Nutrients for livestock
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Nutrients for livestock

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Nutrients for livestock Nutrients for livestock Document Transcript

  • Six Classes of Nutrients 1. Water The Most Critical Nutrient! o Functions in transport, chemical reactions, temperature maintenance, lubrication, etc. Water deprivation ---> dehydration ---> electrolyte imbalance ---> death Requirements vary from one species to another. For example, the desert rat requires very little, while the dairy cow may require 25-29 gallons/day. Management problems leading to lack of water o bad taste (high sulfur content) o don’t know how to use or cannot find waterer o stray voltage at water source 2. Carbohydrates (CHO) Functions o o o energy source building block for other nutrients dietary excess stored as fat Two main components of carbohydrates o Crude fiber (cellulose mainly) o Nitrogen-free extract (soluable sugars, starches) Differences between monogastric, hindgut fermenter and ruminant o Ruminants and hindgut fermenters have microorganisms in the rumen or hindgut that can break down crude fiber (cellulose) into useable products; monogastrics cannot utilize most crude fiber. o All livestock are capable of breaking down the soluable sugars and starches. Management Problems o poor quality feedstuffs o improper ration balancing 3. Fats (lipids) Functions Energy (stored at higher conc./g than CHO) Source of heat, insulation, body protection (cushioning) Essential fatty acids (immune function, CLA-anticancer link?) Sources o Oils (soybean oil, corn oil, fish oil) o By product fats (lard or tallow from livestock rendering)  provides cheap energy source  reduces dust in feed manufacturing and animal feeding  increases feed palatability
  • 4. Proteins Most expensive ingredient in ration, need decreases as animal matures Source of Essential Amino Acids (number, type and level of amino acids required varies with animal species) o Functions -- basic structural unit, needed in metabolism, hormone, antibody and DNA production When fed in exess, converted to energy, fat Monogastric vs. ruminant o True protein is composed of amino acids o Crude protein contains both true protein and other nitrogenous products (nonprotein nitrogen) o Non-protein nitrogen can be converted by rumen bacteria to true protein (cheaper source of protein for the ruminant animal) 5. Minerals Two classes o Major minerals -- Ca, P, Na, Cl, Mg, K, S o Minor (Trace minerals) -- Co, Cu, F, I, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn  The need for supplementation of minor minerals such as Se and F varies with the region Functions -- skeleton, protein synthesis, oxygen transport, fluid and acid-base balance in body, enzyme reactions Mineral/mineral and vitamin/mineral interactions o Ca - Vitamin D o P - Vitamin D o Co - Vitamin B12 o Se - Vitamin E Both deficiencies and excesses can lead to disease 6. Vitamins Two classes o o Water soluble -- B & C Fat soluble -- A, D, E, K Functions -- most vitamins have multiple functions in body involving metabolism, enzyme reactions, etc. Requirements increase with age Both deficiencies and excesses lead to disease [home] [previous] [lec notes] [next]