6. A related species is Cananga fruticosa , which is a dwarf ylang-ylang that grows as small tree or compact shrub with highly scented flowers.
7. Ylang-ylang has been cultivated in temperate climates under conservatory conditions.
8. Its fruit are an important food item for birds, such as the Collared Imperial-pigeon, Purple-tailed Imperial-pigeon, Zoe's Imperial-pigeon, Superb Fruit-dove, Pink-spotted Fruit-dove, Coroneted Fruit-dove, Orange-bellied Fruit-dove, and Wompoo Fruit-dove(Frith et al. 1976)
FAMILY : Annonaceae ORIGIN : India TYPE/USES : vine/shrub SIZE : 8'-10' GROWTH RATE : very fast growing LIGHT REQUIREMENTS : full/partial sun WATER REQUIREMENTS : average MIN. TEMP. : upper 20°s FLOWER : warmer months of the year
Fruitlets 3-4 cm long when ripe, ovoid, conspicuously apiculate, quite glabrous.
Seeds 15-20 mm long, pale brown, smooth"
"Climbing shrub, to 12 ft. long; leaves narrowly oblong-lanceolate, to 6 in. long; flowers not showy but very fragrant, 1-2 together on low peduncles, sepals reflexed, yellow, petals about 1 in. long; fruit narrowly obovoid, yellow, 1 1/2 in. long, sessile, in dense clusters 20 in long“.
6. Most people that expect large, colorful flowers will be disappointed with the Artabotrys 7. The flowers appear during the warmer months and are greenish/yellow and very often hidden by the leaves 8. These beautiful vines with shiny green leaves are not really grown for the flowers 9. People like them for their the unusual fragrance 10. They are also called "juicy fruit vine." 11. Artabotrys are tropical vines and have to be protected against freezing temperatures 12. They can also be grown in containers with proper trimming and brought indoors during the cold spells.
The leaves are good and for ornamental decoration and used in festivals. The tree is a main attraction in gardens throughout India. The tree can be cut into various shapes and maintained in required sizes.
Methanolic extracts of Polyalthia longifolia have yielded 20 known and two new organic compounds, some of which show cytotoxic properties.
large shrub or small tree growing to a height of 11 meters (rarely to 14 m) with a trunk diameter of 20-30 cm.
The flowers are produced in early spring at the same time as or slightly before the new leaves appear, each flower dark red, 2-5 cm diameter, with three sepals and six petals; they have a fetid smell
On a global scale, the common pawpaw has a Global GRANK of G5 (Very Common).
The common pawpaw is considered a threatened species in New York, and an endangered species in New Jersey.
In Canada, it is only found in portions of southern Ontario, where it has a National NRANK of N3 (Vulnerable) and a Provincial SRANK of S3 (Vulnerable). The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources has given A. triloba a general status of "Sensitive", and its populations are monitored.
The fruit is rich in fatty acids, the major one being octanoate. They also contain cis -δ9- and cis -δ11-hexadecenoate, cis -δ9-, cis -δ11- and cis -δ13-octadecenoate.
The seeds have been shown to contain the chemicals asimitrin (an adjacent ring-hydroxylated bis -tetrahydrofuran acetogenin) and 4-hydroxytrilobin (an adjacent bis -THF ring with two flanking hydroxyl groups and an α,β-unsaturated γ-lactone with a 4-hydroxyl group).These chemicals seem to have selective cytotoxicity against prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cell lines, thus may become a useful chemotherapeutic chemical for these types of cancer.
The leaves also contain toxic annonaceous acetogenins, making them impalatable to most insects. The one notable exception is the zebra swallowtail butterfly ( Eurytides marcellus ), whose larvae feed on the leaves. This confers protection from predation throughout the butterfly's life, as trace amounts of acetogenins remain present, making them unpalatable to birds and other predators.
The bark contains other acetogenins, including asimin, asiminacin and asiminecin, which have been shown to be potent inhibitors of mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, making A. triloba a promising source of pesticide and anti-tumour compounds.
Character evolution in Anaxagorea ( Annonaceae ) 1
Tanya Scharaschkin 2, 3 and James A. Doyle 2
2 Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of California,
Davis, California 95616 USA
Received for publication April 10, 2005. Accepted for
publication October 10, 2005.
Anaxagorea is a critical genus for understanding morphological evolution in Annonaceae because it shares a variety of features with other Magnoliales that have been interpreted as primitive relative to other Annonaceae
A number of morphological synapomorphies have been identified for a clade containing most Central American species and another comprising all Asian species
However, two Anaxagorea species lack inner staminodes
inner staminodes were originally present in Anaxagorea and were lost independently within Anaxagorea and in other Annonaceae . the stamens of most Anaxagorea species are more or less laminar, as in other Magnoliales, and thereby differ from the peltate stamens (with a cap-like connective extension) found in most other Annonaceae
some Anaxagorea species have stamens that approach the peltate type. Again, it was assumed that the laminar type was ancestral and deviations from it occurred independently in Anaxagorea and other Annonaceae
Similar patterns are seen in leaf architecture and anatomy. Most species of Anaxagorea have brochidodromous leaf venation, but some are eucamptodromous. Eucamptodromous venation is also found in the majority of the other Annonaceae , whereas most other Magnoliales have a brochidodromous pattern, often of the festooned type