Veterinary Parasitology

Dr. Asif
1
Objective 1

Describe the various symbiotic
relationships between two species
of organisms

2
Parasitology Goals
• Learn the Life Cycles & Biology of parasites
• Learn parasite treatment and prevention fundamentals
(...
Definitions

• Parasitology – study of parasites & parasitism
• Symbiosis – any association between at least 2
different l...
Types of Relationships
Relationship

Host

Symbiont

Mutualism

+
0
-

+
+
+

Commensalism
Parasitism
Predation

(Death)

...
The Parasite
Location on the Host
Amount of Time on the Host
Types of Parasites

6
Location on the Host
Ectoparasite (Infestation)
Endoparasite (Infection)

7
Location on the Host
• Ectoparasite
– On outside surface of body of host
– Examples – fleas, mosquitoes, horse flies

• En...
Amount of Time on Host
Temporary
Stationary
Permanent

9
Temporary
• Visits host for food
• Examples
– Ticks
– Mosquitoes

10
Stationary
• Spends definite period of time in or on
host
• Most parasites
• Periodic – leaves host to complete
developmen...
Cuterebra

12
Permanent
• Spends entire life on host, except when
transferring to another host
• Examples
– Ear mites
– Lice

13
Types of Parasites
Incidental (Accidental) Parasite
Erratic (Aberrant) Parasite
Obligate Parasite
Facultative Parasite
Pse...
Incidental Parasite
• Accidental parasite
• Appears in unusual hosts
• Examples –
– Heartworms in man
– Crab louse in dogs...
Erratic Parasite
• Aberrant parasite
• Seen in unusual locations in hosts
• Examples –
– Heartworm in eye
– Cuterebra in b...
Obligate Parasite
• Must lead parasitic existence
• No free-living stages
• Examples
– Lice
– Ear mites
– Some mites

17
Facultative Parasite
• Free-living organism that can become
parasitic in certain hosts
• Examples
• Chigger mite larvae (m...
Pseudoparasite
• Organisms that appear to be parasites,
but are not
• Examples – grain mites in fecals, pollen
grains, pol...
The Host
Intermediate
Paratenic
Definitive (Final)
Incidental (Accidental)

20
Intermediate Host
• Immature (non-sexual) parasite
undergoes development in this host
• Example – heartworm larva in mosqu...
Paratenic Host
• Intermediate host that serves as a
“transport” host for parasitic larva
• Final host must eat this host f...
Definitive Host
•
•
•
•

Final host
Harbors adult (sexually mature) parasite
Often a carnivore (dogs & cats)
Intermediate ...
Incidental Host
• Accidental host
• Wrong host species for this parasite
• If man – parasite is a zoonosis
– Raccoon round...
Objective 2
Discuss types of parasitic life
cycles

25
Life Cycles
Direct
Indirect

26
Life Cycles Overview
• Definition
– The entire sequence of stages in the life of a
parasite, from adults of one generation...
Direct Life Cycles
• Parasite transfers from one host to
another host of same species
– Dog to dog to dog, etc.

• No inte...
Direct Life Cycle – Fleas

29
Direct Life
Cycle –
Whipworms

30
Indirect Life Cycles
(Figure 1-10, page 7)

• Parasite requires at least 1 intermediate
host to complete its life cycle
• ...
Indirect Life Cycles
• Always have intermediate hosts

32
Indirect Life
Cycle –
Tapeworms

33
Indirect Life Cycle – Heartworms

34
Parasites with Both Life Cycles
• Some parasites have both a direct as well
as indirect life cycle
• Examples – roundworms...
Both
Direct and
Indirect Life
Cycles

36
Both Direct and
Indirect Life Cycles – Hookworms

37
Parasite Transmission
Passive
Active
Inoculative

38
Passive vs. Active Transmission
• Definition – how parasites transfer from
one host to another
• Passive transmission
– Pa...
Inoculative Transmission
• Intermediate host “injects” parasite into
definitive host
– Called “vector”
– Often takes blood...
Inoculative Transmission
• Blood-suckers!

