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  • 1. PSYCHOLOGY REPORT ON“THE EFFECTS OF VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN” 1
  • 2. SUBMITTED TO:  MISS.RASHIDA MEHMOOD SUBMITTED BY:  UMER ZIA 52  MUHAMMAD WASIF 56  SYED MOHSIN 58  SIDRA MUMTAZ 68  MUNEEBA SATTAR 69 SUBMISSION DATE: 16 FEBRUARY 2010 SUBMISSION TIME: 11:20 A.M 2
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 5 DEDICATION 6 BRIEF HISTORY OF VIOLENCE 7 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 9 1. VIOLENCE 11 2. CHILDREN 13 3. OCCURRENCE OF VIOLENCE 15 4. EFFECTS OF VIOLENCE 16 5. HOW VIOLENCE IS BEING TAUGHT? CHAPTER TWO 17 SAMPLING AND DATA COLLECTION 1. SAMPLE 19 2. TYPES OF SAMPLING DATA COLLECTION 1. TYPES OF DATA COLLECTION 2. SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION 3. METHOD 20 QUESTIONNAIRE 21 CHAPTER THREE DATA PRESENTATION 23 MAIN FINDINGD 27 CONCLUSION TO REPORT 28 LITERATURE REVIEW 29 REFERENCES 31 3
  • 4. Our topic” The effects of violence on children” is a very vast subject that deals with almost allthe problems faced in our society nowadays. The most harmful impacts of violence in the homeare visited on the children, and they have no way of making sense of this. Their lives andsensibilities are destroyed by the very people who are entrusted to care for them, to harborthem from harm, and preserve their human dignity. Directly or indirectly, as some of the childrenwitnessing violence in the home will replicate their dysfunctional upbringing with their ownchildren. In a violent upbringing, many young children develop no sense of a womansexperience of self-esteem. They see their mother as a whipping post, and they feel herfrustration and defeat. We have a right to be angry when one culture impinges on the safety ofanother. But should we spend billions of dollars to improve beach and border patrols andintelligence, and to amass defensive weapons while our children continue to be victimized bythe worst type of terrorism on the planet. This report will help the readers to know the effects ofviolence on children. Different snap shots and facts and figures have been provided in ourreport for better understanding of the subject. We hope to provide the reader with soundknowledge about the effects of violence on children and how violence is generated so that thereaders are well aware about the effects of violence and to solve these problems someone fromour society will provide help to end violence. 4
  • 5. First we thank to ALLAH ALMIGHTY, Who strengthened us to prepare this project successfully. Whatever we have achieved in our life is by His Grace. We also thank HOLLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD (PBUH), who is the best source of guidance and inspiration of all mankind. We also like to present a lot of thanks to our honorable instructor Miss RashidaMehmood and her assistant Miss Shaheen Kouser who directed us in every ups and downsduring our project and proved to be a great help in completing our report.We would certainly like to thank the institutions like PU, LGS, FCU AND UET in which we havebeen doing survey for our report. We also like to thank all those people who cooperated and helped us in completing our report. At last but not the least we would like to thank our respected seniors and honorable classmates. 5
  • 6. Oh God! Open our Eyes, To see what is beautiful, Our mind to know what is true, Our heart to love what is good. This Report is ToHolly Prophet Muhammad [PBUH] The Greatest Social Reformer To My Beloved Parents who taught me The first word to speak The first alphabet to write And First step to take And My Respectable Teachers Who are always remain in my heartAnd are nearest, dearest and deepest to me. 6
  • 7. BRIEF HISTORY OF VIOLENCEThe subject of violence has never been taken up seriously; especially violence against childrenwent unnoticed for centuries in the western society. In Europe corresponding to the primus firstsixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as historians have suggested that the age of childconstituted no guarantee and also little protection against a variety of now what are commonlyknown as illegal or unacceptable actions which include: Castration Seduction Sodomy Forced sex Battering Physical beating Labor exploitation Child prostitution Abandonment Adult bullying and even InfanticidePrior to the sixteenth and seventeenth century, there was no evident perception on childhooddelicacy or childhood innocence. According to the historians the acceptance of child protectionand also the nourishment of the child were accidental by-products, rather than a main purpose,of family life and child fostering. There was not even a single person from the law that coulddefine the children as a special class and claim that adults were criminally ridicule when theyengaged life-threatening forms of punishment against the young. Children and adults wereeverywhere linked. Children did not attend the schools for a long period of time and as artistsand writers portrayed them, children were everywhere visible and underfoot in the full line ofsocial spaces where adult men and women worked, played, slept, bathed, prayed andconsorted. In short children did not have any or few protection spaces that could avoid physicalassault and injuries to their body, mind, or soul.There are many examples that can illustrate that violence existed from the beginning.Everybody knows when America dropped an atom bomb on Hiroshima that was a massdestruction billions of people including small children became victims of this brutality. Thenagain we witnessed world war which was another site of violence. Unfortunately we have been 7
