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Dna strycture 2
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  • 1. DNA THE ALPHABET OF LIFE
  • 2. Stores and passes on genetic information from one generation to another. DNA DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID
  • 3. DNA STRUCTURE THE DNA STRUCTURE IS SHAPED LIKED A SPIRAL STAIRCASE, OR TWISTED LADDER.
  • 4. DNA STRUCTURE (An Overview)
    • DNA has three main components:
    • Deoxyribose ( pentose sugar)
    • Base (there are four different ones)
    • Phosphate group
  • 5. The deoxyribose sugar of the DNA backbone has 5 carbons and 3 oxygens. DNA STRUCTURE
  • 6. DNA STRUCTURE THE STEPS OF THE LADDER ARE MADE OF PAIRS OF NITROGEN BASES.
  • 7. DNA STRUCTURE
    • They are divided into two groups
      • Pyrimidines and purines
    • Pyrimidines (made up of 6 atoms 4 carbon 2 nitrogen rings)
      • Thymine
      • Cytosine
    • Purines (larger of the two bases; made up of 9 atoms that make up the fused rings 5 carbon, 4 nitrogen )
      • Adenine
      • Guanine
  • 8. DNA STRUCTURE
    • ADENINE = A
    • GUANINE = G
    • CYTOSINE = C
    • THYMINE = T
    • They are represented by their capital letter.
  • 9. DNA STRUCTURE There is only one way the nitrogen bases can form ADENINE pairs with THYMINE GUANINE pairs with CYTOSINE
  • 10. DNA STRUCTURE QUESTION ? CAN C JOIN WITH A AND G JOIN WITH T YES NO
  • 11. CORRECT MOVE ON
  • 12. SORRY REVIEW MORE
  • 13. DNA STRUCTURE Nucleotides Nucleotides are formed by the condensation of a pentose sugar, phosphate and one of the 4 bases The following illustration represents one nucleotide CIRCLE = Phosphate PENTAGON= Deoxyribose Rectangle= Base
  • 14. DNA STRUCTURE DNA Double Helix and Hydrogen Bonding
    • Made of two strands of nucleotides that are joined together by hydrogen bonding
    • Hydrogen bonding occurs as a result of complimentary base pairing
      • Adenine and thymine pair up
      • Cytosine and guanine pair up
      • Each pair is connected through hydrogen bonding
      • Hydrogen bonding always occurs between one pyrimidine and one purine
  • 15. DNA STRUCTURE
    • Adenine always pairs with thymine because they form two H bonds with each other
    • Cytosine always pairs with guanine because they form three hydrogen bonds with each other
  • 16. DNA STRUCTURE Antiparallel strands The strands run opposite of each other. The 5’ end always has the phosphate attached. ’
  • 17. SAMPLE QUESTION Which of the following nucleotide base sequences complements the section of DNA modeled above? F. 5′UTCGCA3′ G. 5′TTAGCG3′ H. 5′GCGATT3′ J. 5′TTUCGC3′ 3′AATCGC 5′
  • 18. SAMPLE QUESTION The Correct Answer: G G is the right answer because A (adenine) always pairs with T (thymine) and C (cytosine) always pair with (guanine).