41
Harmful Effects of Parasites

42
Harmful Effects of Parasites
• Blood loss
– Hookworms, fleas

• Hypersensitivity (allergy)
– Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD)...
Harmful Effects of Parasites
• Secondary invasion of pathogens
– Bacterial infections after primary disease has
begun
• Ex...
Disease Vectors
• Mosquitoes
– Heartworms
– West Nile Virus
– Equine encephalitis
– Equine infectious anemia (EIA)

• Tick...
Objective 3
Describe the Linnaean
Classification Scheme used to
name and categorize organisms

46
Taxonomy
Scientific Classification of Parasites

47
Definitions
• Taxonomy – Branch of biology dealing
with identifying, naming, and classifying
species
• Taxon – One of the ...
Classification of Parasites
• Kingdom
–Phylum
• Class
–Order
»Family
Genus
Species
49
Worms!

50
Insects, Ticks, and Mites, Oh My!

51
Protozoa

52
Classification of Parasites
• Kingdom Protista – single-celled
organisms
• Kingdom Animalia
• Phylum
– Platyhelminthes – f...
The Kingdoms
• Protista – Single-celled organisms
– Amoeba
– Coccidia
– Giardia
– Toxoplasma

• Animalia – Multi-cellular ...
3 Phyla of Kingdom Animalia
• These 3 phyla have the parasites we will
cover this semester
• Phylum Platyhelminthes – flat...
Platyhelminthes – Flat Worms
• Characteristics
– Flat
– All hermaphrodites – need only
1 worm to continue life cycle

• Fr...
Archelminthes – Nematodes
• Characteristics
– Round (“roundworms”)
– Separate male & female worms – Need at
least 1 of eac...
Arthropods
• Characteristics
– Jointed appendages
– Exoskeleton (made of chitin)

• 3 classes in this phylum
– Class crust...
Class Arachnida
• Most free-living, some parasites
• Most live on land
• Characteristics
– No wings
– Most adults have 8 l...
Arachnids
•
•
•
•

Spiders – free-living
Scorpions – free-living
Ticks – parasites
Mites – free-living & parasites

60
Scientific Names of Organisms
• Composed of 2 Latin names
– 1st name – Genus
– 2nd name – species

• Genus species
– Genus...
Parasites of the Digestive Tract
Ascarids
(Roundworms)

Host Species

Toxocara canis

Dog only

Toxocara cati

Cat only

T...
Parasites of the Digestive Tract
Hookworms

Host Species

Ancylostoma spp.

Dog, cat

Uncinaria stenocephala

Dog, cat

St...
Parasites of the Digestive Tract
Whipworms

Host Species

Trichuris vulpis

Dog only

Trichuris suis

Pig

64
Parasites of the Digestive Tract
Tapeworms

Host Species

Dipylidium caninum

Dog, cat

Taenia spp.

Dog, cat

Echinococcu...
Parasites of the Digestive Tract
Protozoa

Host Species

Isospora spp.

Dog, cat

Eimeria spp.

Dog, cat

Giardia spp.

Al...
External Parasites – Class Insecta
• Fleas
– Ctenocephalides canis
– Ctenocephalides felis

• Lice
• Flies
– Mosquitoes
– ...
External Parasites – Class Arachnida
• Ticks
– Rhipacephalus sanguineus
– Amblyomma americana
– Ixodes spp. – Lyme disease...
External Parasites – Class Arachnida

Mites
Otodectes cynotis

Ear mite

Demodex spp.