  • 8. witnessing violence from the beginning of our lives. Following are the examples of violentactivities being made in the history: Caesars campaigns Boudicca’s uprising Albigensian Crusade Mongol Empire Timor’s conquests Aztec human sacrifice Reconquest of Ireland Revolt in the Vendee American Civil War World War Soviet Union. Vietnam WarOur topic is concerned with violence on children before going deep into the subject we shouldhave a little knowledge about the history of violence, so we have come across many. Violencehas been there since the beginning of the century. We will discuss violence on children and theeffects of violence in our report in detail. Let us discuss our subject in detail by givingintroduction. 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. INTRODUCTIONVIOLENCEViolence is the expression of physical or verbal force against self or other, compelling actionagainst ones will on pain of being hurt. Worldwide, violence is used as a tool of manipulationand also is an area of concern for law and culture which take attempts to suppress and stop it.The word violence covers a broad spectrum. It can vary from between a physical altercationbetween two beings where a slight injury may be the outcome to war and genocide wheremillions may die as a result.The United Nations Secretary-Generals Study on Violence against Children has been a globaleffort to paint a detailed picture of the nature, extent and causes of violence against children,and to propose clear recommendations for action to prevent and respond to it. This is the firsttime that an attempt has been made to document the reality of violence against children aroundthe world, and to map out what is being done to stop it. Since 2003, many thousands of peoplehave contributed to the study in consultations and working groups, through questionnaires andin other ways. Children and young people have been active at every level.Why this study?Every day, in every country, girls and boys suffer and witness violence. Violence againstchildren cuts across boundaries of culture, class, education, income and ethnic origin, andoccurs in many different settings. Some of it is allowed by national laws and may be rooted incultural, economic and social practices. This has devastating consequences for childrens healthand well-being. It is clear that children cannot be kept waiting for the prevention and protectionto which they have an unqualified right. The United Nations General Assembly asked the 10
  • 11. Secretary-General to conduct an in-depth study on violence against children and to makerecommendations to respond to it.Responding to violenceA lot has already been done to prevent and respond to certain forms of violence againstchildren. States have ratified international agreements to protect children and ensure their rightsand, on the basis of these, have amended laws and developed national plans of action. Fewstates, though, have thoroughly reviewed their legal framework to address violence againstchildren more effectively. Putting laws into practice also remains a challenge. Advocacy,awareness-raising and training have helped increase understanding of violence againstchildren. There have been important initiatives in areas such as eliminating the worst forms ofchild labor, addressing female genital mutilation/cutting and providing services to children on thestreets. Programs to support parents and develop their parenting skills play a vital role inprotecting children, and young people themselves are active in many ways in preventing andresponding to violence. Despite all this, much remains to be done.CHILDRENA child (plural: children) is a human between the stages of birth and puberty. The legal definitionof “child” generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age ofmajority.LEGAL DEFINITION 11
