Direct influence of parents example: encouraging them to study hard Indirect influence of parents example: being generous and kind ot others Children example: when children resist discipline, parents may become less willing to reason and more inclined to use force
The first function is the most fundamental: the goals of economic function and cultural training are of little importance if children do not survive
Indirect socializers: Parents behaviors unintentionally demonstrate skills and communicate information and rules They model attitudes and behaviors toward others, such as helpfulness or aggression Providers and controllers: The managerial role is especially prominent and influential when children are young If parents decide to place their child in day care, for example, the child’s daily experience with peers and adult caregivers will likely differ dramatically from that of young children whose daily care is provided at home by a parent
Parenting styles: parenting behaviors and attitudes that set the emotional climate in regard to parent-child interactions, such as parental responsiveness and demandingness Some parents are strict rule setters who expect complete and immediate compliance from their children. Others are more likely to allow their children some leeway in following the standards they have set for them. Still others seem oblivious to what their children do. Parents differ in the overall emotional tone they bring to their parenting, especially with regard to the warmth and support they convey to their children.
Warm parents: See when their children are upset and try to comfort them Enjoy hearing their children describe the day’s activities Children typically feel happy and secure and are better behaved Uninvolved: Aren’t interested in their children’s activities, considering it a waste of their time Pay little attention to their children’s emotional-states and invest little effort comforting them when they’re upset Children are often anxious and less controlled, children often have low self-esteem
Behaviorally-controlling parents Set reasonable standard for their children They know where their children are, what they’re doing, and with whom When parents enforce the rules erratically: children come to see the rules as optional instead of obligatory and try to avoid complying with them Inconsistent discipline is associated with the onset of psychological problems in children
Parenting style is fairly stable over time. Parents who are authoritative with their school-age children tend to be authoritative with their adolescents.
Children seem to benefit most from authoritative parenting Children growing up in poverty seem to benefit from authoritarian parenting: When youngsters grow up in neighborhoods with a lot of violence and crime, strict obedience to parents can protect children
Most often occurs between mother and her son. The feedback that the son learns: whining, complaining, etc works. The mother rewards the behavior by withdrawing the request that the son did not like. Behavior is strengthened when it is followed by removing something that is disliked.
Drawbacks to punishment: Punishment is primarily suppressive: if a new behavior isn’t learned to replace it, the old response will come back Punishment can have undesirable side effects: children become upset as they are being punished which makes it unlikely that they will understand the feedback that punishment is meant to convey. When children are punished physically – they often imitate this behavior with peers and younger siblings. Children who are spanked often use aggression to resolve their disputes with others and are more likely to have behavior problems
Parenting behavior and styles evolve as a consequence of child’s behavior. Children’s behavior helps determine how parents treat them and the resulting parental behavior influences children’s behavior, which can in turn cause parents to again change their behavior. This reciprocal influence lead many families to adopt routine ways of interacting with each other. Some families end up running smoothly (parents and children cooperate, anticipate each other’s needs, and are generally happy). Some families end up in trouble (disagreements are common, parents spend much time trying to unsuccessfully control their defiant children, and everyone is often angry and upset).
Mothers of unappealing infants are more likely than other mothers to attend to other people who are in the vicinity rather than to their infants and to report that their infants interfere with their lives This pattern continues – attractive children tend to elicit more positive responses from adults
Some experts estimate that 20% to 25% of children from divorced families exhibit significant problems compared to 10% of children in intact families
Little information is known about family life with dad’s as head of household. Virginia Longitudinal Study of Divorce and Remarriage conducted by Mavis Hetherington (1988, 1999, 2002) Traced the lives of families for several years after divorce along with comparison of sample of families who were not divorced First few months: Mothers and children suffer the distress of a major change in life circumstances -- They also accepted less mature behavior from their children and they have a harder time controlling their children Children regresses to less mature forms of behavior and mothers were less able to parent effectively Fathers also were less able to control their children (extremely indulgent) Two years: Mothers were more affectionate They were more likely to expect age-appropriate behavior from their children and discipline their children effectively Fathers also demanded more mature behavior of their children, but many had become relatively uninvolved with their children Six years: Mothers and daughters grew extremely close Mothers often complained about their sons who resisted discipline – mothers and sons were frequently in conflict and neither was very happy with the other or with family life in general Conflict between parents and adolescents is common for married parents but this conflict is more intense for single moms with adolescent sons
When children of divorced parents become adults, the effects of divorce persist. As adults children of divorce are more likely to become teenage parents and to become divorced parents themselves As adults they report less satisfaction with life and are more likely to become depressed Custody: if parents don’t get along, joint custody is out of the question. Mothers still more likely to get custody. But, fathers are gaining custody of their sons. Boys are less likely to become involved in negative reinforcement traps
Younger children may have more trouble understanding the causes and consequences of divorce, may be more anxious about abandonment by their parents, and may be more likely to blame themselves for the divorce Older children may understand it more, but they are at risk for adjustment problems, such as poor academic achievement, and negative relationships with their peers College students are the least reactive because of their maturity and relative independence from the family
Within each type of play – older children displayed more cognitively mature behavior than younger children. Functional play : In Piaget’s and Smilansky’s terminology, the lowest cognitive level of play, involving repetitive muscular movements. Constructive play : In Piaget’s and Smilansky’s terminology, the second cognitive level of play, involving use of objects or materials to make something. Pretend play : In Piaget’s and Smilansky’s terminology, the third cognitive level of play, involving imaginary people or situations; also called fantasy play, dramatic play , or imaginative play . Formal games with rules: In Piaget’s and Smilansky’s terminology, the fourth cognitive level of play, involving organized games with known procedures and penalties, such as hopscotch and marbles.
