and perhaps, that were ever seen, for I had not met with any Writer or Person, that had made any mention of them before this. . ." – Robert Hooke describing his observations on a thin slice of cork. 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 14
  15. 15. The Cell Metaphor Monk’s Cell 2011/10/12 Honeycomb Cell Copywrite Francesco Bolstad Cork Cell 15
  16. 16. 16 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 2011/10/12 This figure is from our Prentice Hall Science Explorer Cells and Heredity, book p C. The Cell as a City 22
  17. 17. City model, cell structure, cell function • Construction Site: ribosome - builds new structures • Transport Company: endoplasmic reticulum - carries materials from place to place • Power Plant: mitochondrion - produces power • Food Processing Plant: chloroplast - produces food • Waste Disposal Plant: lysosome - disposes of waste • City Hall: nucleus - controls rest of cell • Storage Tanks: vacuole - stores food and water • Gate: cell wall or cell membrane - controls what enters and leaves cell city 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 17
  18. 18. Other Metaphors in Science • • • • • • • • • Metaphors Flowing Water Wave Wall Highways Blueprint Police Force A Peach Camera Computer 2011/10/12 • • • • • • • • • Scientific Concept Electricity Sound/light/radio Cell (wall/membrane) Blood Vessels DNA Immune System Layers of Earth Eye Brain Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 18
  19. 19. Metaphor Topics • • • • • • • • Life Learning a language The economy A nuclear reaction Love Being a student University entrance exams Kyoto University 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 19
  20. 20. Technical Vocabulary • How is a presentation different to a paper? – Time – Audience – Control 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 20
  21. 21. Example presentation (Ivory Ban) 2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 21
  22. 22. Bad
  23. 23. Key issues identified in conserving elephant populations • Enfroceable Property Rights • Biodiversity • Externalities Introduction 23 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  24. 24. The effectiveness of the ivory trade ban depends on the availability of substitutes, the enforcement of property rights and the impact of anti-ivory campaigns Ban on ivory Ban on rhino horn P ($) S (poaching) S (poaching) P ($) p2 p2 S (before ban) S (before ban) p1 p1 D1 D2 q2 q1 D2 Q q2 q1 Field, B. C., 2000, Natural Resource Economics, p.387 Introduction 24 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion D1 Q
  25. 25. The ban on rhino horn was ineffective because substitutes were unavailable Ban on Rhino Horn S (poaching) P ($) Ban on ivory P ($) p2 S (poaching) p2 S (before ban) S (before ban) p1 p1 D1 D2 q2 q1 Q q2 Field, B. C., 2000, Natural Resource Economics, p.387 Introduction 25 The Ban Key Economic Issues D1 D2 Conclusion q1 Q
  26. 26. The transfer of property and management rights to farmers will internalize externalities and increase the number of elephants. P ($) MSC = MCG + MDF MSC = MCG + MCF MDF = MCF MDF P2 P3 MCG P1 0 MCG MBG MSB Q2 Q3 Q2 MSC … Marginal Social Cost MCG … Marignal Cost of Government MDF … Marginal Damage to Farmer MBG … Marginal Benefit of Government Introduction 26 The Ban Key Economic Issues Q1 Q (Number of Elephants) MCF … Marginal Cost of Farmer MSB … Marginal Social Benefit Conclusion
  27. 27. Total revenue and cost ($) The optimal harvest rate will be chosen to secure profit maximization which will ensure a sustainable elephant population TC TR EMSY Effort Grafton, R.Q, et al., 2004, The Economics of the Environment and Natural Resources, p.110 Introduction 27 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  28. 28. Currently management of elephant populations are nationalized and uncoordinated “Elephant conservation and public welfare can be better served by legal ivory trade than by a trade ban, but until demand for ivory can be restrained and various monitoring and regulation measures are put into place it is premature for CITES to permit ivory sales” Stiles, D., 2004.The ivory trade and elephant conservation. Environmental Conversation 31 (4): p. 309 Introduction 28 The Ban Key Economic Terms Conclusion
  29. 29. Good
  30. 30. Ivory trade ban and elephant conservation by Francis Bolstad Environmental Economics And the Ivory trade ban
  31. 31. Agenda • Background • The Ban • Key Economic Issues • Conclusion The elephant picture in the left corner is adapted from IFAW annual report fiscal year 2003 31
  32. 32. African and Asian elephants have different identifying features, as … http://www.hedweb.com/ eleplone.htm Introduction 32 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  33. 33. Elephant populations dropped by half between 1976 1989, this lead to listing on CITES Appendix I thus prohibiting trade in elephant products. http://www.cites.org Asian Elephant African Elephant http://www.cardamom.org/ images/ elephant_large.jpg http://www.hedweb.com/ eleplone.htm Introduction The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion 33
