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Economics book slide

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Case and Fair
a good path to learn basics of economics

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Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch09 Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch09 Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 1 of 33 PowerPoint Lectures for Principles of Economics, 9e By Karl E. Case, Ray C. Fair & Sharon M. Oster ; ;
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 2 of 33
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 3 of 33 9 PART II THE MARKET SYSTEM Long-Run Costs and Output Decisions Fernando & Yvonn Quijano Prepared by: View slide
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 4 of 33 9 PART II THE MARKET SYSTEM CHAPTER OUTLINE Short-Run Conditions and Long- Run Directions Maximizing Profits Minimizing Losses The Short-Run Industry Supply Curve Long-Run Directions: A Review Long-Run Costs: Economies and Diseconomies of Scale Increasing Returns to Scale Constant Returns to Scale Decreasing Returns to Scale Long-Run Adjustments to Short-Run Conditions Short-Run Profits: Expansion to Equilibrium Short-Run Losses: Contraction to Equilibrium The Long-Run Adjustment Mechanism: Investment Flows toward Profit Opportunities Output Markets: A Final Word Appendix: External Economies and Diseconomies and the Long-Run Industry Supply Curve Long-Run Costs and Output Decisions View slide
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 5 of 33 Long-Run Costs and Output Decisions We begin our discussion of the long run by looking at firms in three short-run circumstances: (1) firms earning economic profits, (2) firms suffering economic losses but continuing to operate to reduce or minimize those losses, and (3) firms that decide to shut down and bear losses just equal to fixed costs. breaking even The situation in which a firm is earning exactly a normal rate of return.
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 6 of 33 Short-Run Conditions and Long-Run Directions Example: The Blue Velvet Car Wash Maximizing Profits TABLE 9.1 Blue Velvet Car Wash Weekly Costs Total Fixed Costs (TFC) Total Variable Costs (TVC) (800 Washes) Total Costs (TC = TFC + TVC) $ 3,600 1. Normal return to investors $ 1,000 1. 2. Labor Materials $ 1,000 600 Total revenue (TR) at P = $5 (800 x $5) $ 4,000 2. Other fixed costs (maintenance contract, insurance, etc.) 1,000 $ 1,600 Profit (TR − TC) $ 400 $ 2,000
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 7 of 33 Short-Run Conditions and Long-Run Directions  FIGURE 9.1 Firm Earning Positive Profits in the Short Run A profit-maximizing perfectly competitive firm will produce up to the point where P* = MC. Profits are the difference between total revenue and total costs. At q* = 300, total revenue is $5 × 300 = $1,500, total cost is $4.20 × 300 = $1,260, and total profit = $1,500 − $1,260 = $240. Maximizing Profits
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 8 of 33 Short-Run Conditions and Long-Run Directions operating profit (or loss) or net operating revenue Total revenue minus total variable cost (TR − TVC). ■ If revenues exceed variable costs, operating profit is positive and can be used to offset fixed costs and reduce losses, and it will pay the firm to keep operating. ■ If revenues are smaller than variable costs, the firm suffers operating losses that push total losses above fixed costs. In this case, the firm can minimize its losses by shutting down. Minimizing Losses
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 9 of 33 Short-Run Conditions and Long-Run Directions Producing at a Loss to Offset Fixed Costs: The Blue Velvet Revisited TABLE 9.2 A Firm Will Operate If Total Revenue Covers Total Variable Cost CASE 1: Shut Down CASE 2: Operate at Price = $3 Total Revenue (q = 0) $ 0 Total Revenue ($3 x 800) $ 2,400 Fixed costs Variable costs Total costs + $ $ 2,000 0 2,000 Fixed costs Variable costs Total costs + $ $ 2,000 1,600 3,600 Profit/loss (TR − TC) − $ 2,000 Operating profit/loss (TR − TVC) $ 800 Total profit/loss (TR − TC) − $ 1,200 Minimizing Losses
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 10 of 33 Short-Run Conditions and Long-Run Directions  FIGURE 9.1 Firm Suffering Losses but Showing an Operating Profit in the Short Run When price is sufficient to cover average variable costs, firms suffering short-run losses will continue operating instead of shutting down. Total revenues (P* × q*) cover variable costs, leaving an operating profit of $90 to cover part of fixed costs and reduce losses to $135. Minimizing Losses
