Marx's criticism focused on the dominant political and economic system of his time, known as &quot;capitalism.&quot; Germany, the United States, and England were powerful nations that lived under this system, and they were exporting it--sometimes by force--over the face of the globe. Capitalism encourages competition between its citizens, and provides rewards in an unequal way. Capitalist nations defended this distribution of goods on the grounds that the factory owners had often taken risks, or mastered skills, that the meat-packer had not. Therefore, the factory owner deserved the extra benefits The capitalist nations, he argued, allowed the wealthy few to amass huge fortunes, while the numerous poor toiled in unsafe factories for low wages, lived in wretched filth, and died before their time. Worse still, the rich denied equal opportunity to the poor, hoarding goods and reserving advantages like education and health care for themselves. Vast mansions existed alongside tenement-houses; in the one, every possible luxury could be found and every need was met, while next door whole families stuffed themselves into single rooms and ate meager rations. How could it be fair that the wealthy few had extra millions in the bank, while the masses struggled to survive, or starved to death? Marx spoke of the dawning of a new social order based on the equal distribution of wealth and possessions among a nation's citizenry. In such a society, Marx theorized, tranquil relations would prevail between all men and women, and age-old problems like poverty, ignorance, and starvation would vanish. The rich would be compelled to yield their surplus to the poor, and individuals would produce according to their abilities, and consume according to their needs. Everyone would have what they needed, and no one citizen would possess more than another. Casting his eye back across the arc of history, he asserted that in every era the same fundamental conflict emerged: The few well-placed and powerful sought to maintain their wealth by actively suppressing the natural desires of the many poor. These cruel circumstances were hard to change because the rich had no reason to share, and possessed the means by which to control the impoverished masses. The sheer numbers of the downtrodden represented a definitive advantage, however, and a declaration of war on their part would resolve the dispute. Marx took the view that it was the destiny of history itself that this battle should take place, and that the victorious poor would usher in an age of justice and equality.
Animal Farm Russia pwrpt
Orwell’s Animal Farm VS. The Russian Revolution Adapted from Mr. White
Russian Society• At the turn of the 20th century, Russia was in an appalling state of poverty while the Tsar lived in luxury. There was tremendous dissatisfaction.
Czar Nicholas II• A poor leader at best, compared to western leaders• Cruel - sometimes brutal with opponents• Sometimes kind - hired students as spies to make $
Nicholas II• Believed he was the unquestionable leader of Russia appointed by God.• Had unarmed protesters murdered in the streets in 1905.
Trotsky• Wanted to improve life for all in Russia• Chased away by Lenins KGB (Lenins secret police)
Civil War• From 1918 –1921 there was civil war. Foreign countries including Britain, France, Poland and USA were alarmed at the spread of Communism but the Red Army (the Bolsheviks), led by Trotsky, proved successful.
Joseph Stalin• Average speaker, not educated like Trotsky• Didnt exactly follow Marxs ideas
Stalin• Craved power, willing to kill for it• Used KGB, allowed church, and propagandized• Brought industrialization to USSR, but at a high price
Propaganda Department of Stalin’s government• Worked for Stalin to support his image• Lied to convince the people to follow Stalin
Stalin• Benefited from the fact that education was controlled
Stalin takes control• In his sinister way, Stalin secured his power base, and engineered the permanent exile of Trotsky in 1929.
• The exiled Trotsky was still useful to Stalin. He now had Trotsky to blame for all the problems and difficulties that Russia suffered.
Politburo• The policy-making body of the Communist party’s Central Committee. In reality, it was a force to carry out Stalin’s orders and secure his position as dictator.
Cheka/OGPU/NKVD/KGB :• These were the various names/ initials given to the secret police during Stalin’s dictatorship.
KGB - Secret Police• Not really police, but thugs who forced all to support Stalin• Used force, often killed entire families for disobedience• Totally loyal, part of Stalins power, even over army
Religion• Marx said religion was the "Opiate of the people" and a lie• Used to make people not complain and do their work
Religion• Religion was tolerated because people would work and not complain• Stalin knew religion would stop violent revolutions if he controlled the leaders
Communist supporters dedicated but deluded• People believed Stalin because he was "Communist"• Many stayed loyal after it was obvious Stalin a tyrant• Betrayed by Stalin who ignored and killed them
Overview of Russian Revolution• Supposed to fix problems caused by the Czar• Life was even worse long after revolution• Stalin made the Czar look like a nice guy
Kulaks• These were the land-owning peasants who did not want their farms to be collectivized after the revolution. From 1929, Stalin began to exterminate them as a class.
5 Year Plans• From 1927-1932, new economic plans, called the five-year plans, were introduced. The purpose was to improve industry.
Collectivization• Stalin said 25 million individual farms were inefficient.• Ordered collectivization, in which small farms were combined into large ones that produced for the state
• Many farmers resisted, but by 1930, 50 percent of all farms had been grouped together.• Many rebellious farmers killed their animals and destroyed their grain.• Farmers who didn’t cooperate were shot and their land given to the nearest collective.
Germany and Great Britain• Stalin negotiated with both Germany and Great Britain. The Russo-German pact of August 1939 allowed Russia to occupy eastern Poland while Germany occupied the rest.
Germany and Great Britain• On 22 June, 1941, Germany attacked her ally Russia without warning. Thus the alliance between Nazism and Communism fell apart and Russia formed an alliance with Britain and the USA.• They fought together in World War II against Hitler.
Cold War begins• The Tehran conference in 1943 presented the Soviet Union, Britain and America as allies. However, by the end of the Second World War, the Soviet Union became an enemy of its allies as the Cold War intensified.
The world’s most deadly dictators• Mao Zedong (China) – 40 to 70 million• Joseph Stalin (Russia) – 23 million• Adolf Hitler (Germany) – 17 million
#1• Who had the ideas in the beginning that inspired the rebellions?
#2• What are the real enemies of Communism according to Marx, Lenin, Stalin and Trotsky?
#3 and #4• Who does Stalin blame anytime a problem arises? Why do you think Stalin blames this person?
#5 and #6• Who would you associate with this quote? Marx, Lenin Stalin or Trotsky? Why did you choose that person?• “All men are equal but some are more equal than others”
#7• Compare the lives of Russians when they live under Czar Nicholas and when they live under Stalin.
#8 Who is this?• Tells of a dream that leads to Rebellion and inspires others.
#9 Who is this?• Leader of the rebellion that drives out Czar Nicholas II.
#10 Who is this?• Leader of Rebellion that is driven out of Russia and later killed in Mexico.
#11 Who is this?• Leader of the Rebellion that drives out his competition and starts to purge those that disagree or may disagree with him.
#12 Who is this?• Branch of Government that enforces Stalin’s rules.
Who is Who• Mr. Jones- Czar Nicholas II• Old Major- Lenin• Snowball- Trotsky• Napoleon- Stalin
Who is Who• Dogs-KGB• Windmill- 5 year plan• Major’s Skull-Lenin’s Body• Battle of the Cowshed- Russian Civil War
Who is Who• Frederick- Hitler• Animal Executions – Stalin’s Purge• Battle of the Windmill – World War II• Card Game- Tehran Conference• Pilkington- FDR
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