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Presenting with analogy and metaphor

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  • 1. Part 3 Analogy and Metaphor
  • 2. Overview Session 1 Session 2 English Vs Japanese Using Power Point Handling Questions Structuring your Presentation Chunking it Right Body Language Session 3 Session 4 Analogy and Metaphor Technical Vocabulary Presentation Practice 2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 2
  • 3. Quick Hints #1 for controlling your state • Clothes • Practice • Think of a Time You Have Done This Before (Anchoring) • Be Early • Resources 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 3
  • 4. Today’s Session • Review Last Week • Using Analogy and Metaphor • Technical Vocabulary - The difference between a presentation and a paper • Example Presentation and/or Students’ Presentations • Question Time 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 4
  • 5. Review
  • 6. Think of your presentation as a 5 minute chance to teach your paper • Introduction: -Self -Academic 10-20 Seconds 30-40 Seconds • Main Body: -Point 1 -Point 2 -Point 3 1 minute 1 minute 1 minute • Conclusion 1 minute • Questions 5 minutes 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 6
  • 7. Structuring Your presentation Big Picture Details Introduction Conclusion Main Body
  • 8. Example topic Level of Detail Big Picture Details • Life on Earth • Sensing • Cellular VS Organism • Ion Channels • TRP Channels • TRP A1 • Inflammatory Mediators • NO, H2O2 Target Audience Everyone Biologists Microbiologists TRP Channel Specialists TRP A1 Specialists
  • 9. Know your Audience What are the judges looking for? • Content – New Ideas – Relevance • Presentation – Pronunciation – Accuracy and Fluency – Body Language • Slides – Format – Spelling and Grammar 2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 9
  • 10. Types of Questions • Basic to the understanding of the topic. – Must be answered! • Difficult or long questions about the topic. – Give a quick answer (showing that you know the answer) then offer to talk more after your presentation. • “What if Questions” Unrelated questions or questions that ask you to guess about the future. – Leave the question for later. – Remember to be polite.
  • 11. Presenting with Analogy and Metaphor Y=X±Z 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 11
  • 12. Describing Objects and Defining Concepts • “Defining in a general sense is simply pointing out the unique, distinguishing properties of a concept in a particular context” Giving Academic Presentations Susan M. Reinhart 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 12
  • 13. Metaphor is a Natural Process Bouba and Kiki 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 13
  • 14. Metaphors in Science The Cell The word cell comes from the Latin cellula, meaning "a small room". The descriptive term for the smallest living biological structure was coined by Robert Hooke in a book he published in 1665 when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the small rooms monks lived in. "... I could exceedingly plainly perceive it to be all perforated and porous, much like a Honey-comb, but that the pores of it were not regular [..] these pores, or cells, [..] were indeed the first microscopical pores I ever saw, and perhaps, that were ever seen, for I had not met with any Writer or Person, that had made any mention of them before this. . ." – Robert Hooke describing his observations on a thin slice of cork. 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 14
  • 15. The Cell Metaphor Monk’s Cell 2011/10/12 Honeycomb Cell Copywrite Francesco Bolstad Cork Cell 15
  • 16. 16 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 2011/10/12 This figure is from our Prentice Hall Science Explorer Cells and Heredity, book p C. The Cell as a City 22
  • 17. City model, cell structure, cell function • Construction Site: ribosome - builds new structures • Transport Company: endoplasmic reticulum - carries materials from place to place • Power Plant: mitochondrion - produces power • Food Processing Plant: chloroplast - produces food • Waste Disposal Plant: lysosome - disposes of waste • City Hall: nucleus - controls rest of cell • Storage Tanks: vacuole - stores food and water • Gate: cell wall or cell membrane - controls what enters and leaves cell city 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 17
