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Syed parasympatholytics Presentation Transcript

  • 1. PARASYMPATHOLYTICS
    BY
    SYED FAYYAZUDDIN
    11/8/2010
    1
  • 2. CONTENTS
    INTRODUCTION
    CLASSIFICATION
    PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS
    DRUGS
    USES
    11/8/2010
    2
  • 3. INRODUCTION
    Acetylcholine.
    11/8/2010
    3
  • 4. 11/8/2010
    4
  • 5. 11/8/2010
    5
  • 6. 11/8/2010
    6
  • 7. MECHANISM OF ACTION
    11/8/2010
    7
  • 8. Blocks action of Ach on autonomic effectors through muscarinic receptors.
    Competitive antagonists.
    Prototype Atropine.
    11/8/2010
    8
  • 9. Classification
    1. Natural alkaloids:
    Atropine
    Hyoscine
    2. Semisynthetic derivatives:
    Homatropine
    Hyoscine butyl bromide
    Atropine methonitrate.
    11/8/2010
    9
  • 10. 3. Synthetic compounds:
    Mydriatics:
    Tropicamide
    Antisecretory-antispasmodic:
    Dicyclomine.
    Propanthaline.
    Biperden.
    Antiparkinsonian:
    Tryhexyl phenidyl.
    11/8/2010
    10
  • 11.
    • GANGLIONIC BLOCKING AGENTS.
    • 12. COMPETATIVE BLOCKERS
    • 13. Hexamethonium
    • 14. Mecamylamine
    • 15. PERSISTANT DEPOLARISING BLOCKERS
    • 16. Nicotine
    • 17. Anticholinesterases
    11/8/2010
    11
  • 18. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS
    CNS
    Stimulates many medullary centres.
    Vagal, respiratory and vasomotor.
    Anti-motion sickness property.
    High dose cause
    Restlessness
    Disorientation
    Hallucinations
    Respiratory depression
    Coma.
    11/8/2010
    12
  • 19. CVS
    primarily in modifications of the heart rate:
    very low dose, it can give a slight cardiac slowing
    therapeutic dose there is generally cardiac acceleration
    It does not have vascular effects since there is no parasympathetic tonus on the vessels but it inhibits vasodilatation caused by an intravenous injection of acetylcholine.
    It does not induce modifications of arterial pressure in spite of increased cardiac rate.
    in very high or toxic dose, it induces a fall of the arterial pressure by depression of the vasomotor centers
    11/8/2010
    13
  • 20. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS
    EYS
    Mydriasis
    Cycloplegia
    Photophobia.
    SMOOTH MUSCLES
    Relaxation
    M3 Blokade
    Tone is reduced
    Constipation
    Bronchodilation (asthma)
    11/8/2010
    14
  • 21. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS
    GLANDS
    Sweat
    Bronchial secretions
    Lacrinal secretions.
    Acid, pepsin and mucus in stomach.
    BODY TEMPERATURE
    Inhibition of sweating
    Temperature regulatory centre in hypothalamus
    Atropine fever
    11/8/2010
    15
  • 22. Sensitivity
    11/8/2010
    16
  • 23. TROPICAMIDE
    Blocks the response of sphincter muscle of iris and ciliary muscles to cholinergic stimulation thus causing mydriasis.
    Stronger preparation also paralyzes accommodation.
    Acts within 15-30 m and duration is 3-8 h.
    typically used during eye examinations such as the dilated fundus examination, but it may also be used before or after eye surgery.
  • 24.
  • 25. ADVERSE REACTIONS:
    Blurred vision
    Photo phobia
    Increased intraocular pressure
    Dry mouth
    Tachycardia
    Headache
    Allergic reactions
    Nausea
    Vomiting
  • 26. DICYCLOMINE
    It is a smooth muscle relaxant.
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (also known as spastic colon).
    It relieves muscle spasms and cramping in the gastrointestinal tract by blocking the activity of acetylcholine on cholinergic (muscarinic) receptors on the surface of muscle cells.
  • 27. ADVERSE REACTIONS:
    Dry mouth
    Tachycardia
    Headache
    Allergic reactions
    Nausea
    Vomiting
    confusion
    agitation
  • 28. HEXAMETHONIUM
    Ganglionic blocker
    N receptor antagonist, acts in autonomic ganglia.
    Does not have any effect on muscarinic Ach receptors.
    Acts at receptors at neuromuscular junction responsible for skeletal muscle motor response.
  • 29. ADVERSE EFFECTS :
    Constipation
    Urinary retention
    Glaucoma
    Blurry vision
    Decreased lacrymal secretion
    Dry mouth (xerostomia)
  • 30. USES
    Antisecretory
    Preanaesthtic
    The main reasons for using anticholinergic drugs were drying of secretions and protection against vagal over activity.
    Blocks responses to vegal refluxes induced by sergical manipulations of visceral organs.
    Peptic ulcer
    Pulmonary embolism
    11/8/2010
    24
  • 31. Antispasmodic
    Spactic constipation
    Nervous and drug induced diarrhoea.
    Asthama, COPD
    Cardiac vagolytic
    Bradycardia
    Central actions
    Parkinsonism
    Motion sickness
    11/8/2010
    25
  • 32. References
    Tripathi KD. Anticholinergic drugs.In Essentials of medical Pharmacology. 5th ed. JP Brothers Medical publishers (P) Ltd: New Delhi; 2003. pp. 93-102.
    Katzung, Bertram.G, Basic and clinical pharmacology.10th ed. Mc Graw Hill. USA(NY); 2006. pp. 482-9.
    Goodman & Gilman’s, The Pharmacological Basis Of Therapeutics. 11th ed. Mc Graw Hill. USA(NY); 2006. pp. 121-9.
    11/8/2010
    26