Demodectic mange mite

Sarcoptes sc...
Parasites of Other Organ Systems
Dioctophyma renale

Giant kidney worm

Capillaria plica

Bladder worm

Capillaria aerophi...
Objective 4

Identify laboratory procedures
used to diagnose parasites

71
Your Domain as a Clinical
Laboratory Technician

72
Common Laboratory Tests
Fecal Exams
Blood Testing
Skin Tests
73
Parasite Control Fundamentals
at CAPC website
•
•
•
•

Annual/semi-annual fecal exams
Fresh daily stool pickup
Sanitation ...
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Transcript of "Introduction to veterinary parasitology asif"

  1. 1. Veterinary Parasitology Dr. Asif 1
  2. 2. Objective 1 Describe the various symbiotic relationships between two species of organisms 2
  3. 3. Parasitology Goals • Learn the Life Cycles & Biology of parasites • Learn parasite treatment and prevention fundamentals ( Not Drugs) • Learn Client Education fundamentals – What the client needs to know about cycles, biology, treatment & prevention of the common animal parasites 3
  4. 4. Definitions • Parasitology – study of parasites & parasitism • Symbiosis – any association between at least 2 different living organisms of different species – Host – usually larger of 2 species, harbors symbiont – Symbiont – smaller of 2 species, obtains food and habitat from host 4
  5. 5. Types of Relationships Relationship Host Symbiont Mutualism + 0 - + + + Commensalism Parasitism Predation (Death) + 5
  6. 6. The Parasite Location on the Host Amount of Time on the Host Types of Parasites 6
  7. 7. Location on the Host Ectoparasite (Infestation) Endoparasite (Infection) 7
  8. 8. Location on the Host • Ectoparasite – On outside surface of body of host – Examples – fleas, mosquitoes, horse flies • Endoparasite – Live in body of host – Examples – roundworms, whipworms, heartworms 8
  9. 9. Amount of Time on Host Temporary Stationary Permanent 9
  10. 10. Temporary • Visits host for food • Examples – Ticks – Mosquitoes 10
  11. 11. Stationary • Spends definite period of time in or on host • Most parasites • Periodic – leaves host to complete development (example – Cuterebra) 11
  12. 12. Cuterebra 12
  13. 13. Permanent • Spends entire life on host, except when transferring to another host • Examples – Ear mites – Lice 13
  14. 14. Types of Parasites Incidental (Accidental) Parasite Erratic (Aberrant) Parasite Obligate Parasite Facultative Parasite Pseudoparasite 14
  15. 15. Incidental Parasite • Accidental parasite • Appears in unusual hosts • Examples – – Heartworms in man – Crab louse in dogs 15
  16. 16. Erratic Parasite • Aberrant parasite • Seen in unusual locations in hosts • Examples – – Heartworm in eye – Cuterebra in brain 16
  17. 17. Obligate Parasite • Must lead parasitic existence • No free-living stages • Examples – Lice – Ear mites – Some mites 17
  18. 18. Facultative Parasite • Free-living organism that can become parasitic in certain hosts • Examples • Chigger mite larvae (microscopic) • Ringworm in cats, calves 18
  19. 19. Pseudoparasite • Organisms that appear to be parasites, but are not • Examples – grain mites in fecals, pollen grains, pollen grain and air bubbles 19
  20. 20. The Host Intermediate Paratenic Definitive (Final) Incidental (Accidental) 20
  21. 21. Intermediate Host • Immature (non-sexual) parasite undergoes development in this host • Example – heartworm larva in mosquito • Control of this part of life cycle CRUCIAL to preventing parasite! 21
  22. 22. Paratenic Host • Intermediate host that serves as a “transport” host for parasitic larva • Final host must eat this host for adult parasite to develop • Examples – fleas or mice for certain tapeworms 22
  23. 23. Definitive Host • • • • Final host Harbors adult (sexually mature) parasite Often a carnivore (dogs & cats) Intermediate host carried parasite to this host 23
  24. 24. Incidental Host • Accidental host • Wrong host species for this parasite • If man – parasite is a zoonosis – Raccoon roundworms – Heartworms in cats. 24