These pie charts show how the nature of young children’s play changes dramatically in a few years. Howes and Matheson (1992) observed 1 to 5 years olds interacting with their peers at a day-care center. The majority of 1.5 year olds spent time in parallel play. By the time children were 4 years old, parallel play was less common and cooperative play was the norm.
The FamilyFamilies form a system of interactingelementsParents and children influence one another‐ Parents influence their children both directly andindirectly‐ Children influence their parents‐ Children’s behaviors, attitudes, and interests affect howtheir parents behave toward them
In the systems view, families,parents and children influenceeach other and parent‐childrelations are influenced by otherindividuals and institutions
Function of FamiliesSurvival of offspring‐ Families help to ensure that children survive to maturity byattending to their physical needs, health needs, and safetyEconomic function‐ Families provide the means for children to acquire the skills andother resources they need to be economically productive inadulthoodCultural training‐ Families teach children the basic values in their culture
Parental SocializationParents as direct instructors‐ Parents may directly teach their children skills, rules, and strategies andexplicitly inform or advise them on various issuesParents as indirect socializers‐ Parents provide indirect socialization in the course of their day‐to‐dayinteractions with their childrenParents as providers and controllers of opportunities‐ Parents manage children’s experiences and social lives, including theirexposure to positive or negative experiences, their opportunities to playwith certain toys and children, and their exposure to various kinds ofinformation
Parenting DimensionsThere are two general dimensions of parentalbehavior‐ The degree of warmth and responsiveness thatparents show their children‐ The amount of control parents exert over theirchildren
Warmth and ResponsivenessAt one of the spectrum are parents who areopenly warm and affectionate with theirchildrenAt the other end of the spectrum are parentswho are relatively uninvolved with theirchildren and sometimes even hostile towardthem
Parental ControlParents’ efforts to supervise and monitor their children’sbehaviorEffective control‐ Setting standards that are appropriate for the child’s age‐ Showing the child how to meet the standards‐ Rewarding the child for complying to these standardsParents should enforce the standards consistently‐ Children and adolescents are more compliant when parents enforcethe rules regularlyEffective control is also based on good communication‐ Parents should explain why they’ve set standards and why theyreward or punish as they do
Parental Styles (Baumrind)Authoritarian parenting‐ High parental control with little warmthAuthoritative parenting‐ A fair degree of parental control with beingwarm and responsive to childrenIndulgent‐permissive parenting‐ Warmth and caring but little parental controlIndifferent‐uninvolved parenting‐ Neither warmth nor control
Children with authoritarian parents typically havelower grades in school, lower self‐esteem, and areless skilled sociallyChildren with authoritative parents tend to havehigher grades and be responsible, self‐reliant, andfriendlyChildren with indulgent‐permissive parents havelower grades and are often impulsive and easilyfrustratedChildren with indifferent‐uninvolved parents havelow self‐esteem and are impulsive, aggressive, andmoody
How Can Parents Influence Their Children?Direct Instruction‐ Telling a child what to do, when and whyLearning by Observing (modeling)‐ Learning what to do by watching‐ Learning what not to do (counterimitation)Feedback‐ Parents indicate whether a behavior is appropriate and shouldcontinue or should stop
FeedbackReinforcement‐ Any action that increases the likelihood of theresponse that it followsPunishment‐ Any action that discourages the reoccurrence ofthe response that it follows
Negative Reinforcement TrapParents often unwittingly reinforce the very behaviorsthey want to discourage‐ First step: The mother tells her son to do something hedoesn’t want to do‐ Second step: The son responds with some behavior thatmost parents find intolerable‐ Third step: The mother gives in – tells the son he doesn’tneed to do as he was initially told as long as he stops doingthe behavior that is so intolerable
Punishment Works Best When:Administered directly after the undesired behavioroccurs, rather than hours laterAn undesired behavior always leads to punishment,rather than usually or occasionallyAccompanied by an explanation of why the child waspunished and how punishment can be avoided in thefutureThe child has a warm, affectionate relationship withthe person administering the punishment
Drawbacks to punishmentPunishment is primarily suppressive: if a newbehavior isn’t learned to replace it, the oldresponse will come back.Punishment can have undesirable side effects:‐ Children become upset as they are being punishedwhich makes it unlikely that they will understandthe feedback that punishment is meant to convey.‐ When children are punished physically – they oftenimitate this behavior with peers and youngersiblings.