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 11 of 33 Short-Run Conditions and Long-Run Directions Shutting Down to Minimize Loss TABLE 9.3 A Firm Will Shut Down If Total Revenue Is Less Than Total Variable Cost Case 1: Shut Down CASE 2: Operate at Price = $1.50 Total Revenue (q = 0) $ 0 Total revenue ($1.50 x 800) $ 1,200 Fixed costs Variable costs Total costs + $ $ 2,000 0 2,000 Fixed costs Variable costs Total costs + $ $ 2,000 1,600 3,600 Profit/loss (TR − TC): − $ 2,000 Operating profit/loss (TR − TVC) − $ 400 Total profit/loss (TR − TC) − $ 2,400 Minimizing Losses
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 12 of 33 Short-Run Conditions and Long-Run Directions  FIGURE 9.1 Firm Suffering Losses but Showing an Operating Profit in the Short Run At prices below average variable cost, it pays a firm to shut down rather than continue operating. Thus, the short-run supply curve of a competitive firm is the part of its marginal cost curve that lies above its average variable cost curve. shut-down point The lowest point on the average variable cost curve. When price falls below the minimum point on AVC, total revenue is insufficient to cover variable costs and the firm will shut down and bear losses equal to fixed costs. Minimizing Losses
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 13 of 33 Short-Run Conditions and Long-Run Directions short-run industry supply curve The sum of the marginal cost curves (above AVC) of all the firms in an industry. The Short-Run Industry Supply Curve  FIGURE 9.4 The Industry Supply Curve in the Short Run Is the Horizontal Sum of the Marginal Cost Curves (above AVC) of All the Firms in an Industry A profit-maximizing perfectly competitive firm will produce up to the point where P* = If there are only three firms in the industry, the industry supply curve is simply the sum of all the products supplied by the three firms at each price. For example, at $6, firm 1 supplies 100 units, firm 2 supplies 200 units, and firm 3 supplies 150 units, for a total industry supply of 450.
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 14 of 33 Short-Run Conditions and Long-Run Directions Long-Run Directions: A Review TABLE 9.4 Profits, Losses, and Perfectly Competitive Firm Decisions in the Long and Short Run Short-Run Condition Short-Run Decision Long-Run Decision Profits TR > TC P = MC: operate Expand: new firms enter Losses 1. With operating profit P = MC: operate Contract: firms exit (TR ≥ TVC) (losses < fixed costs) 2. With operating losses Shut down: Contract: firms exit (TR < TVC) losses = fixed costs
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 15 of 33 Long-Run Costs: Economies and Diseconomies of Scale increasing returns to scale, or economies of scale An increase in a firm’s scale of production leads to lower costs per unit produced. constant returns to scale An increase in a firm’s scale of production has no effect on costs per unit produced. decreasing returns to scale, or diseconomies of scale An increase in a firm’s scale of production leads to higher costs per unit produced.
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 16 of 33 Long-Run Costs: Economies and Diseconomies of Scale Example: Economies of Scale in Egg Production TABLE 9.5 Weekly Costs Showing Economies of Scale in Egg Production Jones Farm Total Weekly Costs 15 hours of labor (implicit value $8 per hour) $120 Feed, other variable costs 25 Transport costs 15 Land and capital costs attributable to egg production 17 $177 Total output 2,400 eggs Average cost $0.074 per egg Chicken Little Egg Farms Inc. Total Weekly Costs Labor $ 5,128 Feed, other variable costs 4,115 Transport costs 2,431 Land and capital costs 19,230 $30,904 Total output 1,600,000 eggs Average cost $0.019 per egg Increasing Returns to Scale
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 17 of 33 Long-Run Costs: Economies and Diseconomies of Scale long-run average cost curve (LRAC) A graph that shows the different scales on which a firm can choose to operate in the long run.  FIGURE 9.5 A Firm Exhibiting Economies of Scale The long-run average cost curve of a firm shows the different scales on which the firm can choose to operate in the long run. Each scale of operation defines a different short run. Here we see a firm exhibiting economies of scale; moving from scale 1 to scale 3 reduces average cost.