  • 12. The United Nations convention on the rights of the child defines a child as “a human beingbelow the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attainedearlier. Ratified by 192 of 194 member countries. Biologically, a child is anyone in thedevelopment stage of childhood, between infancy and adulthood.The words “children” and “violence” are pivotal to the undertaken write-up “the effect of violenceon children”.A child begins his life as an infant as passes through the different stages of development prior tobecome a grown-up individual. Therefore, first of all, children are recognized as proper subjectsof inquiry and concern. Locke (1794) proposed that the newly-born child was like a blank stateor tabula rasa upon which experience would write its story. Contact with adults and the outsideworld would establish the character and mental ability that would be the child’s gift or cursethroughout life. Locke believed that because childhood shaped later behavior and was theperiod during which lifelong habits are formed, it deserved a great deal of attention. If parentstook the time to guide their children into the path of reason, to teach them socially desirablehabits, to help them to control their appetites and impulses, they would surely see the fruit oftheir labor as their children grew into rational and responsible members of society.It was Rousseau (1762) who insisted that the needs of children change as they pass throughcertain developmental stages; hence, he introduced the concept of developmental stages.Child development is always at interaction with the environment in which he exists. Thisenvironment is comprised of parents, siblings, peers, friends, teachers and other adults of thesociety. Learning and shaping of behavior as an individual is the outcome of this interaction.This provides the spider web of various segments, which is phenomenons that make the child toachieve various milestones in the journey of his life.Physical growth accompanied by the social, mental, emotional, intellectual developments. Thecognitive development,(piaget;1970) takes place, which too, is subject to interaction and is interms of structure of mental operation. Psychologists apply principles of information processingwhen they ask, how the human brain adds and deletes knowledge, where and how it stores andprocesses information, how memory works, and under what conditions the brain receives clearor confused signals (Ziegler 1983). This is how personality takes its roots.After the formal operational stage (piaget 1970) adolescence starts. It paves the way to youth.Youth comprises that period in life, when the individual is in the process of transfer from thedependent irresponsible age of childhood. He is no longer a child, but neither he is an adult. It isa transitional period during which he seeks new freedom and recognition. The youth is made upof persons 12-24 years of age. This is the age range where the individual can undergoexploitation and maneuver by someone influential to him rather than the early stages of life. Atadolescence the person is looking at the pieces and recognizing the particular pattern of self-hood, of inner, maturing identity, which initiates awareness of self-reorganization. This self-reorganization actually is the beginning of identity crisis. 12
  • 13. Hall (1904) depicts adolescences as a period of “storm and stress” which does mean a period ofdescription and extremism this view of Hall, may undergo a controversial debate, however,childrearing practices and conceived as shaping the kind of personality which in the adult-hoodwill be harmonious with the norms of the society (whiting and child 1953).WHERE VIOLENCE OCCURS?There is no specific place or origin for the occurrence of violence. Violence can take placeanywhere in any form in the world. Violence has many forms which will be discussed later butfirst we should know where violence occurs? Violence can occur in the following: In the home and family In schools and educational settings In care and justice systems In work settings In the communityNow we shall discuss how violence can occur in the above in detail.IN THE HOME AND FAMILYFamily is amongst those who have a lot of ability to protect their children and also provide theirchildren for their physical and emotional safety. Human rights treaties recognize the right to aprivate and family life and home. But unfortunately in recent year’s violence against children byparents and other family members have been noticed. Violence in home can include physical,sexual and psychological as well as deliberate neglect. In the context of discipline it has beenobserved that children frequently face physical, cruel or humiliating punishment. Insults, name-calling, isolation, rejection, threats, emotional indifference and belittling are all forms of violencethat can damage a childs well-being. Most frequently children are sexually abused by someonethey know, often a member of their own family. At an early age harmful traditional practices aregenerally imposed on children by their family or community leaders. 13
