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### Ppt econ 9e_one_click_ch05

1. 1. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 1 of 31 PowerPoint Lectures for Principles of Economics, 9e By Karl E. Case, Ray C. Fair & Sharon M. Oster ; ;
2. 2. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 2 of 31
3. 3. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 5 PART I INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS Elasticity Fernando & Yvonn Quijano Prepared by:
4. 4. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 4 of 31 5 PART I INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS Elasticity Price Elasticity of Demand Slope and Elasticity Types of Elasticity Calculating Elasticities Calculating Percentage Changes Elasticity Is a Ratio of Percentages The Midpoint Formula Elasticity Changes Along a Straight-Line Demand Curve Elasticity and Total Revenue The Determinants of Demand Elasticity Availability of Substitutes The Importance of Being Unimportant The Time Dimension Other Important Elasticities Income Elasticity of Demand Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand Elasticity of Supply Looking Ahead Appendix: Point Elasticity CHAPTER OUTLINE
5. 5. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 5 of 31 Elasticity elasticity A general concept used to quantify the response in one variable when another variable changes. % elasticity of with respect to % A A B B ∆ = ∆
6. 6. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 6 of 31 Price Elasticity of Demand Slope and Elasticity  FIGURE 5.1 Slope Is Not a Useful Measure of ResponsivenessChanging the unit of measure from pounds to ounces changes the numerical value of the demand slope dramatically, but the behavior of buyers in the two diagrams is identical.
7. 7. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 7 of 31 Price Elasticity of Demand price elasticity of demand The ratio of the percentage of change in quantity demanded to the percentage of change in price; measures the responsiveness of quantity demanded to changes in price. priceinchange% demandedquantityinchange% demandofelasticityprice = Slope and Elasticity
8. 8. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 8 of 31 Price Elasticity of Demand Types of Elasticity TABLE 5.1 Hypothetical Demand Elasticities for Four Products Product % Change In Price (% ∆P) % Change In Quantity Demanded (% ∆QD) Elasticity (% ∆QD ÷ %∆P) Insulin +10% 0% .0 Perfectly inelastic Basic telephone service +10% -1% -.1 Inelastic Beef +10% -10% -1.0 Unitarily elastic Bananas +10% -30% -3.0 Elastic perfectly inelastic demand Demand in which quantity demanded does not respond at all to a change in price.
9. 9. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 9 of 31 Price Elasticity of Demand Types of Elasticity  FIGURE 5.2 Perfectly Inelastic and Perfectly Elastic Demand Curves Figure 5.2(a) shows a perfectly inelastic demand curve for insulin. Price elasticity of demand is zero. Quantity demanded is fixed; it does not change at all when price changes. Figure 5.2(b) shows a perfectly elastic demand curve facing a wheat farmer. A tiny price increase drives the quantity demanded to zero. In essence, perfectly elastic demand implies that individual producers can sell all they want at the going market price but cannot charge a higher price.
10. 10. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 10 of 31 Price Elasticity of Demand inelastic demand Demand that responds somewhat, but not a great deal, to changes in price. Inelastic demand always has a numerical value between zero and -1. Types of Elasticity A warning: You must be very careful about signs. Because it is generally understood that demand elasticities are negative (demand curves have a negative slope), they are often reported and discussed without the negative sign.
11. 11. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 11 of 31 Price Elasticity of Demand Types of Elasticity unitary elasticity A demand relationship in which the percentage change in quantity of a product demanded is the same as the percentage change in price in absolute value (a demand elasticity of -1). elastic demand A demand relationship in which the percentage change in quantity demanded is larger than the percentage change in price in absolute value (a demand elasticity with an absolute value greater than 1). perfectly elastic demand Demand in which quantity drops to zero at the slightest increase in price.
12. 12. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 12 of 31 Price Elasticity of Demand Types of Elasticity A good way to remember the difference between the two “perfect” elasticities is:
13. 13. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 13 of 31 Calculating Elasticities % 1 change in quantity demanded change in quantity demanded x 100% Q = 1 2 1 - x 100% Q Q Q = To calculate percentage change in quantity demanded using the initial value as the base, the following formula is used: Calculating Percentage Changes
14. 14. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 14 of 31 Calculating Elasticities Calculating Percentage Changes We can calculate the percentage change in price in a similar way. Once again, let us use the initial value of P—that is, P1—as the base for calculating the percentage. By using P1 as the base, the formula for calculating the percentage of change in P is 1 change in price % change in price x 100% P = 2 1 1 - x 100% P P P =
15. 15. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 15 of 31 Calculating Elasticities Elasticity Is a Ratio of Percentages Once all the changes in quantity demanded and price have been converted to percentages, calculating elasticity is a matter of simple division. Recall the formal definition of elasticity: % change in quantity demanded price elasticity of demand % change in price =
16. 16. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 16 of 31 Calculating Elasticities The Midpoint Formula midpoint formula A more precise way of calculating percentages using the value halfway between P1 and P2 for the base in calculating the percentage change in price, and the value halfway between Q1 and Q2 as the base for calculating the percentage change in quantity demanded. 1 ( 2 change in quantity demanded % change in quantity demanded x 100% ) / 2Q Q = + 2 1 1 2 - x 100% ( ) / 2 Q Q Q Q = +
17. 17. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 17 of 31 Calculating Elasticities The Midpoint Formula Using the point halfway between P1 and P2 as the base for calculating the percentage change in price, we get 1 2 change in price % change in price x 100% ( ) / 2P P = + 2 1 1 2 - x 100% ( ) / 2 P P P P = +
18. 18. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 18 of 31 Calculating Elasticities The Midpoint Formula
19. 19. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 19 of 31 Calculating Elasticities Elasticity Changes Along a Straight-Line Demand Curve TABLE 5.3 Demand Schedule for Office Dining Room Lunches Price (per Lunch) Quantity Demanded (Lunches per Month) \$11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22  FIGURE 5.3 Demand Curve for Lunch at the Office Dining Room Between points A and B, demand is quite elastic at -6.4. Between points C and D, demand is quite inelastic at -.294.