  • 18. Other Metaphors in Science • • • • • • • • • Metaphors Flowing Water Wave Wall Highways Blueprint Police Force A Peach Camera Computer 2011/10/12 • • • • • • • • • Scientific Concept Electricity Sound/light/radio Cell (wall/membrane) Blood Vessels DNA Immune System Layers of Earth Eye Brain Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 18
  • 19. Metaphor Topics • • • • • • • • Life Learning a language The economy A nuclear reaction Love Being a student University entrance exams Kyoto University 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 19
  • 20. Technical Vocabulary • How is a presentation different to a paper? – Time – Audience – Control 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 20
  • 21. Example presentation (Ivory Ban) 2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 21
  • 22. Bad
  • 23. Key issues identified in conserving elephant populations • Enfroceable Property Rights • Biodiversity • Externalities Introduction 23 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  • 24. The effectiveness of the ivory trade ban depends on the availability of substitutes, the enforcement of property rights and the impact of anti-ivory campaigns Ban on ivory Ban on rhino horn P ($) S (poaching) S (poaching) P ($) p2 p2 S (before ban) S (before ban) p1 p1 D1 D2 q2 q1 D2 Q q2 q1 Field, B. C., 2000, Natural Resource Economics, p.387 Introduction 24 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion D1 Q
  • 25. The ban on rhino horn was ineffective because substitutes were unavailable Ban on Rhino Horn S (poaching) P ($) Ban on ivory P ($) p2 S (poaching) p2 S (before ban) S (before ban) p1 p1 D1 D2 q2 q1 Q q2 Field, B. C., 2000, Natural Resource Economics, p.387 Introduction 25 The Ban Key Economic Issues D1 D2 Conclusion q1 Q
  • 26. The transfer of property and management rights to farmers will internalize externalities and increase the number of elephants. P ($) MSC = MCG + MDF MSC = MCG + MCF MDF = MCF MDF P2 P3 MCG P1 0 MCG MBG MSB Q2 Q3 Q2 MSC … Marginal Social Cost MCG … Marignal Cost of Government MDF … Marginal Damage to Farmer MBG … Marginal Benefit of Government Introduction 26 The Ban Key Economic Issues Q1 Q (Number of Elephants) MCF … Marginal Cost of Farmer MSB … Marginal Social Benefit Conclusion
  • 27. Total revenue and cost ($) The optimal harvest rate will be chosen to secure profit maximization which will ensure a sustainable elephant population TC TR EMSY Effort Grafton, R.Q, et al., 2004, The Economics of the Environment and Natural Resources, p.110 Introduction 27 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  • 28. Currently management of elephant populations are nationalized and uncoordinated “Elephant conservation and public welfare can be better served by legal ivory trade than by a trade ban, but until demand for ivory can be restrained and various monitoring and regulation measures are put into place it is premature for CITES to permit ivory sales” Stiles, D., 2004.The ivory trade and elephant conservation. Environmental Conversation 31 (4): p. 309 Introduction 28 The Ban Key Economic Terms Conclusion
  • 29. Good
  • 30. Ivory trade ban and elephant conservation by Francis Bolstad Environmental Economics And the Ivory trade ban
  • 31. Agenda • Background • The Ban • Key Economic Issues • Conclusion The elephant picture in the left corner is adapted from IFAW annual report fiscal year 2003 31
  • 32. African and Asian elephants have different identifying features, as … http://www.hedweb.com/ eleplone.htm Introduction 32 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  • 33. Elephant populations dropped by half between 1976 1989, this lead to listing on CITES Appendix I thus prohibiting trade in elephant products. http://www.cites.org Asian Elephant African Elephant http://www.cardamom.org/ images/ elephant_large.jpg http://www.hedweb.com/ eleplone.htm Introduction The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion 33
  • 34. Ban opponents argue that the trade of elephant products will lead to increased funding for wildlife conservation and compensation for E-H conflict. Trade of elephant products Efficient Markets Supply Price ↓ Poaching and Smuggling ↓ Income from sales ↑ Wildlife Conservation ↑ Introduction 34 The Ban Key Economic Issues Elephant – Human Conflict Conclusion
