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Media Object File Flt Ops Fobn Seq02 Media Object File Flt Ops Fobn Seq02 Document Transcript

  • How to Use Briefing Notes Flight Operations Briefing Notes Introducing the Briefing Notes Concept Flight Operations Briefing Notes How to Use Briefing Notes Introducing the Briefing Notes Concept I General The initial set of Approach-and-Landing Flight Operations Briefing Notes has been developed by Airbus in the frame of the Approach-and-Landing Accidents Reduction (ALAR) Task Force led by the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF). The Approach-and-Landing Flight Operations Briefing Notes provide background information, operational recommendations and training guidelines for the implementation of the conclusions and recommendations of the following international ALAR working groups: • FSF ALAR Task Force; and, • U.S. Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST), ALAR Joint Safety Implementation Team (JSIT). Lessons-learned from the Airbus operational and human factors analysis of in-service occurrences and from training feedback have been also considered. A generic version of the ALAR Briefing Notes has been published by the FSF, in the Volume 19, No 8-11, Aug.-Nov./00 of the FSF Flight Safety Digest and in the FSF ALAR Tool Kit (CD-ROM). Page 1 of 6
  • How to Use Briefing Notes Flight Operations Briefing Notes Introducing the Briefing Notes Concept II Accident-prevention Strategy The Flight Operations Briefing Notes have been designed to allow an eye-opening and self-correcting accident-prevention strategy. To support this strategy, each Flight Operations Briefing Note: • Presents the subject and its associated hazard to flight operations safety, using background information and statistical data; • Emphasizes the applicable standards and best practices (e.g., standard operating procedures [SOPs], supplementary techniques, operational recommendations and training guidelines); • Lists and discusses the operational and human factors that may cause flight crewmembers and cabin crewmembers to deviate from applicable standards; This section constitutes an eye-opener to assist the reader in assessing his/her own exposure; • Provides or suggests company accident-prevention-strategies and/or personal lines- of-defense; This section will assist the reader in identifying company or personal prevention strategies and/or corrective actions; • Establishes a summary of operational key points and training key points; • Refers to associated or related Flight Operations Briefing Notes; and, • References related ICAO, U.S. FAR and European JAR regulatory documents. The proposed education and training strategy is valid at both company and personal levels for: • Risk awareness; • Exposure assessment; • Identification of related prevention strategies (at company level) and lines-of- defense (at company and/or personal levels); and, • Implementation of prevention strategies and/or corrective actions. III Defining a Reference Aircraft The technical content of the Flight Operations Briefing Notes refers to a generic reference aircraft defined to reflect the design features common to most Airbus and non-Airbus aircraft families (i.e., modern-technology airliners, regional and corporate jets or turboprop aircraft). Page 2 of 6
  • How to Use Briefing Notes Flight Operations Briefing Notes Introducing the Briefing Notes Concept This reference aircraft features the following equipment to allow discussing the role and operation of each system during each flight phase: • Glass-cockpit, including an electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) consisting of a primary flight display (PFD) and navigation display (ND); • Integrated autopilot (AP) / flight director (FD) / autothrottle/autothrust (A/THR) systems; • Flight management system (FMS); • Automatic ground-spoilers; • Autobrake system; • Thrust reversers; • Two flight-deck crewmembers and required number of cabin crewmembers; • Operation using manufacturer-published or company-prepared standard operating procedures (SOPs), defining the following elements: − Operating philosophy; − Use of automation; − Task sharing ( for pilot flying [PF] and pilot-non-flying [PNF] ); − Crewmembers tasks for all phases of ground and flight operations; − Briefings; − Standard calls; and, − Normal checklists. IV How to Use and Implement the Flight Operations Briefing Notes ? The Flight Operations Briefing Notes should be used by airlines to enhance the awareness of various operational and human factors, threats and hazards among flight crews and cabin crews. Management pilots and flight attendants should review, customize (as required) and implementthe recommendations, guidelines and awareness information, in the following domains: • Operational documentation: − Standard operating procedures; and, − Procedures and techniques / Supplementary techniques. • Training: − Simulator Training, to develop new scenarios for line oriented flight training (LOFT) or special purpose operational training (SPOT); and/or, Page 3 of 6