  • 14. IN SCHOOLS AND EDUCATIONAL SETTINGSSchools play an important role in protecting children from violence. Though educational settingstoo can expose many children to violence and may also teach them violence. They are exposedto corporal punishment, cruel and humiliating forms of psychological punishment, sexual andgender-based violence, and bullying. Although corporal punishment is banned in schools by 102countries but still not fully enforced. Fighting and bullying are also examples of violence againstchildren in schools. Often bullying is associated with discrimination against students from poorfamilies, mediocre, or those with particular personal characteristics such as appearance or adisability. Schools can also be affected by the events taking place in wider community-forexample, gang culture or gang-related criminal activities associated with drugs.IN CARE AND JUSTICE SYSTEMSAccording to an estimated amount 8 million of the world’s children are in the residential caresystems. Relatively few are there because they have no parents; most are in care because oftheir disability, family disintegration, violence in the home and also the social and economicfactors and conditions like poverty. In some institutions children are faced with violence by otherchildren and as well as their care-givers. Staff of the residential care unit may discipline themwith beatings or restraints, or by locking them up, children with disabilities face violence in theguise of treatment, such as being subjected to electric shock to control their behavior or givendrugs to make them more compliant. Children are given detention and then they are frequentlysubjected to violence by the staff. Corporal and other forms of violent punishments are acceptedas legal in penal institutions in at least 77 countries. Detention of children with adults is routinein many countries, and this puts them at increased risk.IN WORK SETTINGSAcross all religions, violence whether physical, sexual and psychological affects many millionsof children all over the world who are working legally or illegally. It may be used to force children 14
  • 15. to work or punish or control them in the workplace. Some categories of illegal work has beendefined as “worst forms of child labor” and hence considered as violence against children.Employers inflict most of the workplace violence, although those who inflict violence may alsoinclude co-workers, foremen, customers, police, criminal gangs and intermediaries. Most of thegirls are also seen working in domestic labor which is often not regulated. They reportmaltreatment such as physical punishment, humiliation and sexual harassment. The exploitationof children in prostitution or child pornography is not only a form of violence in itself; it also putsthe exploited children at risk of physical and psychological violence, as well as neglect.IN THE COMMUNITYJust like home community is a source of protection and solidarity for children but it can also be asite of violence which includes peer violence, violence related to guns and other weapons,gangs and police violence and brutality, physical and sexual violence and trafficking. Violencemay also be associated with the mass media and new information and communicationtechnologies. Marginalized groups of children, such as street children are often affected bycommunity violence. The mass media sometimes portray violence as normal or glorify it. Cyber-bullying through the Internet or mobile phones has been documented in recent times.Since we have discussed violence that occurs in community, educational institutions, homesetc. now we will describe that what the effects of those violent activities on children are. Whenchildren are exposed to violence they are most likely to adopt the behavior they witness. Theeffects of violence on children are described below:THE EFFECTS THAT VIOLENCE HAS ON CHILDREN Research shows that 50% of the men who frequently assault their wives also frequently abuse their children. Child abuse is 15 times more likely to occur in families where domestic violence is present. 15
  • 16. Men who have witnessed their parents violence are three times more likely to abuse their own wives than children of nonviolent parents. Children who witness violence at home may display emotional and behavioral problems as varied as withdrawal, low self-esteem, nightmares, self-blame, and aggression against peers, family members and property. A comparison of delinquent and non-delinquent youth found that a history of family violence or abuse is very significant when comparing the differences between the two groups. Over 3 million children are at risk of exposure to parental violence each year.We have described the effects of violence on children very clearly. Now there is another issue that howviolence is being taught to children, what the resources are, we highlight this study so that people all overthe world come to know that what are the main reasons children are becoming violent and aggressive intheir lives. Following are the ways violence is being taught to children.WAYS IN WHICH VIOLENCE IS BIENG TAUGHT TO CHILDREN Children see parents put down and strike each other. Parents encourage their children to fight back or be bullies. Toy guns or other toy weapons are supplied to children. Violence is encouraged in competitive sports. Violence and sexual aggression are seen