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Mandibular Premolars

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A brief anatomy of Mandibular Premolars

A brief anatomy of Mandibular Premolars

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha
  • 3.
    • Buccal aspect
    • From the buccal aspect a large well formed, pointed buccal cusp is seen
    • The mesial outline is similar to the distal outline
    • The mesiobuccal cusp ridge is shorter than the distobuccal cusp ridge (similar to canines)
    • The mesial and distal slope of the buccal cusp sometimes show concavity
    Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha
  • 4. Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha Buccal aspect
  • 5.
    • Lingual aspect
    • The crown tapers and inclines lingually
    • The lingual cusp is small, pointed and nonfunctional and in some specimens it is no longer than the cingulum of maxillary canine
    • Between the mesiobuccal and lingual lobe is the mesiolingual developmental groove
    Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha
  • 6. Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha Lingual aspect
  • 7.
    • Mesial aspect
    • The lingual inclination of the crown can be seen from this aspect
    • The lingual cusp is approximately two thirds the size of the buccal cusp
    • The mesial marginal ridge has extreme lingual slope
    • Mesiolingual developmental groove is present between the mesial marginal ridge and the mesiolingual cusp ridge
    • The mesial and distal contact areas are in the middle third, the distal contact area being more wider.
    Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha
  • 8. Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha Mesial aspect
  • 9.
    • Distal aspect
    • . Distal marginal ridge is higher and does not have the extreme lingual slope
    • The cervical line curvature is less curved
    Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha Distal aspect
  • 10.
    • Occlusal aspect
    • The crown converges sharply to the centre of the lingual surface
    • The occlusal surface has two depressions; mesial and distal fossae
    • Most common form of mandibular 1st premolar shows a mesiolingual depression and mesiolingual developmental groove
    Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha
  • 11. Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha Occlusal aspect
  • 12.
    • Root
    • The mandibular 1st premolar has one root
    • The root is approximately (3-4mm)shorter than the root of mandibular canine but the outline bears a close resemblance to the canine
    • A deep developmental groove is seen on the mesial aspect on the root
    • On the distal aspect there is a shallow depression devoid of any developmental groove.
    Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha
  • 13. Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha 1.0 0 6.5 7.5 5.0 7.0 14.0 8.5 Curvature of Cervical Line M D Labiolingual Diameter at Cervical Line Labiolingual Diameter at Crest of Curvature Mesiodistal Diameter at Cervical Line Mesiodistal Diameter at Contact Area Root Length Crown Length Average Dimensions in millimeters
  • 14. Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha
    • Mandibular Second Premolar
    • Mandibular 2nd premolar resembles the mandibular 1st premolar from the buccal aspect only
    • The crown assumes two common types. The first and more common type is the 3-cusp type and the second is the 2-cusp type
    • The two differ mainly in the occlusal design
  • 15.
    • Buccal aspect
    • The buccal cusp is shorter with the cusp slopes presenting less degree of angulations
    • Lingual aspect
    • There may be one or two lingual cusps – mesiolingual and distolingual cusps
    • The cusp(s) are more developed than the lingual cusp of lower first premolar
    • A groove separates the two lingual cusps
    Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha
  • 16. Dr.Syed Sadatullah Ibnsina National Medical College
    • Mesial and Distal aspects
    • The crown and root are wider buccolingually
    • Unlike mandibular 1st premolar the marginal ridge is at right angle to the long axis of the tooth
    • More of occlusal surface is visible form the distal aspect because the distal marginal ridge is at lower level than the mesial marginal ridge
    • The contact areas both mesial and distal are broad and appear higher because of the short buccal cusp
  • 17.
    • Occlusal aspect
    • From the occlusal aspect the 3-cusp type appears square and the 2-cusp type appears rounded.
    • 3-cusp type:
    • - each cusp is separated by deep developmental grooves forming a “Y” shape in the centre
    • - the occlusal surface also includes
    • a. central pit
    • b. mesial developmental groove
    • c. mesial triangular fossa
    • d. distal developmental groove
    • e. distal triangular fossa
    • f. lingual developmental groove
    • g. supplemental grooves
    Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha
  • 18. Dr.Syed Sadatullah Ibnsina National Medical College
    • 2-cusp type:
    • - one buccal cusp and one well developed lingual cusp is present
    • - a central groove travels in a mesiodistal direction
    • and end in mesial and distal fossa (forming ‘H’ shape)
    • Root
    • Mandibular 2 nd premolar has a single root which is larger and longer than the root of mandibular 1 st premolar
    • The root is usually wide with a blunt apex
  • 19. Dr.Syed Sadatullah King Khalid University Abha Buccal aspect Lingual aspect Mesial aspect Distal aspect Occlusal aspect Mandibular Second Premolar