Children who are spanked oftenuse aggression to resolve theirdisputes with others and are morelikely to have behavior problems
Parenting behavior and styles evolve as aconsequence of the child’s behavior.Children’s behavior helps determine howparents treat them and the resultingparental behavior influences children’sbehavior, which can in turn cause parentsto again change their behavior.
This reciprocal influence lead many familiesto adopt routine ways of interacting witheach other.Some families end up running smoothly(parents and children cooperate, anticipateeach other’s needs, and are generally happy).Some families end up in trouble(disagreements are common, parents spendmuch time trying to unsuccessfully controltheir defiant children, and everyone is oftenangry and upset).
Children’s InfluenceParental warmth gradually changes aschildren develop‐ Hugs and kisses work with toddlers not withadolescentsParental control gradually changes aschildren develop‐ Parents gradually relinquish control and expectchildren to be responsible for themselves
AttractivenessMothers of very attractive infants are moreaffectionate and playful with their infants than aremother of infants with unappealing facesWhy?‐ An evolutionary explanation would propose thatparents are motivated to invest more time andenergy into offspring who are healthy andgenetically fit and therefore likely to survive‐ Attractiveness could be seen as an indicator ofthese characteristics
DivorceNearly half of all first marriages end indivorce‐ Every year approximately one million Americanchildren have parents who divorceDivorce is distressing for children because itinvolves conflict between parents andusually separation from one of them
Family Life After DivorceChildren usually live with their mothers‐ About 15% of children live with their fathers after divorceHow does life change (based on the Virginia LongitudinalStudy)?‐ First few months after divorce, many mothers are lessaffectionate toward their children‐ Two years after the divorce, mother‐child relationshipsimprove, particularly for daughters‐ Six years after the divorce, children in the study wereadolescents‐ Family life continued to improve for mothers anddaughters‐ Family life was problematic for mothers and sons
Impact of Divorce on ChildrenChildren whose parents had divorced fare poorlycompared to children from intact families in:‐ School achievement‐ Conduct‐ Adjustment‐ Self‐concept‐ Parent‐child relationsChildren adjust to divorce more readily if theirdivorced parents cooperate with each other,especially on disciplinary matters‐ Children benefit from joint custody if parents getalong
Divorce’s Influence on DevelopmentThe absence of one parent means that children losea role model, a source of parental help andemotional support, and a supervisorSingle‐parent families experience economichardship‐ Creates stress and often means activities oncetaken for granted are no longer availableConflict between parents is extremely distressingto children and adolescents‐ Particularly for children who are emotionallyinsecure
Which Children are Affected?The overall impact of divorce is about the same for boys andgirls‐ However, divorce is more harmful when it occurs duringchildhood and adolescence than during preschool orcollege yearsWith regard to parents’ remarriage, young adolescentsappear to be more negatively affected than younger children‐ Young adolescents’ struggles with issues of identity areheightened by the presence of a new parent who hasauthority to control them and is a sexual partner of theirbiological parent
Peer RelationsChildren’s skills at interacting with peersimproves rapidly‐ Children are becoming increasingly self‐aware,more effective at communicating, and better atunderstanding the thoughts and feelings ofothers
What are some benefits of play?Play and social development go hand andhand.Play offers many opportunities to be withother children and to share, take turns,disagree, and compromise (Mitchell andDavis, 1992).While at play, children are increasing theirself awareness and are becoming moreinvolved in cooperative play.