as entertainment in TV media, song lyrics and computer games.To sum up the discussion of effects of violence we come across the following: Cognitive effects Emotional effects Behavioral effects and social effects “Children and violence-the effects of violence on children” is a very vast topic and a lot of datacan be collected from books, newspapers and even internet which is the biggest source forcollection of data. Our subject is concerned with the effects that violence creates in children. Inour report we have discussed a brief history on violence for example different kinds of war thattook place in every century. We also discussed that how violence occurs and what are itsresources. Secondly we also discussed briefly on different kind of effects of violence and how 16
  • 17. different children react on violence differently. We have also told that how violence is beingtaught to children. 17
  • 18. The following terms are of special relevance to our discussion of samples, theimportance of sampling, and by the methods by which samples are selected:Sample: A selected portion from the elements within the population, with these elementsactually being measured or observed.Population: The set of all possible elements that could theoretically be observed or measured;this is sometimes referred to as the universe.Census: The actual measurement or observation of all possible elements from the population;this can be viewed as “sample” that includes the entire population.Why a sample instead of a census?Sample is preferred over census because: In census each and every element of the population is studied to check or find the final result, while In sample only or selected part of population is studied to find final result. We need less time and less cost in conducting a sample survey as compared to census. Moreover, a well organized sample survey gives more accurate result as compared to census. After having knowledge about above mentioned information it will be easy for you tounderstand about sampling. 18
  • 19. SAMPLING “The process of using a small number of items or parts of a large population to make conclusion about the whole population” TYPES OF SAMPLING PROBABILITY SAMPLING NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLINGPROBABILITY SAMPLING: In probability sampling each person or element in the populationhas some known or calculable chance of being included in a sample. However, every person orelement may not have an equal chance for inclusion.NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING: In non-probability sampling, not every unit in the populationhas a chance of being included in the sample, and the process involves at least some degree ofpersonal subjectivity instead of following predetermined, probabilistic rules for selection.In our project work, we have chosen Non-Probability sampling method because we use atechnique in which every member does not have equal chance of selection. 19
  • 20. DATA COLLECTION “It is a collection of any number of related observations.” Types of data collection PRIMARY DATA SECONDARY DATAPrimary data: The data which have been collected for the first time and have not undergone anystatistical treatment is called primary data.Secondary data: The data which has been undergone at least one statistical treatment is calledsecondary data. Sources of collection of data Primary data secondary dataThrough direct personal observation Through internet andmedia resourcesThrough indirect oral investigation Private sourcesThrough questionnaire Official sourcesEstimates through local correspondence Technical and tradejournalsMethod of collection of data: The data which we will collect is primary data and the methodwhich we apply to collect this data is questionnaire in following institutions: UNIVERSITY OF ENGENEERING AND TECHNOLOGY LAHORE (UET) UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB LAHORE (PU) FORMEN CRISTIAN UNIVERSITY (FCU) LAHORE GRAMMAR SCHOOL (LGS) 20
  • 21. UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY LAHORE INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT TOPIC: CHILDREN AND VIOLENCE “ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN”Violence basically means the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, againstoneself, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm,mal-development or deprivation. Our topic tells that what the effects of violence are on children.We the students of BBA are conducting a survey to have knowledge about the effects of violence onchildren. Our report objective is to get facts and figures and also the analytical data on children. We willhighly appreciate if you fill this questionnaire which will help us in making our report. QUESTIONNAIRE DATE: ……………………..NAME: GENDER: INSTITUTION: AGE: (1) Do you think that parents can generate violence in children? (a) Yes (b)No (c) Strongly Agree (d) Strongly Disagree (2) Do cartoons generate violence in children? (a) Agree (b) Disagree (c) Strongly Agree (d) Strongly Disagree (3) Do you believe that home environment can be responsible for generating violence? (a) Yes (b) No (c) Mostly (d) Sometimes (4) Violence is? (a) Developed (b) In-born (c) Both (d) Don’t Know (5) Children face anger and frustration when faced with domestic violence? (a) Agree (b) Disagree (c) Strongly Agree (d) Strongly Disagree (6) Do you blame media for generating violence? (a) Yes (b)No (c) To some extent (d) always (7) Do you think breaking the cycle of violence requires professional intervention? (a) Yes (b) No (c) Sometimes (d) Don’t Know (8) Do you think that children’s mental health is negatively affected by thoughts of nuclear war? (a) Agree (b) Disagree (c) Strongly Agree (d) Strongly Disagree 21
