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Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12
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Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch12

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Economics book slide …

Economics book slide
Case and Fair
a good path to learn basics of economics

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  • 1. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 1 of 22 PowerPoint Lectures for Principles of Economics, 9e By Karl E. Case, Ray C. Fair & Sharon M. Oster ; ;
  • 2. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 2 of 22
  • 3. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 3 of 22 12 PART II THE MARKET SYSTEM General Equilibrium and the Efficiency of Perfect Competition Fernando & Yvonn Quijano Prepared by:
  • 4. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 4 of 22 12 PART II THE MARKET SYSTEM CHAPTER OUTLINE General Equilibrium and the Efficiency of Perfect Competition General Equilibrium Analysis A Technological Advance: The Electronic Calculator Market Adjustment to Changes in Demand Formal Proof of a General Competitive Equilibrium Allocative Efficiency and Competitive Equilibrium Pareto Efficiency The Efficiency of Perfect Competition Perfect Competition versus Real Markets The Sources of Market Failure Imperfect Markets Public Goods Externalities Imperfect Information Evaluating the Market Mechanism
  • 5. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 5 of 22 General Equilibrium and the Efficiency of Perfect Competition partial equilibrium analysis The process of examining the equilibrium conditions in individual markets and for households and firms separately. general equilibrium The condition that exists when all markets in an economy are in simultaneous equilibrium. efficiency The condition in which the economy is producing what people want at least possible cost. Input and output markets cannot be considered as if they were separate entities or as if they operated independently. Although it is important to understand the decisions of individual firms and households and the functioning of individual markets, we now need to add it all up, look at the operation of the system as a whole.
  • 6. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 6 of 22 General Equilibrium Analysis An Early Technological Advance: The Electronic Calculator  FIGURE 12.1 Cost Saving Technological Change in the Calculator Industry In the 1970s and 1980s, major technological changes occurred in the calculator industry. In 1975, 18.1 million calculators were sold at an average price of $62. As technology made it possible to produce at lower costs, cost curves shifted downward. As new firms entered the industry and existing firms expanded, output rose and market price dropped. In 1983, 30.9 million calculators were produced and sold at an average price of under $30.
  • 7. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 7 of 22 General Equilibrium Analysis Market Adjustment to Changes in Demand  FIGURE 12.2 Adjustment in an Economy with Two Sectors Initially, demand for X shifts from DX to DX. This shift pushes the price of X up to PY creating profits. Demand for Y shifts down from DY to DY, pushing the price of Y down to PY and creating losses. Firms have an incentive to leave sector Y and an incentive to enter sector X. Exiting sector Y shifts supply in that industry to SY, raising price and eliminating losses. Entry shifts supply in X to SX thus reducing and eliminating profits. 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
  • 8. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 8 of 22 General Equilibrium Analysis Ethanol and Land Prices The U.S. government provides large subsidies for ethanol, a fuel produced from corn. Proponents of the ethanol subsidies suggest that it is one piece of a policy that can help the United States reduce its dependence on foreign oil. In part as a result of these subsidies, the midwestern United States has seen a large increase in corn production relative to other grains.
  • 9. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 9 of 22 General Equilibrium Analysis Formal Proof of a General Competitive Equilibrium Economic theorists have struggled with the question of whether a set of prices that equates supply and demand in all markets simultaneously can actually exist when there are literally thousands and thousands of markets. If such a set of prices were not possible, the result could be continuous cycles of expansion, contraction, and instability.
  • 10. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 10 of 22 Allocative Efficiency and Competitive Equilibrium Pareto Efficiency Pareto efficiency or Pareto optimality A condition in which no change is possible that will make some members of society better off without making some other members of society worse off.
  • 11. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 11 of 22 Allocative Efficiency and Competitive Equilibrium The Efficiency of Perfect Competition The three basic questions discussed previously included: 1. What gets produced? What determines the final mix of output? 2. How is it produced? How do capital, labor, and land get divided up among firms? In other words, what is the allocation of resources among producers? 3. Who gets what is produced? What determines which households get how much? What is the distribution of output among consuming households? To demonstrate that the perfectly competitive system leads to an efficient, or Pareto optimal, allocation of resources, we need to show that no changes are possible that will make some people better off without making others worse off.
