PBL Presentation Scenario 2 Tan Kai Ching Tang Jia Hui Joyce Tong Hui Min Wang Dan
Jeremy ’s Problems at a Glance…
Problem Statement <ul><li>How can a student learn effectively in an environment without love and support? </li></ul>
Inquiry Questions <ul><li>1) How can classroom management affect students' learning?  </li></ul><ul><li>2) What is the bes...
Inquiry Question 1 <ul><li>How can classroom management affect students' learning? </li></ul>
Hypothesis <ul><li>If teachers fail to implement effective classroom management, then students will encounter learning dif...
Learning Issue (1) Understand how the different classroom management strategies can be employed to improve students ’ clas...
Learning Issue (2) Understand how teachers can use their behavior to motivate students.
Failures of Mr Tan
Operant Conditioning Theory (Skinner, 1968)
A. Improve Group Dynamics Social Constructivist Theory (Vygotsky, 1978)
A. Improve Group Dynamics <ul><li>Develop a perception of group cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of social nor...
B. Acknowledge effort  <ul><li>Positive reinforcements (Skinner, 1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide immediate and positive fe...
C. Mediate Disciplinary Problems <ul><li>Designing and Maintaining a Behavioural Management System </li></ul><ul><li>Combi...
Failures of Miss Low
Motivational Theory  (Schunk Pintrich & Meece, 2008) <ul><li>Motivation is the force that energizes and directs a behavior...
A. Teacher ’s Expectations <ul><li>Practise positive teacher attitudes. (Brophy, 2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the ne...
B. Caring Teachers <ul><li>Show that  ‘YOU’ care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sensitive to procedures that may &quot;threaten&...
C. Fostering Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977) <ul><ul><li>Help students experience success that is attributable to past and p...
Inquiry Question 2 <ul><li>What is the best form of learning support that parents can provide for their children? </li></ul>
Hypothesis <ul><li>If parents are physically present and participating actively in the child's learning process, then the ...
Learning Issue (3)  <ul><li>Understand how parenting styles can influence a child's learning and identify specific measure...
Parent’s Problem <ul><li>Authoritarian Parenting Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St...
Authoritarian Parenting Style 1. Stress conformity Set exercises to Jeremy and arrange a lot of tuition classes, enrichmen...
Authoritarian Parenting Style 2. Detached Jeremy get to see his maid more than his parents. 3. Do not encourage verbal giv...
Jeremy’s  Characteristics  1. Withdrawn Jeremy has never felt that he belonged anywhere. 2. Worry more about pleasing pare...
Jeremy’s Characteristics 3. Defiant Jeremy couldn’t contain his anger anymore. He slammed his table and then stormed out o...
Behaviorist Theory <ul><li>Premack principle  (Premack, 1959, 1963) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities become reinforcers. <...
A. Positive Reinforcement <ul><li>Reinforcing positive behavior is superior to those using punishment (Alberto & Troutman,...
B. Authoritative Parents <ul><li>Firm but at the same time providing a caring and loving environment </li></ul><ul><li>Pro...
Inquiry Question 3 <ul><li>How can the adoption of suitable learning styles affects learning ? </li></ul>
Hypothesis <ul><li>If students can identify and acquire the right learning styles, then they would be able to learn effect...
Learning Issue (4) <ul><li>Understand how to adopt the right learning styles and how teachers can make use of this informa...
Cognitive Learning Theory
VAK Learning Style  (Butler, 1989) <ul><li>Definition of VAK Learning Style </li></ul><ul><li>Category of  VAK learning st...
Jeremy’ s Learning Style Hypothesis  Visual  Learners Hints Jeremy failed every subject in final exams except for Art Perc...
Solutions <ul><li>There should be congruence between students' preferred learning styles and the teacher's preferred teach...
Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Teacher needs to present information using all three styles: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Help student...
References <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Brophy, J. (2004)  Motivating Students to learn  (2nd Edition). Boston: McGraw-...
References <ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura, Albert (1993). Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and...
References <ul><li>Maria Poulou (2007): Personal Teaching Efficacy and Its Sources: Student teachers’ perceptions,  Educat...
References <ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Management  http://www.apa.org/education/k12/classroom-mgmt.aspx <...
 
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  • With reference to Skinner&apos;s Operant Conditioning Theory, creating more positive associations and removing negative associations will increase student participation.
  • Guide Jeremy to the correct answer.