  • How to Use Briefing Notes Flight Operations Briefing Notes Introducing the Briefing Notes Concept − Crew resource management (CRM) training, to develop new topical subjects to support CRM discussions. • Information: − Flight crew / Cabin crew bulletins; − Airline’s safety magazine articles; − Classroom lectures; and/or, − Stand-alone reading. Line pilots, line flight attendants and flight operations personnel should review and compare the recommendations, guidelines and awareness information with their current practices and enhance their techniques and awareness level, as required. Other actors in the global aviation system, such as: • Air traffic control services; • Navigation state agencies; • Operational authorities; • Service providers; and, • Flight academies / flying colleges; … … should use the provision of the Flight Operations Briefing Notes to evaluate their possible contribution to the enhancement of ground and flight safety. V Statistical Data Statistical data quoted in the Flight Operations Briefing Notes originate from various industry sources. The following Special FSF Report provides a consolidated source of statistical data, definitions and facts about approach-and-landing accidents, including those involving CFIT: Flight Safety Foundation Flight Safety Digest Killers in Aviation: FSF Task Force Presents Facts About Approach-and-landing and Controlled-flight-into-terrain Accidents Volume 17/No 11-12 – Volume 18/No 1-2 Nov.-Dec.98/Jan.-Feb.99 Page 4 of 6
  • How to Use Briefing Notes Flight Operations Briefing Notes Introducing the Briefing Notes Concept VI Reference Documents The following reference documents have been used to: • Support and illustrate the applicable standards, operational recommendations and training guidelines; and, • Document and analyze the operational factors and human factors involved in incidents and accidents Airbus Operational and Training Documentation : • Flight Crew Operating Manuals (FCOM); • Quick Reference Handbooks (QRH); • Flight Crew Training Manuals (FCTM); • Cabin Crew Operating Manuals (CCOM) • Instructor Support Guides; • Airbus Cockpit Philosophy reference document; • Airbus Training Philosophy reference document; and, • Proceedings of: − Performance and Operations Conferences; − Human Factors Symposiums; and, − Operational Liaison Meetings. Aviation Regulations / Requirements : • ICAO – Annex 6 – Operation of Aircraft, Part I – International Commercial Air Transport – Aeroplanes; • ICAO – Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS-OPS, Doc 8168); • European Joint Aviation Requirement – JAR-OPS 1 – Commercial Air Transport (Aeroplanes); • U.S. FAR – Part 91 – Air Traffic and General Operating Rules; • U.S. FAR – Part 121 – Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental Operations; and, • U.S. FAA – Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) – Basic Flight Information and ATC Procedures. Airlines’ Aircraft Operating Manuals : • Several airlines’ aircraft operating manuals (AOM) have been used to document operators’ best practices for non-type-related operational matters. Page 5 of 6
  • How to Use Briefing Notes Flight Operations Briefing Notes Introducing the Briefing Notes Concept Government Agency Websites : • NASA ASRS ( http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/ and http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/ ); • U.S. FAA ( http://www.faa.gov/ ); • U.S. NTSB ( http://www.ntsb.gov/aviation/ ); • French BEA ( http://www.bea-fr.org/ ); • U.K. AAIB ( http://www.aaib.dft.gov.uk/ ); • Transport Canada (http://www.tc.gc.ca/) and, • Australian BASI ( http://www.atsb.gov.au/aviation/aviation/ ) In addition, Airlines’ Flight Safety Magazines, Incident and Accident Analysis Reports, Feature Articles from various aviation publications have been used as data sources. VII Acknowledgement Airbus is grateful to various airlines and industry professionals who have kindly contributed to this effort by reviewing the Flight Operations Briefing Notes in their respective fields of expertise. VIII How to Print Flight Operations Briefing Notes The Flight Operations Briefing Notes have been designed in a custom-size format to allow printing on either A4 or Letter paper format. As required, select the print option “Fit to page” in the “Print” window to optimize printing quality. This FOBN is part of a set of Flight Operations Briefing Notes that provide an overview of the applicable standards, flying techniques and best practices, operational and human factors, suggested company prevention strategies and personal lines-of-defense related to major threats and hazards to flight operations safety. This FOBN is intended to enhance the reader's flight safety awareness but it shall not supersede the applicable regulations and the Airbus or airline's operational documentation; should any deviation appear between this FOBN and the Airbus or airline’s AFM / (M)MEL / FCOM / QRH / FCTM / CCOM, the latter shall prevail at all times. In the interest of aviation safety, this FOBN may be reproduced in whole or in part - in all media - or translated; any use of this FOBN shall not modify its contents or alter an excerpt from its original context. Any commercial use is strictly excluded. All uses shall credit Airbus. Airbus shall have no liability or responsibility for the use of this FOBN, the correctness of the duplication, adaptation or translation and for the updating and revision of any duplicated version. Airbus Customer Services Flight Operations Support and Services 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte - 31707 BLAGNAC CEDEX FRANCE FOBN Reference : FLT_OPS – FOBN – SEQ 02 - REV 06 – MAY. 2006 Page 6 of 6