Benefits of playEmotionally, children develop greater selfawareness and they are more able to predictthe emotions of others.According to Huffnung (1997) children willdevelop empathy or the ability to appreciatethe feeling of others and understand theirpoint of view.‐ If one child begins an activity, it is likely that hisfriends will want to follow along.
Developmental Sequence ofCognitive PlayPlay Category Description ExamplesFunctionalPlaySimple, repetitivemotor movements withor without objects.Especially commonduring the first 2 yearsof life.Running around aroom, rolling a car backand forth, kneadingclay with no intent tomake somethingConstructivePlayCreating or constructingsomething. Especiallycommon between 3 and6 years.Making a house out oftoy blocks, drawing apicture, puttingtogether a puzzlePretend PlayActing out everydayand imaginary roles.Especially commonbetween 2 and 6 years.Playing house, school,or police officer; Actingout storybook ortelevision characters
Partens Five Types of PlayMildred Parten (1932) was one of the earlyresearchers studying children at play. Shefocused on the social interactions betweenchildren during play activities.Recent research suggests that children donot necessarily spend more time in socialtypes of play as they get older, but rathertheir play within each category becomesmore cognitively mature (Berk, 2004)
Partens Five Types of PlayOnlooker behavior ‐ Playing passively by watching or conversing(or asking questions) with other childrenengaged in play activities.These children seem to move closer to agroup rather than watching whatevermomentarily catches their attention.
All by myself play…Solitary independent ‐ Playing byoneself. ‐ A child plays alone with objects.Even if the child is within speakingdistance of others, the child doesnot alter her or his play or interactwith others.
Solitary Play – Good or Bad?Some forms of solitary play are signs that children areuneasy interacting with others‐ Wandering aimlessly‐ A child that goes from one preschool activity to the next, as iftrying to decide what to do‐ They just keep wandering, never settling into play with others orinto constructive solitary play‐ Hovering‐ A child stand nearby peers who are playing, watching them playbut not participating
Parallel PlayPlaying, even in the middle of a group,while remaining engrossed in ones ownactivity.‐ Children playing parallel to each othersometimes use each others toys, but alwaysmaintain their independence. ‐ “He plays beside rather than with the otherchildren" (Parten, 1932).
Associative PlayWhen children share materials and talkto each other, but do not coordinateplay objectives or interests. ‐ All the children in the group are doing similaractivities, but specific roles and goals are notdefined.
A Group EffortExample: When several children make sandcastles at the beach, they may share the job ofmaking walls and digging the moats, andperhaps consult with one another aboutdigging a channel to these.BUT…as members of the group lose interestand wander off, others may joining the activity.
Cooperative playThis type of play occurs when childrenorganize themselves into roles with specificgoals in mind‐ They help each other accomplish a joint venture,such as selling lemonade or building a fort fortheir “club”Think back…What are some examples ofYOUR cooperative play?
Cooperative PlayExample: while playing hospital theyassign the roles of doctor, nurse, andpatient.Each member of the group remains withthe task until it is finished or the groupdecides together to go on to otheractivities.
The progression from solitary toparallel to associative to cooperativeplay reflects the childs growingability to sustain his interests andrelate to other children.Click on the picture for a video on play
Typical 1 ½-year-old Typical 4-year-oldParallel Play Associative Play Cooperative Play
Sociodramatic PlayAs children develop the ability to representexperiences symbolically, pretend play becomesa prominent activity.‐ Pretend play is when children act out various rolesand themes in stories that they create themselves.By the age of four or five, childrens ideasabout the social world initiate most pretendplay.
Sociodramatic PlayActions in play often reflect real world behavior, theyalso incorporate childrens interpretations and wishes.Through dramatic play, children learn to assertthemselves in a way to build their competence in lateradult roles (Elkind, 1981).‐ Children explore and rehearse social roles they haveobserved in society‐ A child learns basic life skills such as cooperation,negotiation and compromise through play.Click for a video on thistype of play!
Is there any value to sociodramatic play?When children play dress‐up they are takingon the role of someone else. By doing this,children must try to think and behave in amanner appropriate to their pretend persona.Such Sociodramatic play also helps them tounderstand others and develop feelings ofempathy.