  • 12. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 12 of 22 Allocative Efficiency and Competitive Equilibrium Efficient Allocation of Resources among Firms The assumptions that factor markets are competitive and open, that all firms pay the same prices for inputs, and that all firms maximize profits lead to the conclusion that the allocation of resources among firms is efficient. You should now have a greater appreciation for the power of the price mechanism in a market economy. Each individual firm needs only to make input use decisions by looking at its own labor, capital, and land productivity relative to their prices. But because all firms face identical input prices, the market economy achieves efficient input use between firms. Prices are the instrument of Adam Smith’s “invisible hand,” allowing for efficiency without explicit coordination or planning. The Efficiency of Perfect Competition
  • 13. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 13 of 22 Allocative Efficiency and Competitive Equilibrium Efficient Distribution of Outputs among Households We all know that people have different tastes and preferences and that they will buy very different things in very different combinations. As long as everyone shops freely in the same markets, no redistribution of final outputs among people will make them better off. If you and I buy in the same markets and pay the same prices and I buy what I want and you buy what you want, we cannot possibly end up with the wrong combination of things. Free and open markets are essential to this result. The Efficiency of Perfect Competition
  • 14. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 14 of 22 Allocative Efficiency and Competitive Equilibrium Producing What People Want: The Efficient Mix of Output The condition that ensures that the right things are produced is P = MC. Society will produce the efficient mix of output if all firms equate price and marginal cost.  FIGURE 12.3 The Key Efficiency Condition: Price Equals Marginal Cost The Efficiency of Perfect Competition
  • 15. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 15 of 22 Allocative Efficiency and Competitive Equilibrium  FIGURE 12.4 Efficiency in Perfect Competition Follows from a Weighing of Values by Both Households and Firms The Efficiency of Perfect Competition
  • 16. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 16 of 22 Allocative Efficiency and Competitive Equilibrium Ticket Scalping in the Electronic Age A voluntary trade with two willing parties improves the wellbeing of both and as long as no one else is harmed, it is clearly efficient in the language of economics. But is it always fair?
  • 17. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 17 of 22 Allocative Efficiency and Competitive Equilibrium Perfect Competition Versus Real Markets We have built a model of a perfectly competitive market system that produces an efficient allocation of resources, an efficient mix of output, and an efficient distribution of output. The perfectly competitive model is built on a set of assumptions, all of which must hold for our conclusions to be fully valid. These assumptions do not always hold in real-world markets.
  • 18. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 18 of 22 The Sources of Market Failure market failure Occurs when resources are misallocated, or allocated inefficiently. The result is waste or lost value. There are four important sources of market failure: (1) imperfect market structure, or noncompetitive behavior, (2) the existence of public goods, (3) the presence of external costs and benefits, and (4) imperfect information.
  • 19. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 19 of 22 The Sources of Market Failure Imperfect Markets imperfect condition An industry in which single firms have some control over price and competition. Imperfectly competitive industries give rise to an inefficient allocation of resources. monopoly An industry composed of only one firm that produces a product for which there are no close substitutes and in which significant barriers exist to prevent new firms from entering the industry.
  • 20. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 20 of 22 The Sources of Market Failure Public Goods public goods, or social goods Goods or services that bestow collective benefits on members of society. Generally, no one can be excluded from enjoying their benefits. The classic example is national defense. private goods Products produced by firms for sale to individual households.
  • 21. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 21 of 22 The Sources of Market Failure Externalities externality A cost or benefit resulting from some activity or transaction that is imposed or bestowed on parties outside the activity or transaction.
  • 22. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 22 of 22 The Sources of Market Failure Imperfect Information imperfect information The absence of full knowledge concerning product characteristics, available prices, and so on.
  • 23. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 23 of 22 Evaluating the Market Mechanism Freely functioning markets in the real world do not always produce an efficient allocation of resources, and this result provides a potential role for government in the economy. However, many believe that government involvement in the economy creates more inefficiency than it cures.
  • 24. CHAGeneralEquilibrium © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 24 of 22 REVIEW TERMS AND CONCEPTS efficiency externality general equilibrium imperfect competition imperfect information market failure monopoly Pareto efficiency, or Pareto optimality partial equilibrium analysis private goods public goods, or social goods Key efficiency condition in perfect competition: PX = MCX

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