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 18 of 33 Long-Run Costs: Economies and Diseconomies of Scale Constant Returns to Scale Technically, the term constant returns means that the quantitative relationship between input and output stays constant, or the same, when output is increased. Constant returns to scale mean that the firm’s long- run average cost curve remains flat.
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 19 of 33 Long-Run Costs: Economies and Diseconomies of Scale Decreasing Returns to Scale  FIGURE 9.6 A Firm Exhibiting Economies and Diseconomies of Scale Economies of scale push this firm’s average costs down to q*. Beyond q*, the firm experiences diseconomies of scale; q* is the level of production at lowest average cost, using optimal scale. optimal scale of plant The scale of plant that minimizes average cost.
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 20 of 33 Long-Run Costs: Economies and Diseconomies of Scale Blood bank merger ‘good’ for Manatee Bradenton Herald.com “Northwest needed to be aligned with a larger organization to achieve economy of scale,” said J.B. Gaskins, Florida Blood Services vice president. “That economy of scale is good for the whole network, including Manatee County.”
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 21 of 33 Long-Run Adjustments to Short-Run Conditions Short-Run Profits: Expansion to Equilibrium  FIGURE 9.7 Firms Expand in the Long Run When Increasing Returns to Scale Are Available When economies of scale can be realized, firms have an incentive to expand. Thus, firms will be pushed by competition to produce at their optimal scales. Price will be driven to the minimum point on the LRAC curve.
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 22 of 33 Long-Run Adjustments to Short-Run Conditions In the long run, equilibrium price (P*) is equal to long-run average cost, short-run marginal cost, and short-run average cost. Profits are driven to zero: P* = SRMC = SRAC = LRAC Any price above P* means that there are profits to be made in the industry, and new firms will continue to enter. Any price below P* means that firms are suffering losses, and firms will exit the industry. Only at P* will profits be just equal to zero, and only at P* will the industry be in equilibrium. Short-Run Profits: Expansion to Equilibrium
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 23 of 33 Long-Run Adjustments to Short-Run Conditions Short-Run Losses: Contraction to Equilibrium  FIGURE 9.8 Long-Run Contraction and Exit in an Industry Suffering Short-Run Losses When firms in an industry suffer losses, there is an incentive for them to exit. As firms exit, the supply curve shifts from S0 to S1, driving price up to P*. As price rises, losses are gradually eliminated and the industry returns to equilibrium.
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 24 of 33 Long-Run Adjustments to Short-Run Conditions Whether we begin with an industry in which firms are earning profits or suffering losses, the final long-run competitive equilibrium condition is the same: P* = SRMC = SRAC = LRAC and profits are zero. At this point, individual firms are operating at the most efficient scale of plant—that is, at the minimum point on their LRAC curve. Short-Run Losses: Contraction to Equilibrium
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 25 of 33 Long-Run Adjustments to Short-Run Conditions The Long-Run Average Cost Curve: Flat or U-Shaped? The structure of the industry in the long run will depend on whether existing firms expand faster than new firms enter. There is an element of randomness in the way industries expand. Most industries contain some large firms and some small firms,
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 26 of 33 Long-Run Adjustments to Short-Run Conditions Investment—in the form of new firms and expanding old firms—will over time tend to favor those industries in which profits are being made, and over time industries in which firms are suffering losses will gradually contract from disinvestment. long-run competitive equilibrium When P = SRMC = SRAC = LRAC and profits are zero. The Long-Run Adjustment Mechanism: Investment Flows Toward Profit Opportunities The entry and exit of firms in response to profit opportunities usually involve the financial capital market. In capital markets, people are constantly looking for profits.When firms in an industry do well, capital is likely to flow into that industry in a variety of forms.