  34. 34. Ban opponents argue that the trade of elephant products will lead to increased funding for wildlife conservation and compensation for E-H conflict. Trade of elephant products Efficient Markets Supply Price ↓ Poaching and Smuggling ↓ Income from sales ↑ Wildlife Conservation ↑ Introduction 34 The Ban Key Economic Issues Elephant – Human Conflict Conclusion
  35. 35. Ban proponents argue that the trade of elephant products will endanger the wildlife conservation efforts through fuelling demand. Trade of elephant products Demand ↑ Supply ↑ Poaching and Smuggling ↑ Elephant Population ↓ Tourism Revenues ↓ Introduction 35 The Ban Funds for Wildlife Conservation ↓ Key Economic Issues Biodiversity ↓ Conclusion
  36. 36. Anti-ivory campaigns have been effective in decreasing demand. However an illegal trade has remained to meet intrinsic demand - International authority as supervisor - Intrinsic demand for ivory products still exists - The ban pushes trade underground + Anti-ivory campaigns have been very successful, especially in the Western World Introduction 36 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  37. 37. Key issues identified in conserving elephant populations • Enfroceable Property Rights • Biodiversity • Externalities Introduction 37 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  38. 38. The increased numbers of elephants under the ban has come at a high cost - Increasing cost of enforcing anti-poaching laws and anti-ivory campaigns - Decreasing revenue from ivory sales and hunting • Continuing uncompensated damage to crops + Increase in overall elephant numbers Introduction 38 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  39. 39. The effectiveness of the ivory trade ban depends on the availability of substitutes, the enforcement of property rights and the impact of anti-ivory campaigns Ban on ivory Ban on rhino horn P ($) S (poaching) S (poaching) P ($) p2 p2 S (before ban) S (before ban) p1 p1 D1 D2 q2 q1 D2 Q q2 q1 Field, B. C., 2000, Natural Resource Economics, p.387 Introduction 39 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion D1 Q
  40. 40. The ban on rhino horn was ineffective because substitutes were unavailable Ban on Rhino Horn S (poaching) P ($) Ban on ivory P ($) p2 S (poaching) p2 S (before ban) S (before ban) p1 p1 D1 D2 q2 q1 Q q2 Field, B. C., 2000, Natural Resource Economics, p.387 Introduction 40 The Ban Key Economic Issues D1 D2 Conclusion q1 Q
  41. 41. The transfer of property and management rights to farmers will internalize externalities and increase the number of elephants. P ($) MSC = MCG + MDF MSC = MCG + MCF MDF = MCF MDF P2 P3 MCG P1 0 MCG MBG MSB Q2 Q3 Q2 MSC … Marginal Social Cost MCG … Marignal Cost of Government MDF … Marginal Damage to Farmer MBG … Marginal Benefit of Government Introduction 41 The Ban Key Economic Issues Q1 Q (Number of Elephants) MCF … Marginal Cost of Farmer MSB … Marginal Social Benefit Conclusion
  42. 42. Total revenue and cost ($) The optimal harvest rate will be chosen to secure profit maximization which will ensure a sustainable elephant population TC TR EMSY Effort Grafton, R.Q, et al., 2004, The Economics of the Environment and Natural Resources, p.110 Introduction 42 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  43. 43. Currently management of elephant populations are nationalized and uncoordinated “Elephant conservation and public welfare can be better served by legal ivory trade than by a trade ban, but until demand for ivory can be restrained and various monitoring and regulation measures are put into place it is premature for CITES to permit ivory sales” Stiles, D., 2004.The ivory trade and elephant conservation. Environmental Conversation 31 (4): p. 309 Introduction 43 The Ban Key Economic Terms Conclusion
  44. 44. Questions This is your chance to ask specific questions about your presentation ! 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 44
  45. 45. The Structure of Humor 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 45
  46. 46. Why are Jokes Funny? A story within a story. The twist Revealing the truth 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 46
  47. 47. Other Types of Humor • Self Depreciation 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 47
  48. 48. Questions Questions and more Questions 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 48
  49. 49. Where to from Here Making your presentation Rehearsing Adjusting for your target audience 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 49
  50. 50. Good Luck 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 50

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