20. 20. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 20 of 31 Calculating Elasticities Elasticity and Total Revenue TR = P x Q total revenue = price x quantity In any market, P x Q is total revenue (TR) received by producers: When price (P) declines, quantity demanded (QD) increases. The two factors, P and QD move in opposite directions: Effects of price changes on quantity demanded: ↑↓→ ↓↑→ and D D QP QP
21. 21. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 21 of 31 Calculating Elasticities Elasticity and Total Revenue Because total revenue is the product of P and Q, whether TR rises or falls in response to a price increase depends on which is bigger: the percentage increase in price or the percentage decrease in quantity demanded. If the percentage decline in quantity demanded following a price increase is larger than the percentage increase in price, total revenue will fall. Effects of price increase on a product with inelastic demand: ↑=↓↑ x D TRQP Effects of price increase on a product with inelastic demand: ↓=↓↑ x D TRQP
22. 22. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 22 of 31 Calculating Elasticities Elasticity and Total Revenue The opposite is true for a price cut. When demand is elastic, a cut in price increases total revenues: When demand is inelastic, a cut in price reduces total revenues: effect of price cut on a product with elastic demand: ↑=↑↓ x D TRQP effect of price cut on a product with inelastic demand: ↓=↑↓ x D TRQP
23. 23. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 23 of 31 The Determinants of Demand Elasticity Availability of Substitutes Perhaps the most obvious factor affecting demand elasticity is the availability of substitutes. The Importance of Being Unimportant When an item represents a relatively small part of our total budget, we tend to pay little attention to its price. The Time Dimension The elasticity of demand in the short run may be very different from the elasticity of demand in the long run. In the longer run, demand is likely to become more elastic, or responsive, simply because households make adjustments over time and producers develop substitute goods.
24. 24. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 24 of 31 The Determinants of Demand Elasticity Who Are the Elastic Smokers? Bill aims to raise tax on cigarettes Seattle Times
25. 25. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 25 of 31 The Determinants of Demand Elasticity Elasticities at a Delicatessen in the Short Run and Long Run The graph shows the expected relationship between long-run and short-run demand for Frank’s sandwiches. Notice if you raise prices above the current level, the expected quantity change read off the short-run curve is less than that from the long-run curve.
26. 26. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 26 of 31 Other Important Elasticities Income Elasticity of Demand income elasticity of demand A measure of the responsiveness of demand to changes in income. incomeinchange% demandedquantityinchange% demandofelasticityincome =
27. 27. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 27 of 31 Other Important Elasticities Cross-Price Elasticity Of Demand cross-price elasticity of demand A measure of the response of the quantity of one good demanded to a change in the price of another good. X Y ofpriceinchange% demandedofquantityinchange% demandofelasticityprice-cross =
28. 28. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 28 of 31 Other Important Elasticities Elasticity Of Supply elasticity of supply A measure of the response of quantity of a good supplied to a change in price of that good. Likely to be positive in output markets. % change in quantity supplied elasticity of supply % change in price =
29. 29. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 29 of 31 Other Important Elasticities Elasticity Of Supply elasticity of labor supply A measure of the response of labor supplied to a change in the price of labor. ratewagein thechange% suppliedlaborofquantityinchange% supplylaborofelasticity =
30. 30. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 30 of 31 cross-price elasticity of demand elastic demand elasticity elasticity of labor supply elasticity of supply income elasticity of demand inelastic demand midpoint formula perfectly elastic demand perfectly inelastic demand price elasticity of demand unitary elasticity REVIEW TERMS AND CONCEPTS
31. 31. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 31 of 31 POINT ELASTICITY (OPTIONAL) A P P E N D I X Consider the straight-line demand curve in Figure 5A.1. We can write an expression for elasticity at point C as follows: 1 1 1 1Q Q 100 100 Q Q % % elasticity Q P P Q P P P PP Q ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ∆ = ⋅ ∆ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ∆ =  FIGURE 5A.1 Elasticity at a Point Along a Demand Curve
32. 32. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 32 of 31 POINT ELASTICITY (OPTIONAL) A P P E N D I X ∆Q/∆P is the reciprocal of the slope of the curve. Slope in the diagram is constant along the curve, and it is negative. To calculate the reciprocal of the slope to plug into the previous electricity equation, we take Q1B, or M1, and divide by minus the length of line segment CQ1. Thus, 1 1 CQ M P Q = ∆ ∆ Since the length of CQ1 is equal to P1, we can write: 1 1 P M P Q = ∆ ∆ By substituting we get: 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 elasticity M M M P P M Q P P M =⋅=⋅=
33. 33. CHAPElasticity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Principles of Economics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster 33 of 31 POINT ELASTICITY (OPTIONAL) A P P E N D I X  FIGURE 5A.2 Point Elasticity Changes Along a Demand Curve