  • 35. Ban proponents argue that the trade of elephant products will endanger the wildlife conservation efforts through fuelling demand. Trade of elephant products Demand ↑ Supply ↑ Poaching and Smuggling ↑ Elephant Population ↓ Tourism Revenues ↓ Introduction 35 The Ban Funds for Wildlife Conservation ↓ Key Economic Issues Biodiversity ↓ Conclusion
  • 36. Anti-ivory campaigns have been effective in decreasing demand. However an illegal trade has remained to meet intrinsic demand - International authority as supervisor - Intrinsic demand for ivory products still exists - The ban pushes trade underground + Anti-ivory campaigns have been very successful, especially in the Western World Introduction 36 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  • 37. Key issues identified in conserving elephant populations • Enfroceable Property Rights • Biodiversity • Externalities Introduction 37 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  • 38. The increased numbers of elephants under the ban has come at a high cost - Increasing cost of enforcing anti-poaching laws and anti-ivory campaigns - Decreasing revenue from ivory sales and hunting • Continuing uncompensated damage to crops + Increase in overall elephant numbers Introduction 38 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  • 39. The effectiveness of the ivory trade ban depends on the availability of substitutes, the enforcement of property rights and the impact of anti-ivory campaigns Ban on ivory Ban on rhino horn P ($) S (poaching) S (poaching) P ($) p2 p2 S (before ban) S (before ban) p1 p1 D1 D2 q2 q1 D2 Q q2 q1 Field, B. C., 2000, Natural Resource Economics, p.387 Introduction 39 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion D1 Q
  • 40. The ban on rhino horn was ineffective because substitutes were unavailable Ban on Rhino Horn S (poaching) P ($) Ban on ivory P ($) p2 S (poaching) p2 S (before ban) S (before ban) p1 p1 D1 D2 q2 q1 Q q2 Field, B. C., 2000, Natural Resource Economics, p.387 Introduction 40 The Ban Key Economic Issues D1 D2 Conclusion q1 Q
  • 41. The transfer of property and management rights to farmers will internalize externalities and increase the number of elephants. P ($) MSC = MCG + MDF MSC = MCG + MCF MDF = MCF MDF P2 P3 MCG P1 0 MCG MBG MSB Q2 Q3 Q2 MSC … Marginal Social Cost MCG … Marignal Cost of Government MDF … Marginal Damage to Farmer MBG … Marginal Benefit of Government Introduction 41 The Ban Key Economic Issues Q1 Q (Number of Elephants) MCF … Marginal Cost of Farmer MSB … Marginal Social Benefit Conclusion
  • 42. Total revenue and cost ($) The optimal harvest rate will be chosen to secure profit maximization which will ensure a sustainable elephant population TC TR EMSY Effort Grafton, R.Q, et al., 2004, The Economics of the Environment and Natural Resources, p.110 Introduction 42 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  • 43. Currently management of elephant populations are nationalized and uncoordinated “Elephant conservation and public welfare can be better served by legal ivory trade than by a trade ban, but until demand for ivory can be restrained and various monitoring and regulation measures are put into place it is premature for CITES to permit ivory sales” Stiles, D., 2004.The ivory trade and elephant conservation. Environmental Conversation 31 (4): p. 309 Introduction 43 The Ban Key Economic Terms Conclusion
  • 44. Questions This is your chance to ask specific questions about your presentation ! 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 44
  • 45. The Structure of Humor 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 45
  • 46. Why are Jokes Funny? A story within a story. The twist Revealing the truth 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 46
  • 47. Other Types of Humor • Self Depreciation 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 47
  • 48. Questions Questions and more Questions 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 48
  • 49. Where to from Here Making your presentation Rehearsing Adjusting for your target audience 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 49
  • 50. Good Luck 2011/10/12 Copywrite Francesco Bolstad 50