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 27 of 33 Why Are Hot Dogs So Expensive in Central Park? In New York, you need a license to operate a hot dog cart, and a license to operate in the park costs more. Since hot dogs are $.50 more in the park, the added cost of a license each year must be roughly $.50 per hot dog sold. In fact, in New York City, licenses to sell hot dogs in the park are auctioned off for many thousands of dollars, while licenses to operate outside the park cost only about $1,000. Long-Run Adjustments to Short-Run Conditions The Long-Run Adjustment Mechanism: Investment Flows Toward Profit Opportunities
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 28 of 33 Output Markets: A Final Word In the last four chapters, we have been building a model of a simple market system under the assumption of perfect competition. You have now seen what lies behind the demand curves and supply curves in competitive output markets. The next two chapters take up competitive input markets and complete the picture.
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 29 of 33 REVIEW TERMS AND CONCEPTS breaking even constant returns to scale decreasing returns to scale, or diseconomies of scale increasing returns to scale, or economies of scale long-run average cost curve (LRAC) long-run competitive equilibrium operating profit (or loss) or net operating revenue optimal scale of plant short-run industry supply curve shut-down point long-run competitive equilibrium, P = SRMC = SRAC = LRAC
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 30 of 33 EXTERNAL ECONOMIES AND DISECONOMIES AND THE LONG- RUN INDUSTRY SUPPLY CURVE When long-run average costs decrease as a result of industry growth, we say that there are external economies. When average costs increase as a result of industry growth, we say that there are external diseconomies. A P P E N D I X
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 31 of 33 TABLE 9A.1 Construction of New Housing and Construction Materials Costs, 2000–2005 Year House Prices % Change Over the Previous Year Housing Starts (Thousands) Housing Starts % Change Over The Previous Year Construction Materials Prices % Change Over The Previous Year Consumer Prices % Change Over The Previous Year 2000 − 1,573 − − − 2001 7.5 1,661 5.6% 0% 2.8% 2002 7.5 1,710 2.9% 1.5% 1.5% 2003 7.9 1,853 8.4% 1.6% 2.3% 2004 12.0 1,949 5.2% 8.3% 2.7% 2005 13.0 2,053 5.3% 5.4% 2.5% A P P E N D I X Example of an expanding industry facing external diseconomies of scale EXTERNAL ECONOMIES AND DISECONOMIES AND THE LONG- RUN INDUSTRY SUPPLY CURVE
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 32 of 33 long-run industry supply curve (LRIS) A graph that traces out price and total output over time as an industry expands. decreasing-cost industry An industry that realizes external economies—that is, average costs decrease as the industry grows. The long-run supply curve for such an industry has a negative slope. A P P E N D I X increasing-cost industry An industry that encounters external diseconomies—that is, average costs increase as the industry grows. The long-run supply curve for such an industry has a positive slope. constant-cost industry An industry that shows no economies or diseconomies of scale as the industry grows. Such industries have flat, or horizontal, long-run supply curves. THE LONG-RUN INDUSTRY SUPPLY CURVE
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 33 of 33 Appendix THE LONG-RUN INDUSTRY SUPPLY CURVE A P P E N D I X  FIGURE 9A.1 A Decreasing-Cost Industry: External Economies In a decreasing-cost industry, average cost declines as the industry expands. As demand expands from D0 to D1, price rises from P0 to P1. As new firms enter and existing firms expand, supply shifts from S0 to S1, driving price down. If costs decline as a result of the expansion to LRAC2, the final price will be below P0 at P2. The long-run industry supply curve (LRIS) slopes downward in a decreasing-cost industry.
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 34 of 33 Appendix A P P E N D I X THE LONG-RUN INDUSTRY SUPPLY CURVE  FIGURE 9A.2 An Increasing-Cost Industry: External Diseconomies In an increasing-cost industry, average cost increases as the industry expands. As demand shifts from D0 to D1, price rises from P0 to P1. As new firms enter and existing firms expand output, supply shifts from S0 to S1, driving price down. If long-run average costs rise, as a result, to LRAC2, the final price will be P2. The long-run industry supply curve (LRIS) slopes up in an increasing-cost industry.
  • CHAPLong-RunCostsan © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 35 of 33 constant-cost industry decreasing-cost industry external economies and diseconomies increasing-cost industry long-run industry supply curve (LRIS) REVIEW TERMS AND CONCEPTS