Presentation1 2012


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Presentation1 2012

  1. 1. Part 1The Basics
  2. 2. Who am I? Francesco Bolstad Why am I hear? Japanese EconomicsDegrees in: Biology Education Applied Linguistics 2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 2
  3. 3. These Sessions Will Won’t• Outline how to make your • make it for you presentation• Show you how to use the • Teach you the English you English you have to make a need to make a presentation presentation• Give you a chance to • Insure that your practice your English presentation is correct2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 3
  4. 4. Overview Session 1 Session 3 English Vs Japanese Chunking Structuring your presentation Pronunciation and Voice Projection Using Power Point Body Language Session 2 Session 4 Metaphor Handling Questions Technical Vocabulary Jokes2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 4
  5. 5. English VS Japanese Presentations English Japanese• Energy• Fun• Keep it simple• Audience participation2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 5
  6. 6. Stand Out from the Crowd2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 6
  7. 7. Know your Goals You can’t hit a target if you DON’T have one!• Knowing what to leave out is as important as knowing what to put in!2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 7
  8. 8. Know your AudienceWhat are the judgeslooking for?• Content VS Presentation• Style• Fluency• Topic• ???• ???2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 8
  9. 9. Think about the way people learn• A presentation is a teaching session!• What do you want to teach?• How could people learn what you want to teach?2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 9
  10. 10. Think Creatively But Be Organized2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 10
  11. 11. Practice Practice Practice2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 11
  12. 12. Structure of a Presentation Introduction Main Body Conclusions Questions
  13. 13. Introduction• Keep it simple• Warm up the audience• Introduce yourself• Outline your presentation2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 13
  14. 14. Main Body• Its up to you• Sequencing• Metaphor – Session #2• Chunking – Session #32011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 14
  15. 15. Conclusions• Keep it simple• Make it memorable2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 15
  16. 16. Questions• Session #42011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 16
  17. 17. Using Power Point• How many slides?• What content?• What colour?2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 17
  18. 18. Making PowerPoint SlidesAvoiding the Dangers of Bad Slides
  19. 19. Tips to be Covered• Outlines• Slide Structure• Fonts• Colour• Background• Graphs• Spelling and Grammar• Conclusions• Questions
  20. 20. Outline• Make your 1st or 2nd slide an outline of your presentation – Ex: previous slide• Follow the order of your outline for the rest of the presentation• Only place main points on the outline slide – Ex: Use the titles of each slide as main points
  21. 21. Slide Structure – Good• Use 1-2 slides per minute of your presentation• Write in point form, not complete sentences• Include 4-5 points per slide• Avoid wordiness: use key words and phrases only
  22. 22. Slide Structure - Bad• This page contains too many words for a presentation slide. It is not written in point form, making it difficult both for your audience to read and for you to present each point. Although there are exactly the same number of points on this slide as the previous slide, it looks much more complicated. In short, your audience will spend too much time trying to read this paragraph instead of listening to you.
  23. 23. Slide Structure – Good• Showing one point at a time: – Will help audience concentrate on what you are saying – Will prevent the audience from reading ahead – Will help you keep your presentation focused
  24. 24. Slide Structure - Bad• Do not use distracting animations• Do not go overboard with the animation• Be consistent with the animation that you use
  25. 25. Fonts - Good• Use at least an 18-point font• Use different size fonts for main points and secondary points – this font is 24-point – the main point font is 28-point – the title font is 36-point• Use a standard font I recommend: – Calibri, Times New Roman or Arial
  26. 26. Bad Fonts• If you use a small font, your audience won’t be able to read what you have written• CAPITALIZE ONLY WHEN NECESSARY. IT IS DIFFICULT TO READ• Don’t use a complicated font
  27. 27. Colour - Good• Use a colour of font that contrasts sharply with the background – Ex: blue font on white background• Use colour to reinforce the logic of your structure – Ex: light blue title and dark blue text• You can use colour to emphasize a point – But only use this occasionally
  28. 28. Bad use of Colour• Using a font colour that does not contrast with the background colour is hard to read• Using colour for decoration is distracting and annoying!• Using a different colour for each point is unnecessary – Using a different colour for secondary points is also unnecessary• Trying to be creative can also be bad
  29. 29. Background - Good• Use backgrounds such as this one that are attractive but simple• Use backgrounds which are light• Use the same background consistently throughout your presentation
  30. 30. Bad Backgrounds• Don’t use backgrounds that are distracting or make it difficult to read• Always be consistent with the background that you use
  31. 31. Good Data Presentation• Use graphs rather than just charts and words – Data in graphs is easier to understand & remember than raw data (numbers) – Trends are easier to recognize in graphs• Always title your graphs
  32. 32. Bad Data Presentation January February March AprilBlue Balls 20.4 27.4 90 20.4Red Balls 30.6 38.6 34.6 31.6
  33. 33. Good Graphs Items Sold in First Quarter of 200210090807060 Blue Balls50 Red Balls40302010 0 January February March April
  34. 34. Bad Graphs100 90 90 80 70 60 Blue Balls 50 Red Balls 38.6 40 34.6 30.6 31.6 30 27.4 20.4 20.4 20 10 0 January February March April
  35. 35. Bad Graphs• Minor gridlines are unnecessary• The font is too small• The colours are illogical• The title is missing• The shading is distracting
  36. 36. Spelling and Grammar• Proof your slides for: – speling mistakes – the use of of repeated words – grammatical errors you might have make• If English is not your first language, please have someone else check your presentation!