  • Learner&apos;s motivation is the primary factor influencing both test performance and success in school. Positive correlation between motvation and achievement
  • The teacher should monitor her verbal and non-verbal communications to students. The teacher should check to see if her tone, body language, body distance an chose of words vary drastically form student to student. Do not discriminately interact with the student in the classroom. When calling low-achievers to answer questions, provide them with prompts or cues to guide correct response. Questions ask should be challenging and yet achievable for the low-achiever. Also allow them ample time to respond.  practice unconditional positive regard for students believing in the potential of the individual and not based on his behavior.     Caring Students who perceived that teachers cared about them reported positive motivational outcomes. Students want teachers to treat them both as learners and as people. Students are more engaged in classroom activities when they perceive teachers as liking them and are responsive to their needs. Good &amp; Brophy (1997) suggested that a teacher expecting specific behavior and achievement from a student will behave differently board the student. For example, a teacher may wait less time for students who are assumed to be low achievers to answer of she may criticize these low expectancy students more often. This treatment by the teacher tells each student what behavior and achievement the teacher expects from him and affects his self- concept achievement and motivation and level of aspiration.
  • The teacher should monitor her verbal and non-verbal communications to students. The teacher should check to see if her tone, body language, body distance an chose of words vary drastically form student to student. Do not discriminately interact with the student in the classroom. When calling low-achievers to answer questions, provide them with prompts or cues to guide correct response. Questions ask should be challenging and yet achievable for the low-achiever. Also allow them ample time to respond. Help students experience success that is attributable to past and present effort. Focus on seeing how hard students worked to get there rather than only using words to encourage them. For Jeremy, since the teacher already knew that he had a lot of tuitions - the possible cause for sleeping in class, the teacher should encourage him and help him out whenever she can and see the effort Jeremy is trying to put in, not using words to attack him.  Self - Efficacy - beliefs about capability Emotions - feelings of anxiety can reduce self-efficacy by filling working memory with thoughts of failure, and psychological factors such as fatigue and hunger.  Perceived self-efficacy can enhance memory performance directly and increase cognitive processing of information. Likewise, if a student has negative perceptions of self-efficacy, both memory performance and cognitive efforts are negatively affected - decrease in motivation to learn.
  • For Jeremy, since the teacher already knew that he had a lot of tuitions - the possible cause for sleeping in class, the teacher should encourage him and help him out whenever she can and see the effort Jeremy is trying to put in, not using words to attack him. 
  • According to Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory, parents and other caregivers are perhaps the most powerful influences on children’s
  • Certain parenting styles, general patterns of interacting with and disciplining children influence child ’s motivation to learn. Authoritarian Parents
  • Lack of love, care and support from his parent and
  • Students will be more motivated to perform a particular activity if they know that they will able to take part in a more desirable activity as a consequence. Scenario: In his mind, he could visualize what his mum is going to say to him later: “what’s wrong with you? We spend so much money on you every month, spending you to tuition classes and all and this is what you get? You are such disappointment! We will stop your swimming lessons then. You will take up more tuition on weekends as well” He dreads the thought of that. He enjoyed his swimming lessons a lot. (Scene 4) is a decrease in behavior that occur when a stimulus is removed, or when an punishment instead of individual cannot receive positive reinforcement. or the Relativity Theory of Reinforcement , states that more probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behaviors. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premack&apos;s_principle
  • Removal punishment is not working for Jeremy
  • reduce Jeremy tuition classes and extra assessment so that Jeremy has enough rest time. With the enough rest time, Jeremy will not doze off in the class which may affect his learning.
  • Yes true must, but we need the cooperation of teacher to tailor to the needs of the students, students identify, not enugh to help improve results. Schols to tailor their lessons to mfit the needs of students
  • Cognitive learning threory--- cognition Explain perception and memory, relate to Jeremy ’ s case. solution---VAK, is composed of a combination of perception and memory.
  • Learning style ” means here a coherent whole of learning activities that students usually employ, their learning orientation and their mental model of learning; a whole that is characteristic of them at a certain period. Choosing the best learning method is part of metalearning—being aware of and taking control of one&apos;s learning (Biggs, 1985). This concept is related to metacognition . VAK learning style--- Visual , Auditory, and Kinesthetic The VAK learning style uses the three main sensory receivers: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic (movement) to determine the dominant learning style. It is sometimes known as VAKT (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, &amp; Tactile). It is based on modalities— channels by which human expression can take place and is composed of a combination of perception and memory.
  • To integrate this style into the learning environment: Use graphs, charts, illustrations, or other visual aids. Include outlines, concept maps, agendas, handouts, etc. for reading and taking notes. Include plenty of content in handouts to reread after the learning session. Leave white space in handouts for note-taking. Invite questions to help them stay alert in auditory environments. Post flip charts to show what will come and what has been presented. Emphasize key points to cue when to takes notes. Eliminate potential distractions. Supplement textual information with illustrations whenever possible. Have them draw pictures in the margins. Have the learners envision the topic or have them act out the subject matter.
  • This allows all learners the opportunity to become involved, no matter what their preferred style may be. In this aspect, there is a need for teachers to be attuned to learners in three aspects. .