  • 22. (9) Do you believe that some children are more affected by violence than others?(a) Yes (b) No (c) In Some Cases (d) Strongly Agree(10) Children accept violence in reality after playing violent games?(a) Agree (b) Disagree (c) Strongly Agree (d) Strongly Disagree(11) Being violent is way to release from stress and pressure?(a) Yes (b) No (c) Sometimes (d) Always(12) Violence can be produced by not fulfilling desires?(a) Agree (b) Disagree (c) Strongly Agree (d) Strongly Disagree(13) Children are capable of differentiating between fiction and reality?(a) Yes (b) No (c) Depends on age (d) Don’t Know(14) Is it okay for parents to slap their teenage children who talk back to them?(a) Agree (b) Disagree (c) Strongly Agree (d) Strongly Disagree(15) Do horrifying reality images generate violence in children?(a) Yes (b)No (c) Strongly Agree (d) Strongly Disagree(16) Punishment is essential for the disciplinary of children?(a) Yes (b) No (c) Depends on situation (d) Don’t Know(17) Do you allow your children to play violent video games?(a) Yes (b) No (c) Sometimes(18) Do children have feelings of worthlessness, and inability to think or concentrate?(a) Agree (b) Disagree (c) Strongly Agree (d) Strongly Disagree(19) Do you posses an unforgiving attitude for that person who insults you or harms you?(a) Yes (b) No (c) Sometimes (d) Always(20) Do you think that violence on television is a problem?(a) Yes (b) No (c) Sometimes (d) Don’t Know(21) Do you think violence has lasting effect on the health of teens?(a) Yes (b) No (c) Strongly Agree (d) Strongly Disagree(22) How violent you are?(a) Yes, always (b)Not at all (c) Sometimes (d) Depends 22
  • 23. DATA PRESENTATION OF UET First we chose UET to hold a questionnaire on “The effects of violence on children” to find the opinion of different people. We choose the sample: Institute of business and management(IB&M) Department of electrical engineering Department of chemical engineeringSAMPLE SIZE: The questionnaire that has been solved by the students whose age range from18-22.We solved the questionnaire in UET and the data that we compiled from these questionnaires isgiven below in the table: DATA ARRANGING FROM QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Parents can generate violence in children 2. Cartoons generate violence in children 3. Children face anger and frustration when faced with domestic violence 4. Children’s mental health is negatively affected by thoughts of nuclear war 5. Children accept violence in reality after playing video games 6. Violence can be produced by not fulfilling desires 7. Is it okay for parents to slap their children who talk back at them 8. Horrifying reality images generate violence in children 9. Do children have feelings of worthlessness, and inability to think or concentrate 10. Violence has a lasting effect on the health of teensThe graph below shows the percentage of people that agree, disagree, strongly agree orstrongly disagree that the above mentioned factors of violence affect children. STRONGLY UET AGREE 18% STRONGLY DISAGREE 3% YES 52% NO 27% 23
  • 24. DATA PRESENTATION OF PUSecondly we have chosen PU to hold a questionnaire on “The effects of violence onchildren” to find the opinion of different people. We choose the sample: Department of IBA Department of Mass Communication HR Department PU YES NO STRONGLY AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE 8% 17% 40% 35% 24
  • 25. DATA PRESENTATION OF FCUNow we have chosen FCU to hold a questionnaire on “The effects of violence onchildren” to find the opinion of different people. We choose the sample: Mathematics Department Biological Department Business Department FCU YES NO STRONGLY AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE 15% 39% 11% 35% 25
  • 26. DATA PRESENTATION OF LGS Finally we have chosen LGS to hold a questionnaire on “The effects of violence on children” to find the opinion of different people. The age range we have selected for this questionnaire is from 10-16, now we want to know what the views of children are. LGS YES NO STRONGLY AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE 7% 19% 35% 39%Now we have calculated percentage of different responses from different institutions, and wehave come to know that how much percentage of people agrees, disagree, strongly agree orstrongly disagree whether violence effects the children or not. Now we will like to show ageneral graph of all the institutions and responses of people we have gathered so far. 26