  37. 37. Conclusion• Use an effective and strong closing – Your audience is likely to remember your last words• Use a conclusion slide to: – Summarize the main points of your presentation – Suggest future avenues of research
  38. 38. Questions??• End your presentation with a simple question slide to: – Invite your audience to ask questions – Provide a visual aid during question period – Avoid ending a presentation abruptly
  39. 39. Example presentation (Ivory Ban)2011/10/4 Francesco Bolstad 39
  40. 40. Ivory trade ban and elephant conservation by Francis Bolstad Environmental Economics And the Ivory trade ban
  41. 41. Agenda• Background• The Ban• Key Economic Issues• Conclusion The elephant picture in the left corner is adapted from IFAW annual report fiscal year 200341
  42. 42. African and Asian elephants have different identifying features, as … eleplone.htmIntroduction 42 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  43. 43. Elephant populations dropped by half between 1976 - 1989, this lead to listing on CITES Appendix I thus prohibiting trade in elephant products. African Elephant Asian Elephant images/ eleplone.htm elephant_large.jpgIntroduction The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion 43
  44. 44. Ban opponents argue that the trade of elephant products will lead to increased funding for wildlife conservation and compensation for E-H conflict. Trade of elephant products Efficient Markets Supply Price ↓ Poaching and Smuggling ↓ Income from sales ↑ Wildlife Elephant – Human Conservation ↑ ConflictIntroduction 44 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  45. 45. Ban proponents argue that the trade of elephant products will endanger the wildlife conservation efforts through fuelling demand. Trade of elephant products Demand ↑ Supply ↑ Poaching and Smuggling ↑ Elephant Population ↓ Tourism Funds for Biodiversity ↓ Revenues ↓ Wildlife Conservation ↓Introduction 45 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  46. 46. Anti-ivory campaigns have been effective in decreasing demand. However an illegal trade has remained to meet intrinsic demand - International authority as supervisor - Intrinsic demand for ivory products still exists - The ban pushes trade underground + Anti-ivory campaigns have been very successful, especially in the Western WorldIntroduction 46 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  47. 47. Key issues identified in conserving elephant populations • Enfroceable Property Rights • Biodiversity • ExternalitiesIntroduction 47 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  48. 48. The increased numbers of elephants under the ban has come at a high cost - Increasing cost of enforcing anti-poaching laws and anti-ivory campaigns - Decreasing revenue from ivory sales and hunting • Continuing uncompensated damage to crops + Increase in overall elephant numbersIntroduction 48 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  49. 49. The effectiveness of the ivory trade ban depends on the availability of substitutes, the enforcement of property rights and the impact of anti-ivory campaigns Ban on ivory Ban on rhino horn P ($) S (poaching) S (poaching) P ($) p2 p2 S (before ban) S (before ban) p1 p1 D1 D1 D2 D2 q2 q1 Q q2 q1 Q Field, B. C., 2000, Natural Resource Economics, p.387Introduction 49 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  50. 50. The ban on rhino horn was ineffective because substitutes were unavailable Ban on Rhino Horn P ($) S (poaching) Ban on ivory P ($) S (poaching) p2 p2 S (before ban) S (before ban) p1 p1 D2 D1 D1 q2 q1 Q D2 q2 q1 Q Field, B. C., 2000, Natural Resource Economics, p.387Introduction 50 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  51. 51. The transfer of property and management rights to farmers will internalize externalities and increase the number of elephants. P ($) MSC = MCG + MDF MSC = MCG + MCF MDF = MCF MDF P2 P3 MCG P1 MCG MBG MSB 0 Q2 Q3 Q2 Q1 Q (Number of Elephants) MSC … Marginal Social Cost MCF … Marginal Cost of Farmer MCG … Marignal Cost of Government MSB … Marginal Social Benefit MDF … Marginal Damage to Farmer MBG … Marginal Benefit of GovernmentIntroduction 51 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  52. 52. The optimal harvest rate will be chosen to secure profit maximization which will ensure a sustainable elephant population Total revenue and cost ($) TC TR EMSY Effort Grafton, R.Q, et al., 2004, The Economics of the Environment and Natural Resources, p.110Introduction 52 The Ban Key Economic Issues Conclusion
  53. 53. Currently management of elephant populations are nationalized and uncoordinated “Elephant conservation and public welfare can be better served by legal ivory trade than by a trade ban, but until demand for ivory can be restrained and various monitoring and regulation measures are put into place it is premature for CITES to permit ivory sales” Stiles, D., 2004.The ivory trade and elephant conservation. Environmental Conversation 31 (4): p. 309Introduction 53 The Ban Key Economic Terms Conclusion
  54. 54. Thank you for your attention Questions ? 54