PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL NUTRITION
The Science of nutrition and its scope,
History and the role of the past scientist in the development of the science of nutrition,
Basic terms used in animal nutrition,
Composition of animal body and plants and its interaction,
Classification of nutrients,
Classification of carbohydrates, Functions of carbohydrates.
Classification of lipids. Functions of lipids.
Water, its importance and functions, Factors governing water requirements of livestock and
Classification of minerals and their general functions, Role of macro-minerals in animal
Impact of mineral deficiency and toxicity of minerals, Impact of mineral deficiency and
Classification of vitamins and their general functions, Importance of fat soluble vitamins,
Interrelationship of vitamins, minerals and their toxicity,
Feed additives and their use in livestock and poultry feeding,
Nutrition in relation to body maintenance and growth.,
Nutrition in relation to reproduction.
Nutrition in relation to animal production,
Digestion mechanism of lipids in mono-gastric and ruminant animals,
Digestion mechanism of carbohydrates in ruminants,
Digestion mechanism of proteins in ruminants,
Metabolism of carbohydrates,
Metabolism of proteins, Metabolism of lipids.
Identification of feedstuffs,
Identification of forages,
Physical characteristics of cereals and cereals byproducts,
Physical characteristics of forages,
Physical characteristics of agro-industrial byproducts and wastes for protein and
Feed samples collection techniques,
Forage samples collection techniques,
Feed samples preparation for analysis,
Introduction to feed analysis equipments,
Grinding and weighing of samples,
Analysis of dry matter and ash,
Analysis of crude protein,
Analysis of crude fat,
Analysis of crude fiber,
Introduction to mineral analysis
Perry, T.W., A.E. Cullison and R.S. Lowrey. 1999. Feeds and Feeding. 5th Ed. Prentice Hall,
New Jersey, USA.
2. Lander, P.E. 2001. The Feeding of Farm Animals in India.Biotech Books, New Delhi, India.
3. Ensminger M.E., J.E. Oldfield and W.W. Heinemann. 1990. Feeds and Nutrition Digest (2nd
Ed). The Ensminger Publishing Co., Clovis, California, USA.
ANIMAL FEED RESOURCES & FORAGE CONVERSATION
Classification of animal feed stuffs,
Nutritive value of different feedstuffs,
Feed resources of Pakistan for poultry,
Availability trends of feedstuffs,
Feeding practices in livestock farming
Scope for improving fodder production
Forage crops conservation
Advantages and disadvantages of hay making
Techniques of hay making,
Hay feeding practices,
Choice of forage crops for silage
Agro industrial by products and their availability and biological
Supplementation strategies for stall fed and grazing animals
Feed additives, their classification, mode of action and uses in
ruminants and poultry.
Identification of fodder and forage species,
Morphological characteristics of forage species,
Hay quality evaluation,
Silage preparation demonstration
Laboratory analysis of silage samples for quality,
Laboratory analysis of silage samples for dry matter,
Laboratory analysis of silage samples for Ph,
Laboratory analysis of silage samples for ammonia N,
Urea treatment of cereal straw,
Alkali/ammonia treatment of cereal straw,
Preparation of multi nutrition feed blocks
1. Sarwar, M. and C.S. Ali. 2000. The rumen; Digestive Physiology and Feeding
Management. The friend science publisher.39-B; Peoples Colony No. 1, Faisalabad.
2. Perry, T.W., A.E. Cullision and R.S. Lowery. 1999. Feeds and Feeding. 5th
Edition.Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA.
3. Renard, C. 1997. Crop Residues in sustainable Mixed Crop/Livestock Farming systems.
CAB International UK.
4. Dennis, J.W. 1990. Forage in Ruminant Nutrition. Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace
Jovanovich Publishers, USA.
5. Ensminger, M.E., J.E. Old Field and W.W. Heinemann. 1990. Latest Edition, Feeds and
Nutrition Digest. The Ensminger Publisher Co. Clovis, California, USA.
6. Preston, T.R. and R.A. Leng. 1987. Matching Ruminants Production
7. systems with Available Feed Resource in the Tropics and Subtropics. Penambul
Books, Armidale, Australia.