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Karnaugh Map


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  • 1. KARNAUGH MAP Presented By: Syed Absar Karim (EP076268)
  • 2. Introduction
    • The Karnaugh map (also known as a Veitch diagram) was invented in 1953 by Maurice Karnaugh, a telecommunications engineer at Bell Labs. It is a graphical way of minimizing Boolean expressions. An expression’s truth table is drawn as a matrix in such a way that each row and each column of the matrix puts minterms that differ in the value of a single variable adjacent to each other. Then, by grouping adjacent cells of the matrix, you can identify product terms that eliminate all complemented literals, resulting in a minimized version of the expression.
  • 3. Properties
    • Normally, extensive calculations are required to obtain the minimal expression of a Boolean function, but one can use a Karnaugh map instead.
    • A Karnaugh map may have any number of variables, but usually works best when there are only a few - between 2 and 6 for example .
    • Each square in a Karnaugh map corresponds to a minterm (and maxterm). The picture to the right shows the location of each minterm on the map.
  • 4. Size of Map
    • In a Karnaugh map with n variables, a Boolean term mentioning k of them will have a corresponding rectangle of area 2 n − k . Common sized maps are of 2 variables which is a 2x2 map; 3 variables which is a 2x4 map; and 4 variables which is a 4x4 map
    • For problems involving more than six variables, solving the Boolean expressions is more preferred than the Karnaugh map.
  • 5.  
  • 6. SOP & POS
    • A Karnaugh map can also be drawn for 0’s as well as 1’s
    • The SOP (Sum of Product) expression refers to drawing of a Karnaugh map in which high values (1’s) are plotted. The simplified equation comes in SOP form such as (A.B)+(B.C)
    • The POS (Product of Sum) expression represents the low (0) values in the Karnaugh Map. The simplified equation comes in POS form like (A+B).(C+D)
    Pairs, Quads & Octets
    • A group of two adjacent 1’s in the Veitch Diagram is known as Pair.
    • The quad is a group of four 1’s that are end to end, or in the form of a square. Two variables and their compliments drop out of the Boolean equation in the quad.
    • An octet is a group of eight adjacent 1’s. an octet always eliminates three variables and their complements
  • 7. Don't cares
    • Karnaugh maps also allow easy minimizations of functions whose truth tables include " don't care " conditions
    • They are usually indicated on the map with a hyphen / dash / X in place of the number .
    • The value can be a " 0, " " 1, " or the hyphen / dash / X depending on if one can use the " 0 " or " 1 " to simplify the Karnaugh Map more .
  • 8. Thank You
    • References:
    • Digital Fundamentals (Floyd)
    • Digital Computer Electronics (Malvino Brown)
    • Wikipedia, The free Encyclopedia