  25. 25. Objective 2 Discuss types of parasitic life cycles 25
  26. 26. Life Cycles Direct Indirect 26
  27. 27. Life Cycles Overview • Definition – The entire sequence of stages in the life of a parasite, from adults of one generation to adults of the next • Parasite may be “Species Specific” – Affect only 1 species of host – Lice – species specific; fleas – not • 2 types – Direct life cycles – Indirect life cycles 27
  28. 28. Direct Life Cycles • Parasite transfers from one host to another host of same species – Dog to dog to dog, etc. • No intermediate hosts • Examples – fleas, whipworms 28
  29. 29. Direct Life Cycle – Fleas 29
  30. 30. Direct Life Cycle – Whipworms 30
  31. 31. Indirect Life Cycles (Figure 1-10, page 7) • Parasite requires at least 1 intermediate host to complete its life cycle • Intermediate host harbors immature parasite • Definitive host harbors adult parasite • Examples – heartworms, all tapeworms, flukes • Client Education – Best way to stop life cycle is to eliminate intermediate host 31
  32. 32. Indirect Life Cycles • Always have intermediate hosts 32
  33. 33. Indirect Life Cycle – Tapeworms 33
  34. 34. Indirect Life Cycle – Heartworms 34
  35. 35. Parasites with Both Life Cycles • Some parasites have both a direct as well as indirect life cycle • Examples – roundworms, hookworms 35
  36. 36. Both Direct and Indirect Life Cycles 36
  37. 37. Both Direct and Indirect Life Cycles – Hookworms 37
  38. 38. Parasite Transmission Passive Active Inoculative 38
  39. 39. Passive vs. Active Transmission • Definition – how parasites transfer from one host to another • Passive transmission – Parasite does not travel to host – Usually ingested – Example – ascarids (roundworms) • Active transmission – Parasite travels to host and/or aggressively penetrates host – Examples – fleas, hookworm larvae 39
  40. 40. Inoculative Transmission • Intermediate host “injects” parasite into definitive host – Called “vector” – Often takes blood from definitive host – Often has “sucking mouthparts” – Examples – mosquitoes, ticks, fleas? 40
  41. 41. Inoculative Transmission • Blood-suckers! 41
  42. 42. Harmful Effects of Parasites 42
  43. 43. Harmful Effects of Parasites • Blood loss – Hookworms, fleas • Hypersensitivity (allergy) – Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) • 15% of dogs & cats – Heartworms? Eosinophilia as high as 20% • Toxicity – Maggots 43
  44. 44. Harmful Effects of Parasites • Secondary invasion of pathogens – Bacterial infections after primary disease has begun • Example – generalized demodectic mange • Disease transmission – Parasite vectors – carry disease to host • Worry – Horse flies in the barn 44
  45. 45. Disease Vectors • Mosquitoes – Heartworms – West Nile Virus – Equine encephalitis – Equine infectious anemia (EIA) • Ticks – Lyme disease – Rocky mountain spotted fever • Fleas – Feline infectious anemia? 45
  46. 46. Objective 3 Describe the Linnaean Classification Scheme used to name and categorize organisms 46
  47. 47. Taxonomy Scientific Classification of Parasites 47
  48. 48. Definitions • Taxonomy – Branch of biology dealing with identifying, naming, and classifying species • Taxon – One of the groups that organisms are classified into • Species – Group of similar organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring 48
  49. 49. Classification of Parasites • Kingdom –Phylum • Class –Order »Family Genus Species 49
  50. 50. Worms! 50
  51. 51. Insects, Ticks, and Mites, Oh My! 51
  52. 52. Protozoa 52
  53. 53. Classification of Parasites • Kingdom Protista – single-celled organisms • Kingdom Animalia • Phylum – Platyhelminthes – flatworms – tapeworms – Archelminthes – nematodes – Arthropoda – animals with exoskeleton • Class Crustacea – no parasites here! • Class Insecta – fleas, flies, lice 53
  54. 54. The Kingdoms • Protista – Single-celled organisms – Amoeba – Coccidia – Giardia – Toxoplasma • Animalia – Multi-cellular animals – Most parasites we will cover are here – Most animals are free-living, not parasitic 54
