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  1. 1. Vitamins Compiled and Edited by Dr. Syed Ismail Associate Professor, SSAC VN Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, India
  2. 2. What are vitamins? • • • • • Organic molecules with a wide variety of functions Cofactors for enzymatic reactions Essential, supplied in the diet Two distinct types: Fat soluble (A, D, E, K) Water soluble (B – complex, C) Vitamins are organic molecules that are essential for normal health and growth. They are required in trace amounts and must be obtained from the diet because they are not synthesized in the body. Before vitamins were discovered, it was known that lime juice prevented the disease scurvy in sailors and that cod liver oil could prevent rickets. In 1912, scientists found that, in addition to carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, certain other factors called vitamins must be obtained from the diet.
  3. 3. Why are they good for us? Greater need due to worse environment Improve immunity Prevent ilnesses Slower aging
  4. 4. Soluble in aqueous solutions Watersoluble vitamins Used as cofactors by many enzymes Not stored in the body
  5. 5. Fat-Soluble Vitamins A Are A, D, E, and K. D E K Soluble in lipids, but not in aqueous solutions Important in vision, bone formation, antioxidants, and blood clotting Stored in the body
  6. 6. Fat-Soluble Vitamins
  7. 7. Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Was the first B vitamin identified. Is part of the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate(TPP). TPP coenzyme is required by enzymes in the decarboxylation of -keto carboxylic acids. Deficiency results in beriberi (fatigue, weight loss, and nerve degeneration).
  8. 8. Thiamine Influences sacharide metabolism Helps against tiredness Is destroyed by severe washings of rice and vegetables Severe deficiency leads to beriberi Sources: yeasts, cereals,rice, liver, legumes
  9. 9. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) 80 Made of the sugar alcohol ribitol and flavin 55% Part of the coenzymes flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). 30% Needed for good vision and healthy skin O D. Description of the contents H3C N H3C N N N H O D-Ribitol CH2 CH CH CH CH2 OH OH OH OH
  10. 10. Sacharide and lipids metabolism Curing of skin diseases Support of sight function Light sensitive Sources: cerals, eggs, vegetables, dairy products, yeast, liver
  11. 11. Niacin (Vitamin B3) • Is part of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) involved in oxidationreduction reactions. • Deficiency can result in dermatitis, muscle fatigue, and loss of appetite. • Is found in meats, rice, and whole grains.
  12. 12. Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) • Is part of coenzyme A needed for energy production as well as glucose and cholesterol synthesis. • Deficiency can result in fatigue, retarded growth and anemia. • Part of coenzyme A • Reduces stress, prevents tiredness • Necessary for formation of glycogen, fatty acids, steroid hormones • Sources: whole grains, and vegetables ,eggs,liver, heart, yeast CH3 OH O HO CH2 C CH3 O CH C N CH2 H CH2 C OH
  13. 13. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) • Pyridoxine and pyridoxal are two forms of vitamin B6, which are converted to the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). • PLP is required in the transamination of amino acids and decarboxylation of carboxylic acids. • Deficiency of pyridoxine may lead to dermatitis, fatigue, and anemia.
  14. 14. Pyridoxine • Aminoacids and protein metabolism • Cure of anemy • Formation of red blood cells • Sources: meat, fish, liver, vegetables, cerals, yolk, legumes
  15. 15. Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) • Consists of four pyrrole rings with a Co2+. • Is a coenzyme for enzymes that transfer methyl groups and produce red blood cells. • Deficiency can lead to pernicious anemia and nerve damage.
  16. 16. Cyanocobalamin • Formation of red blood cells • Maintenance of neuro tissue • Cure of neuro diseases, anemia • Sources: dairy products, meat, poultry, sea products
  17. 17. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) • Is required in collagen synthesis. • Deficiency can lead to weakened connective tissue, slow-healing wounds, and anemia. • Is found in Indian gooseberries, blueberries, citrus fruits, tomatoes, broccoli, red and green vegetables. CH2OH O HO O CHOH OH
  18. 18. Vitamin C • Hormone, collagen synthesis • Infection resistance, cure of cuts • Hypervitaminosis: addiction, diarrhea • Hypovitaminosis: scurvy • Source: fruits,vegetables
  19. 19. Vitamin A • Vitamin A is obtained from meats and beta-carotenes in plants. • Beta-carotenes are converted by liver enzymes to vitamin A (retinol). H3C CH3 CH3 Beta-carotene CH3 CH3 CH3 H3C H3C CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 H3C CH3 CH3 CH2OH Retinol (vitamin A) 21
  20. 20. Vitamin A and provitaminA • • • • Retinol Cancer cure and prevention Skin, eyes, genital glands Provitamin changes to A vitamin in liver • Sources: liver, egg yolks, dairy products • provitamin: carrots, pepper, spinach, yellow fruits Compiled & Edited by Dr.Syed Ismail,MAU, Parbhani 22
  21. 21. Vitamin D Vitamin D (D3): • Is synthesized in skin exposed to sunlight. • Regulates the absorption of phosphorus and calcium during bone growth. • Deficiency can result in weakened bones. • Sources include cod liver oil, egg yolk, and enriched milk.
  22. 22. Vitamin D • • • • Calciferols the sun vitamin (UV rays) regulation of calcium metabolism sources: yeasts, fish, yolks, dairy products 25
  23. 23. Vitamin E • Is an antioxidant in cells. • May prevent the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. • Is found in vegetable oils, whole grains, and vegetables. CH3 HO CH3 H3C O CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3
  24. 24. Vitamin E Tocoferols • Antioxidant (lipid protection) • improves immunity • Cures muscle, heart and skin diseases, burns • Sources: green vegetables, vegetable oil, corn, eggs, bread, dairy products, peas, beans
  25. 25. Vitamin K • Vitamin K1 in plants has a saturated side chain. • Vitamin K2 in animals has a long unsaturated side chain. • Vitamin K2 is needed for the synthesis of zymogens for blood clotting. O O CH3 CH3 CH3 3 O CH3 CH3 n CH3 Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) O CH3 CH3 Vitamin K2 (menaquinone)
  26. 26. Vitamin K • Blood clotting • Higher need by newborns, people with liver diseases, or fat malabsorbtion • Sources: green fruits and vegetables, tomatoes, soy, beef liver, yolks, wheat, butter, cheese Compiled & Edited by Dr.Syed Ismail,MAU, Parbhani 29
  27. 27. Daily values: Vitamin: Daily values [mg]: A (retinol) 1-3 B1 (thiamine) 30 - 200 B2 (riboflavin) 25 - 200 B3 (niacin, niacinamid) 30 - 100 B5 (Pantothenic acid) 20 - 500 B6 (pyridoxine) 10 - 15 B12 (Cynocobalamine) 5-8 H (Biotin) 300 - 5000 C (Ascorbic acid) 2 - 12 g D (cholecalciferol) 10 E (tokoferol) 400 - 2000 K 80
  28. 28. Thank You!