  • 27. GENERAL REPRESENTATION OF THE GRAPH GENERAL GRAPH YES NO STRONGLY AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE 8% 17% 40% 35%MAIN FINDINGS: Through sampling and data collection we have come to know the differentopinions of people. We have through a number of well known institutions like: Punjab university Lahore UET Lahore Forman Christian university Lahore Lahore grammar schoolBy going to the above mentioned institutions we delivered questionnaires to the students andthrough those filled questionnaires we have come to know different responses. We have madegraphs of our findings so it will be easy for others to understand and have knowledge aboutwhat people think about the effects of violence on children.First we calculated the percentage of students and their responses to yes, no, strongly agreeand strongly disagree from UET. Following are the findings from UET: 52% of the students think that violence does effect children 27% of the students believe that violence has no effect on children 18% are those students who have strong opinions that violence has effect on children Only 3%of the students totally disagree to the subjectNow we will show the percentage of responses we found from PU: 27
  • 28. 40% of the students say that violence effects children 35% of the students object to the statement 17% of the students strongly agree While 8% of the students strongly disagreePercentage of responses collected from FCU shows that: 39% of the students are in favor of the topic 35% are against 11% strongly agree with the topic 15% strongly disagreeThe response of students from LGS shows that: 35% agree with the topic 39% disagree 19% strongly agree Only 7% strongly disagreeNow we have compiled the data and have come to develop a general idea about the responseof students from all the institutions we have been. 40% people agree that violence does have effect on children 35% people think that violence has no effect on children 17 % are the people who strongly agree that violence effects children Only 8% people strongly disagree CONCLUSION TO OUR REPORTViolence in the basis upon which we live. Wherever we go there is some form or act of violence.Most people have lost the concept of right and wrong. The line that once stood between them isnow blurred. People find that they do no harm when they commit an act thats wrong. Violenceis seen in many forms today that there was ever before. Media has a large part in broadcastingviolence. Violence is due to some of these issues such as easy access to weapons, the peoplewho commit crimes have low self-worth and self esteem and religion has become a lesser andlesser part of society. In the United States they have the Second Amendment which is the rightto bear arms. This means anyone in the United States can have a gun. In the States it is saidthat they have enough guns to arm all the adults and half of the children. Then they wonder whytheir children go out and shoot people at their school. From our report we have come to haveknowledge about all types of violence and the effects that are produced by violence on children.We have also described that in response to violence how children behave and react towardssituations. Now we will give a brief review of literature in which we will tell what should be doneto prevent violence. 28
  • 29. LITERATURE REVIEWOur discussions focused on three types of violence: physical and psychological punishment,gender based violence and child sexual abuse. We then prepared our own initiatives andactions to address these issues.In other cases adults think that punishment is good for children and do not see it as abuse.Since many adults themselves were beaten or psychologically punished as children they maybelieve it is necessary for adults to punish children for the children’s own good. Also, parentsmay not know different ways of bringing up children. In many countries parents think it is theirduty to get girls married at a young age. Young brides may be tortured and harassed by theirhusband’s family for not understanding family matters. We also discussed many other forms ofgender-based violence. When children suffer violence, they sometimes learn to fight violencewith violence. This is how cycles of violence are continued.We have also discussed causes of violence… Sometimes cultural, traditional and / or religiouspractices can be harmful for children. At times poverty can cause neglect and violence sinceparents do not have enough money to fulfill their needs or educate their children. Patterns ofviolence are also reproduced from one generation to another, making a cycle. Adults liketeachers, may lack knowledge of children’s rights or the affect of physical and psychologicalpunishment. Discrimination and unequal