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Brief description of dental pulp taken from Ten Cates and James Avery text books.

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  1. 1. Pulp
  2. 2. ObjectivesAt the end of this chapter the student should be ableto understand the process of formation of dental pulpand the cells that make up the pulp tissue.Sub topicsTopic 1. Development of dental pulpTopic 2. Cells of pulp tissueTopic 3. Vessels and nerves of pulp
  3. 3. 1 Development of dental pulpDental pulp is soft connective tissue that is derived fromthe ectomesenchymal cells of the dental papillaPulp resides in the inner most part of the tooth andsupports the dentineDuring dentinogenesis the dental papilla gets surroundedby the newly formed dentine and it is then termed dentalpulpPulp provides with odontogenic, nutritive, sensory, anddefensive functionsThe dental pulp and dentine are closely related to formthe dentin-pulp complex
  4. 4. 2 Cells of pulp tissueThe principle cells of pulp are the odontoblasts,fibroblasts and undifferentiated mesenchymal cellsWhen pulp is examined microscopically four distinctzones can be distinguished.1.Odontoblastic zone2.Cell free zone of Weil3.Cell rich zone4.Pulp core
  5. 5. Odontoblastic zoneOdontoblasts are pulp cells that are found in theperipheral layer closely related to the predentineThe cells have a basally located nucleus withsupraneuclear rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgiapparatus. Mitochondria and lysosomes are foundthroughout the cytoplasmThe major function of odontoblast is to produce andsecrete extracellular matrix of the predentine and bio-mineralization of the dentineThey continue to produce predentine throughout life butthe rate of depositions reduces as age advances
  6. 6.  The major protein secreted by odontoblast is Type I Collagen Odontoblasts have a process extending from the cell body up till the DEJ contained in a dentinal tubule, called the odontoblastic process There are multiple lateral odontoblastic processes originating from the main processCell free zone of Weil This zone lies below the odontoblast and is prominent in the coronal pulp As the name suggests this area of pulp is nearly devoid of any cells
  7. 7. Cell rich zoneThis zone is beneath the cell free zone and the celldensity is highPulp coreThis area of pulp is characterized by the presence ofmajor nerves and vessels of the pulp
  8. 8. Fibroblasts Fibroblasts are the most numerous cells found in the pulp They are stellate shaped cells with long cytoplasmic extensions that contact adjacent fibroblasts or odontoblasts Fibroblasts synthesise and secrete collagen and other extracellular components of pulp. They also play an important role in wound healing mechanism in pulpUndifferentiated mesenchymal cells These cells represent the pool from which the cells of pulp arise Depending on the stimulus they give rise to odontoblasts and fibroblasts
  9. 9.  Other cells of pulp include macrophages, lymphocytes, perivascular cells, Schwan cells and endothelial cells
  10. 10. 3 Vessels and nerves of pulpVesselsBlood vessels enter the pulp through the apical foramenThe provide nutrients and oxygen needed for cellularmetabolism and remove the by-products of cellularmetabolismLymphatic vessels are also located in the pulpNervesThe nerves that innervate pulp originate from thetrigeminal ganglion and superior cervical ganglionThey enter the pulp through the apical foramen