Political Structure of USA,INDIA and PAKISTAN

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Political Structure of USA,INDIA and PAKISTAN

  1. 1. TOPIC: POLITICS BY: SYED HAIDER ALI SHAH
  2. 2. CONTENTS • • • • Introduction to politics Politics of US Politics of India Politics of Pakistan
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION POLITICS: “Power relations wherever they exist” Micro Politics: Power control in Everyday life of individual Macro Politics: Control of power at large level or nation wide control
  4. 4. POLITICS OF USA
  5. 5. POLITICS OF UNITED STATES Federal Government • Executive The President Elected every 4 years
  6. 6. Federal Government Legislative Congress Elections every 2 years The Senate 2 members per State. Elections every 2 years for 33% of Senators. A senator is elected for 6 years. House of Representatives Members elected according to the population of the State. Elections every 2 years for the whole house
  7. 7. Federal Government The Supreme Court 9 judges appointed by the President. Their job is to make sure that the President And Congress run the country according to the US Constitution.
  8. 8. STATE GOVERNMENT Each State has its own separate government There are 3 branches •State governor •State legislative •State court Responsibilities •Police •Education •Transport •Social Welfare •Health
  9. 9. POLITICAL PARTIES Republican Party • • • They believe in low taxation and little interference from the Federal Government. They encourage individuals to work hard and do not like welfare. A party for the rich and Middle Class.
  10. 10. REPUBLICAN PRESEIDENTS Dwight Eisenhower 1953-61 Richard Nixon 1969-74 Gerard Ford 1974-77
  11. 11. DEMOCRATIC PARTY • Believe it is the governments duty to distribute wealth evenly. • They introduce higher taxation and welfare benefits. • Their support comes from urban areas and minorities
  12. 12. DEMOCRAT PRESIDENT John F Kennedy 1961-63 Harry Truman1945-53 Jimmy Carter 1977-81 Lyndon B Johnson 1963-68
  13. 13. INDIAN POLITICS
  14. 14. REPUBLIC OF INDIA • A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government • CAPITAL: New Delhi • • Population: over one billion Growing at 1.5% a year
  15. 15. A FEDERAL SYSTEM • • • 28 states and 7 centrally administered Union Territories – 2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China Relatively centralized federal government controls the most essential government functions – defense – foreign policy – taxation – public expenditures – economic (industrial) planning
  16. 16. POLITICAL SYSTEM
  17. 17. STAGES OF ELECTION IN INDIA 1. Releasing election manifesto 2. counting of votes 3. Making of voters list 4. Election campaign 5. Declaration of election results 6. Casting of Votes 7. Ordering of re-poll 8. Announcing election schedule 9. Filing Nomination
  18. 18. THE LEGISLATURE • Parliamentary system of government – the executive authority is responsible to the Parliament
  19. 19. Rajya Sabha (Council of States) • • • Rajya Sabha (Council of States) not more than 250 members – 12 are nominated by the President of India – the rest are indirectly elected • by state Legislative Assemblies The Council of States can not be dissolved – members have terms of 6 years – 1/3 members retire at end of every 2nd year
  20. 20. Lok Sabha • • Lok Sabha (House of the People) 545 members – 2 are appointed by the President of India – the rest are directly elected from single-member districts • 5-year terms unless dissolved • Lok Sabha elects its presiding officer – the Speaker
  21. 21. POLITICS IN PAKISTAN
  22. 22. GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
  23. 23. Presidential Power • President acts on advice of Prime Minister • May adopt absolute power to dissolve National Assembly, according to the 8th Amendment of the constitution
  24. 24. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY The Pakistani National Assembly is the lower house of the Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Senate (upper house). The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly(MNAs)
  25. 25. ISLAM IN GOVERNMENT • Increased involvement of Islam in the Pakistani Government since 1984 Referendum • Enforcement of Sharia or Islamic Law since 1985 • Assessment by the Shariat/Islamic Court regarding federal laws
  26. 26. Military in Government • The Military long standing force in Pakistani politics • The President General Pervez Musharraf was never elected, came to power after a military take-over of government in 1999 • Resigned as Army Chief of Staff in November 2007
  27. 27. Negotiations & Actions in Pakistan’s Politics • • • • • Joined the international coalition against terrorism Initiated dialogue with India regarding Kashmir dispute Supported initiatives and contributed to reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan Deployed forces to counter extremism on the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan’s tribal areas Deepened relations with the US
  28. 28. CONCLUSION • Politics is to control things according to desire and constitution, we discuss politics in Macro level to understand how nations do politics to maintain positive relationship with each other and to work for there respective nation…

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