  55. 55. 3 Phyla of Kingdom Animalia • These 3 phyla have the parasites we will cover this semester • Phylum Platyhelminthes – flatworms • Phylum Archelminthes – roundworms (nematodes) • Phylum Arthropoda – arthropods • Helminth = “worm” • Anthelmintic – wormer 55
  56. 56. Platyhelminthes – Flat Worms • Characteristics – Flat – All hermaphrodites – need only 1 worm to continue life cycle • Free-living – Planaria • Parasites – – Cestodes – all tapeworms – Trematodes – flukes 56
  57. 57. Archelminthes – Nematodes • Characteristics – Round (“roundworms”) – Separate male & female worms – Need at least 1 of each sex to continue life cycle • Examples – Dog & cat ascarids (roundworms) – Hookworms (strongyles in horses) – Whipworms – Heartworms 57
  58. 58. Arthropods • Characteristics – Jointed appendages – Exoskeleton (made of chitin) • 3 classes in this phylum – Class crustacea – crustaceans – no parasites! – Class arachnida – arachnids – Class insecta – insects 58
  59. 59. Class Arachnida • Most free-living, some parasites • Most live on land • Characteristics – No wings – Most adults have 8 legs • Examples – Spiders!  (Arachnophobia anyone?) – Scorpions – Ticks – Mites 59
  60. 60. Arachnids • • • • Spiders – free-living Scorpions – free-living Ticks – parasites Mites – free-living & parasites 60
  61. 61. Scientific Names of Organisms • Composed of 2 Latin names – 1st name – Genus – 2nd name – species • Genus species – Genus name italicized, capitalized – species name italicized, NOT capitalized • If italics are not used, each name must be underlined separately 61
  62. 62. Parasites of the Digestive Tract Ascarids (Roundworms) Host Species Toxocara canis Dog only Toxocara cati Cat only Toxascaris leonina Dog, cat Parascaris equorum Horse 62
  63. 63. Parasites of the Digestive Tract Hookworms Host Species Ancylostoma spp. Dog, cat Uncinaria stenocephala Dog, cat Strongylus vulgaris Horse Strongylus spp. Horse 63
  64. 64. Parasites of the Digestive Tract Whipworms Host Species Trichuris vulpis Dog only Trichuris suis Pig 64
  65. 65. Parasites of the Digestive Tract Tapeworms Host Species Dipylidium caninum Dog, cat Taenia spp. Dog, cat Echinococcus granulosus Dog only Diphyllobothrium latum Dog, cat 65
  66. 66. Parasites of the Digestive Tract Protozoa Host Species Isospora spp. Dog, cat Eimeria spp. Dog, cat Giardia spp. All animals, man Toxoplasma gondii Cat Trichomonas spp. Dog, horse 66
  67. 67. External Parasites – Class Insecta • Fleas – Ctenocephalides canis – Ctenocephalides felis • Lice • Flies – Mosquitoes – Horse flies, deer flies, stable flies – Maggots – Cuterebra larvae – Screwworms 67
  68. 68. External Parasites – Class Arachnida • Ticks – Rhipacephalus sanguineus – Amblyomma americana – Ixodes spp. – Lyme disease tick – Dermacentor spp. • Spiders – NO SPIDERS ARE EVER PARASITES!!!  68
  69. 69. External Parasites – Class Arachnida Mites Otodectes cynotis Ear mite Demodex spp. Demodectic mange mite Sarcoptes scabiei Sarcoptic mange mite Cheyletiella spp. Walking dandruff mite Notoedres cati Cat mange mite Trombicula alfreddugesi Chigger mite 69
  70. 70. Parasites of Other Organ Systems Dioctophyma renale Giant kidney worm Capillaria plica Bladder worm Capillaria aerophila Lung worm Paragonamus kellikoti Lung fluke Spirocerca lupi Esophagus worm Physaloptera rara Stomach worm Linguatula serrata Nasal cavity 70
  71. 71. Objective 4 Identify laboratory procedures used to diagnose parasites 71
  72. 72. Your Domain as a Clinical Laboratory Technician 72
  73. 73. Common Laboratory Tests Fecal Exams Blood Testing Skin Tests 73
  74. 74. Parasite Control Fundamentals at CAPC website • • • • Annual/semi-annual fecal exams Fresh daily stool pickup Sanitation & good personal hygiene Annual heartworm checks/year-round prevention • Year-round flea/tick control if needed • Zoonosis concerns 74
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