  • T4G6 PBL Presentation

    1. 1. PBL Presentation Scenario 2 Tan Kai Ching Tang Jia Hui Joyce Tong Hui Min Wang Dan
    2. 2. Jeremy ’s Problems at a Glance…
    3. 3. Problem Statement <ul><li>How can a student learn effectively in an environment without love and support? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Inquiry Questions <ul><li>1) How can classroom management affect students' learning? </li></ul><ul><li>2) What is the best form of learning support that parents can provide for their children? </li></ul><ul><li>3) How can the adoption of suitable learning styles affects learning? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Inquiry Question 1 <ul><li>How can classroom management affect students' learning? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Hypothesis <ul><li>If teachers fail to implement effective classroom management, then students will encounter learning difficulties. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Learning Issue (1) Understand how the different classroom management strategies can be employed to improve students ’ class participation.
    8. 8. Learning Issue (2) Understand how teachers can use their behavior to motivate students.
    9. 9. Failures of Mr Tan
    10. 10. Operant Conditioning Theory (Skinner, 1968)
    11. 11. A. Improve Group Dynamics Social Constructivist Theory (Vygotsky, 1978)
    12. 12. A. Improve Group Dynamics <ul><li>Develop a perception of group cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of social norms </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Learning Method (Cunningham & Allington, 2007) </li></ul>
    13. 13. B. Acknowledge effort <ul><li>Positive reinforcements (Skinner, 1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide immediate and positive feedback to students when they attempt to contribute to class participation. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Good try Jeremy! You may want to recall the lessons we learnt about gases. Try to jot down the gas names and select the gas that matches the clue” </li></ul>
    14. 14. C. Mediate Disciplinary Problems <ul><li>Designing and Maintaining a Behavioural Management System </li></ul><ul><li>Combine elements of both behavioral and cognitive approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral system focuses on specifying behavioral guidelines and applying consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive system emphasizes learner understanding and responsibility </li></ul>
    15. 15. Failures of Miss Low
    16. 16. Motivational Theory (Schunk Pintrich & Meece, 2008) <ul><li>Motivation is the force that energizes and directs a behavior towards a goal. </li></ul>Motivation Achievements
    17. 17. A. Teacher ’s Expectations <ul><li>Practise positive teacher attitudes. (Brophy, 2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the negative effects of teacher expectations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor the attending and facilitating behaviors for students who are low-achieving. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model respect and valuing of all students in the classroom. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. B. Caring Teachers <ul><li>Show that ‘YOU’ care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sensitive to procedures that may &quot;threaten&quot; the student's sense of security and safety within the classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address the &quot;physical needs&quot; of the students - allowing them to stretch , wash their face or relax for a few minutes before continuing with the lesson. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. C. Fostering Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977) <ul><ul><li>Help students experience success that is attributable to past and present effort. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on seeing how hard students worked rather than telling them “if you work hard, you will get there” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Inquiry Question 2 <ul><li>What is the best form of learning support that parents can provide for their children? </li></ul>
    21. 21. Hypothesis <ul><li>If parents are physically present and participating actively in the child's learning process, then the child is likely to learn effectively.  </li></ul>
    22. 22. Learning Issue (3) <ul><li>Understand how parenting styles can influence a child's learning and identify specific measures parents can take to ensure that learning takes place. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Parent’s Problem <ul><li>Authoritarian Parenting Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress Conformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not encourage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>verbal give-and-take </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Authoritarian Parenting Style 1. Stress conformity Set exercises to Jeremy and arrange a lot of tuition classes, enrichment classes, study camps to Jeremy
    25. 25. Authoritarian Parenting Style 2. Detached Jeremy get to see his maid more than his parents. 3. Do not encourage verbal give-and-take Jeremy parents stop his swimming lessons and let him take up more tuitions on weekends.
    26. 26. Jeremy’s Characteristics 1. Withdrawn Jeremy has never felt that he belonged anywhere. 2. Worry more about pleasing parents than solving problems Jeremy complete the task given by his parents on top of the homework from school
    27. 27. Jeremy’s Characteristics 3. Defiant Jeremy couldn’t contain his anger anymore. He slammed his table and then stormed out of class. 4. Lack social skills Jeremy is having a poor relationship with his peers.
