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Srp student motivation_2009 Srp student motivation_2009 Presentation Transcript

  • Supporting StudentsMotivation in School: A Focuson Classroom Support
  • AcknowledgementsLinnenbrink-Garcia Lab• Adar Ben-Eliyahu• Kate Flanagan• Paul O’Keefe• Erika PatallOther Collaborators• Kenn Barron, James Madison Univ.• AnneMarie Conley, UC, Irvine• Amanda Durik, Northern Illinois• Judith Harackiewicz, Univ. of Wisconsin• Stuart Karabenick, Univ. of Michigan• Kristin Koskey, Univ. of Toledo• Christine Manzey, Univ. of Toledo• Emily Messersmith, UNC-CH• Kevin Pugh, Univ. of Northern Colorado• Victoria Stewart, Univ. of Toledo• John Tauer, Univ. of St. ThomasStudy 2 was funded by the National Science FoundationStudy 3 was funded by Duke TIP
  • Outline of Talk• Overview of research• Focus on supporting interest in mathand science– Why is interest important? (Study 1)– How can we support interest? (Study 2, 3)
  • Overview of ResearchMy research focuses on understanding:1) How classroom and school environments, peers,and parents shape students’ positivemotivational beliefs2) How motivational beliefs to academic outcomesACADEMICENGAGEMENT&ACHIEVEMENTMOTIVATIONALBELIEFSCOMPETENCE BELIEFSAcademic Self-EfficacyVALUE-RELATED BELIEFSInterest/ValueAchievement GoalsSOCIAL CONTEXTSCHOOLPEERGROUPHOME
  • Motivational Beliefs• Two primary types of motivational beliefs:1) Can I do this?2) Why do I want to do this?– Reasons for engagement (goal orientations)– Interest/value in a domain• Shaped by the environment and what theindividual brings to the environment
  • FOCUS ON INTEREST(Why do I want to do this?)
  • Individual Interest• Relatively stable, enduringcharacteristic of the individual• Includes both feeling (finding a domainenjoyable) and value (finding a domainpersonally meaningful, useful)
  • Why is Interest Important?Study 1: Focus on Science Learning
  • Students’ Learning in Science• Students’ learning of scientific concepts canbe especially challenging, as many studentsenter the classroom with prior, well-developed, incorrect conceptions or theoriesabout scientific phenomena• These personal theories may interfere withlearning scientifically accepted view• Thus science instruction must often focus onteaching new concepts and overcomingexisting misconceptions (e.g., conceptualchange)
  • Supporting Conceptual Changein Science• To support changes in students’misconceptions, instruction often focuses oncreating cognitive conflict by:– Attempting to identify existing conceptions– Making existing conceptions visible and challengingthem by allowing students to present, discuss, test,and reflect on them• Without high levels of engagement, thiscognitive conflict approach may not be enoughto support conceptual change• Suggests that students’ motivation (e.g.,interest) may also be critically important
  • Does the effectiveness ofcognitive conflict on students’understanding of naturalselection vary as a function ofindividual interest in biology?
  • Study 1 Participants• 126 freshman/sophomore biologystudents from six biology classes taughtby the same instructor• Urban, parochial high school in Ohio• 60% female, 40% male• 75% Caucasian, 15% African American,2% Latino, 1% Asian, 7% mixed
  • Study 1 Procedure• Students assigned to instructional condition fora 4-day unit on natural selection:– Control: no lesson modifications– Conceptual Change (CC): cognitive conflict lessonmodifications• Conceptual understanding of natural selectionmeasured before the intervention (pre),immediately after the unit (post), and fiveweeks after the unit (follow-up)• Individual interest in biology measured beforethe intervention (pre)
  • Significant main effects of time (F = 58.94***), individual interest (F =20.02***), and time x interest x instructional condition interaction (F = 2.69*)11.522.533.544.55Pretest Posttest FollowupConceptualUnderstandingLow Int ControlLow Int CCHigh Int ControlHigh Int CC
  • Summary• Results highlight the importance of individualinterest• Instructional intervention was not enough tofacilitate conceptual change when individualinterest was low• Highlights the importance of supporting anddeveloping individual interest
  • Model of Interest Development(Hidi & Renninger, 2006)Triggered Situational InterestMaintained Situational InterestIndividual InterestContextIndividual
  • Situational Interest• Arises from the environment rather than individual• Two types of situational interest– Triggered Situational Interest• Stimulation of interest• Momentarily grabs attention but does not maintain engagement– Maintained Situational Interest• Heightened enjoyment of the domain supported throughinstruction• Increased personal involvement with the domain, as supportedby instruction• Meaningful connection to the topic or domain being taught
  • Supporting InterestDevelopmentStudy 2: Focus on SituationalInterest
  • Study 2: Participants &Procedure• Participants were middle school (42%) and highschool (58%) students from a large urban schooldistrict in southern California• 52% female, 48% male• Latino (80%), Asian (15%), Caucasian (4%), orAfrican-American (1%)• Fall (Phase I), n = 284– Assessed situational and individual interest inmath• Spring (Phase II), n = 181– Assessed individual interest in math
  • INDIVIDUALINTEREST(FALL)SITUATIONALINTEREST(FALL)INDIVIDUALINTEREST(SPRING).45***.24***Does situational interest in mathpredict changes in adolescents’individual interest in math?
  • What Instructional PracticesSupport Situational Interest andDoes this Lead to Changes inIndividual Interest?Study 3
  • Study 3 Participants• 126 gifted adolescents taking science coursesas part of a 3-week summer residential programin North Carolina• 8th-10th grades (Mean age = 14.6 years)• 54% male, 46% female• Caucasian (71%), Asian American (11%), Latinoor Hispanic (6%), African American (3%), otheror unreported (9%)
  • Study 3 ProcedurePhase I Phase IIIndividualInterestPre Week 3IndividualInterestSituationalInterestResidential Program3 weeksn = 117 n = 110InstructionalTechniquesAchievement
  • Does situational interest predictindividual interest in science?TriggeredSIMaintainedSI-ValueMaintainedSI-FeelingIndividualInterestT2.15*IndividualInterestPhase ISpring 2006Phase IISummer 2006.12*
  • How do Instructional Techniques SupportSituational (SI) Interest in Science?PerceivedChoiceConnectionTo Real LifeInstructorApproach..38***.35***TriggeredSIMaintainedSI-ValueMaintainedSI-FeelingIndividualInterest - TI.19*.35***.21*.27**OpportunityFor Involvement
  • IndividualInterest T1IndividualInterestT2.22**.25***.11*SituationalInterest.34***PerceivedChoiceConnectionTo Real LifeInstructorApproach.OpportunityFor Involvement.37***.13*, z = 3.27***.03, z = 2.51*-.13*Do Instructional Techniques SupportIndividual Interest via Situational Interest?
  • Conclusion• Individual interest is important for enhancingstudents’ learning and engagement in school• Effectiveness of instructional interventions tofacilitate learning may vary as a function of students’interest (and subsequent engagement in theintervention)• Teachers can support situational interest byproviding students with choices and helping to makeconnections of course material to real life, which isin turn associated with changes in domain-levelindividual interest• Suggests that teachers play an important role inshaping students’ interest in school, which can inturn facilitate engagement and learning
  • Thank you…