power relations in society also make violence againstchildren worse. Some countries do not have laws on violence against children, or their laws maynot be enough to protect children. Often children are not aware of how to get legal help. Thereare not enough counseling and psycho-social services to rehabilitate children who have beenabused.Being aware that violence poses a large burden on the physical and mental health of children,with long lasting consequences on their holistic development, often only manifested later in life.We, the participants, recognise the importance of a child rights approach in order to bridge thegap between standards and reality, and the challenge of changing perceptions in society, instructures of governance and at an individual level, of what are acceptable ways of behavingtowards children. We agree to take the following actions as a matter of priority:1.Develop and put into action, with the active assistance of civil society organisations, measuresat all levels to prevent violence against children through interdisciplinary and participatoryapproaches that include professionals from different sectors and backgrounds, parents andchildren, and which are supported at the highest possible political level;2.Ratify relevant international treaties, enact, amend or repeal all domestic legislation asnecessary in order to prohibit all forms of violence against children including corporalpunishment and humiliating treatment, and take all necessary measures to prevent and sanctionsuch offences against children; also pay special attention to the development of juvenile justiceprocedures to prevent violence against children in all stages of the process; 29
  • 30. 3.Give the highest visibility and political importance to the prevention of violence against girls andboys, including, for example, the launching of public information campaigns to raise awarenessabout the scope and negative consequences of all forms of violence; and to do this by means ofdeveloping sustainable partnerships with children, parents, civil society, the private sector, newinformation technology industries and mass media;4.Upgrade technical, legal, procedural and institutional capacity across relevant sectors, such aseducation, health, justice, protection services and labour inspections to identify violence and putin place appropriate evidence-based strategies and explicit family and child policies to preventviolence, support child victims and strengthen reporting, referral and response;5.Seek to establish, analyse and regularly monitor, the extent of different forms of violenceagainst children, collect disaggregated data by sex, age and other relevant factors, including thesources of discrimination that make some groups of children particularly vulnerable to violence,and systematically evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of interventions to protectchildren from violence, as well as efforts to provide timely assistance and address theconsequences of abuse, including its social and economic cost for society;6.Intervene in an early, effective, gender sensitive and child friendly manner to preventvictimization and re-victimization, through development of sensitive procedures andmechanisms, including provision of confidential advice; child-friendly judicial proceedings, andsupportive health and protection services to ensure the physical and psycho-social recovery ofaffected children and young offenders;7.Develop systematic and integrated education on child protection, encourage training forparents, all relevant professional groups and the mass media, that include information onhuman rights standards, on non-violent methods of conflict resolution and discipline, as well ason child development and the rights of children with special needs;8.Strengthen and develop further all forms of international and cross-border co-operation,including prevention of criminal activities, in order to prevent and combat all forms of violenceagainst children and to ensure that perpetrators of such violence do not escape justice andreceive appropriate treatment;9.Create opportunities for children and young people to play a more active role in addressingviolence, equipping children with the knowledge and skills to be better able to recogniseviolence, and establishing mechanisms to ensure their participation in situation analysis,research and monitoring, and in the design of laws and policies that affect them;We, participants from all the countries of the European and Central Asian Region, agree thatthese 9 steps will be the first important steps that we will take at domestic and regional level toaddress violence against children. 30
  • 31. REFERENCEShttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violencehttp://www.unviolencestudy.org/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Childhttp://www.hlthss.gov.nt.ca/english/services/family_violence/effects_of_violence_on_children.htm 31
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