    28. 28. Behaviorist Theory <ul><li>Premack principle (Premack, 1959, 1963) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities become reinforcers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A more-desired activity can serve as a positive behavior as a positive reinforcer. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. A. Positive Reinforcement <ul><li>Reinforcing positive behavior is superior to those using punishment (Alberto & Troutman, 2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment does not teach desirable outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You may go for swimming lessons if you can complete the task given by the teachers in school.” </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. B. Authoritative Parents <ul><li>Firm but at the same time providing a caring and loving environment </li></ul><ul><li>Promote child’s development by helping Jeremy to acquire a sense of autonomy, competence and belonging. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Inquiry Question 3 <ul><li>How can the adoption of suitable learning styles affects learning ? </li></ul>
    32. 32. Hypothesis <ul><li>If students can identify and acquire the right learning styles, then they would be able to learn effectively. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Learning Issue (4) <ul><li>Understand how to adopt the right learning styles and how teachers can make use of this information to teach the class so as to cater to the learning needs of students. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Cognitive Learning Theory
    35. 35. VAK Learning Style (Butler, 1989) <ul><li>Definition of VAK Learning Style </li></ul><ul><li>Category of VAK learning style </li></ul>
    36. 36. Jeremy’ s Learning Style Hypothesis Visual Learners Hints Jeremy failed every subject in final exams except for Art Perception When learning something new, they prefer to see it demonstrated first Memory They remember class material by picturing it in their mind
    37. 37. Solutions <ul><li>There should be congruence between students' preferred learning styles and the teacher's preferred teaching style. </li></ul><ul><li>Students' style should influence teachers' instructional choices. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Teacher needs to present information using all three styles: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Help students to understand their learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>2. Have an awareness of students’ individual learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>3. Instruction should be varied in class </li></ul>
    39. 39. References <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Brophy, J. (2004)  Motivating Students to learn  (2nd Edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill  </li></ul><ul><li>Eggen, P. & Kauchak, D. (2010).  Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms (8th Edition) . NJ: Pearson. </li></ul><ul><li>Kosnik, C. & Beck, C. (2009)  Priorities in Teacher Education: The 7 Elements of Pre-Service Preparation . Oxford: Routledge </li></ul><ul><li>Patricia M, Cunningham & Richard L. Allington (2007) Classrooms that work: They can all read and write (4 th Edition). NJ: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Tan, O.S., Parsons, R.D., Hinson, S.L., & Sardo Brown, D. (2011)  Educational Psychology: a practitioner-researcher approach . An Asian Edition (2nd Edition). Singapore: Thomson. </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky, L.S. (1978).  Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. </li></ul>
    40. 40. References <ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura, Albert (1993). Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and Functioning. Educational Psychologist 28(2), pp.117-148. </li></ul><ul><li>‪ Brenda K. Bryant, Anisa M. Zvonkovic, Paula Reynolds (2006). Parenting in relation to child and adolescent vocational development. Journal of vocational behavior 69 , pp.149-175. </li></ul><ul><li>Eva M. Pomerantz, Elizabeth A. Moorman, Scott D. Litwack (2007). The How, Whom, and Why of Parents' Involvement in Children's Academic Lives: More Is Not Always Better. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 77, No. 3 , pp.373-410. </li></ul><ul><li>Idit Katz , Avi Kaplan, Tamara Buzukashvily (2011). The role of parents' motivation in students' autonomous motivation for doing homework. Learning and Individual Differences 21 , pp. 376-386. </li></ul><ul><li>John T.E. Richardson, (2011). Approaches to studying, conceptions of learning and learning styles in higher education. Learning and Individual Differences 21, pp. 288-293 </li></ul>
    41. 41. References <ul><li>Maria Poulou (2007): Personal Teaching Efficacy and Its Sources: Student teachers’ perceptions, Educational Psychology , 27:2, 191-218 </li></ul><ul><li>Milad Khajehpoura, Sayid Dabbagh Ghazvinia (2011). The role of parental involvement affect in children’s academic performance. Procedial Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 , pp.1204-1208. </li></ul><ul><li>Moore, Gwendolyn (2009). The Influence of Student Motivation and Student Self-efficacy on Teacher Behavior. Dissertation: Fielding Graduate University. Doctor of Educati on. </li></ul><ul><li>Nancy E. Hill and Lorraine C. Taylor, (2004). Parental School Involvement and Children's Academic Achievement: Pragmatics and Issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 13, No. 4 , pp. 161-164. </li></ul><ul><li>Sara R. Banfield, (2009).How do college/university teacher misbehaviors influence student cognitive learning, academic self-efficacy, motivation, and curiosity?
 Dissertation: The College of Human Resources and Education at West Virginia University. Department of Technology, Learning and Culture: Morgantown, West Virginia </li></ul>
    42. 42. References <ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Management http://www.apa.org/education/k12/classroom-mgmt.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation http://college.cengage.com/education/pbl/tc/motivate.html#cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Reinforcement: A Self-Instructional Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/prtut/ </li></ul><ul><li>Premack Principle http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OcB1zttZmdY   </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological 101: Learning Theory and Behavioral Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>http://allpsych.com/psychology101/reinforcement.html </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher's Belief and Classroom Practices </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mindmatters.edu.au/resources_and_downloads/staff_matters/ </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky's Internet Archive   http://www.marxists.org/archive/vygotsky </li></ul>

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