Sociological Perspective

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Why is sociological perspective important to know, especially in the field of education? Check out this presentation.

Why is sociological perspective important to know, especially in the field of education? Check out this presentation.

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  • The way that one sees an individual situation as something beyond more personal, and as something that emulates a larger, societal form. When you listen to your student’s study woes, you not only view it as an issue that impacts him alone, but as something that young people his age and grade level experience as well.
  • It allows us to categorically have a norm or basis to compare an individual’s behavior and responses upon. It helps us see if the person is deviating from the norms. Ex. Do all 13 year old girls wrestle with pressure for premarital sex? What is considered the normal response?
  • A teacher must have a sociological imagination to understand the motivations or purposes of his/her students. While specifics may vary, people at a certain age will respond to situation as expected of someone with that age, emotional maturity, environment, circumstances and more.It helps the teacher then to create an action plan on how to deal with the student.
  • Jeremy and Kim broke up last year. When Jeremy received an email from Kim to go out he agreed and they went to a bar. Then Kim started talking about their happier days. A confused Jeremy offered to take her home. The night didn’t end well.What went wrong?Jeremy had a different kind of meaning though in comparison with Kim. Jeremy went out as friends, where Kim went out as with the meaning of ‘potential boyfriend’. Also in the communication the language was misunderstood. Kim wanted to have a romantic night, while Jeremy wanted to have a talk in a bar. This is also caused by the nonverbal element of emails. The third miscommunication is under thought. When Jeremy replied so fast Kim thought that they were going out to a romantic place. Jeremy went out just as ‘friends’. They both used an internal dialogue to interpret the situation and to make a perception of the evening.This is one application of Symbolic Interactionism.
  • - People act as they do because of how they define situations.- Different meanings can easily lead to communication problems (which teachers must be careful of). Problems can arise if the lines of communication are not open and assumptions are made.- People attach meanings to symbols, and then they act according to their subjective interpretation of these symbols. Verbal conversations, in which spoken words serve as the predominant symbols, make this subjective interpretation especially evident. The words have a certain meaning for the “sender,” and, during effective communication, they hopefully have the same meaning for the “receiver.” In other terms, words are not static “things”; they require intention and interpretation. Conversation is an interaction of symbols between individuals who constantly interpret the world around them. Of course, anything can serve as a symbol as long as it refers to something beyond itself. Written music serves as an example. The black dots and lines become more than mere marks on the page; they refer to notes organized in such a way as to make musical sense. Thus, symbolic interactionists give serious thought to how people act, and then seek to determine what meanings individuals assign to their own actions and symbols, as well as to those of others.
  • 1. "Humans act toward things on the basis of the meanings they ascribe to those things.“ These are interpretations (which tend to vary more) rather than reactions (which are more trained and structured)2. "The meaning of such things is derived from, or arises out of, the social interaction that one has with others and the society."3. "These meanings are handled in, and modified through, an interpretative process used by the person in dealing with the things he/she encounters."Going back to Kim and Jeremy,what do you think would each change in the way they would interpret and interact the next time they meet?
  • The reason we have definite answers for these when asked is that we already have assigned “roles” for each institution in the society. This is a major premise of our next theory, which is Structural-Functionalism.
  • each aspect of society is interdependent and contributes to society's functioning as a whole. The government, or state, provides education for the children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the state depends to keep itself running. That is, the family is dependent upon the school to help children grow up to have good jobs so that they can raise and support their own families. In the process, the children become law-abiding, taxpaying citizens, who in turn support the state. If all goes well, the parts of society produce order, stability, and productivity. If all does not go well, the parts of society then must adapt to recapture a new order, stability, and productivity. For example, during a financial recession with its high rates of unemployment and inflation, social programs are trimmed or cut. Schools offer fewer programs. Families tighten their budgets. And a new social order, stability, and productivity occur.
  •  The answer, of course, is the wealthy. (girl on the right) Why? Because higher education in the country is not free. Thus, the educational system often screens out poorer individuals not because they are unable to compete academically but because they cannot afford to pay for their education. Because the poor are unable to obtain higher education, this means they are also generally unable to get higher paying jobs which means they remain poor. This can easily translate into a vicious cycle of poverty. Thus, while the function of education is to educate the workforce, it also has built into it an element of conflict and inequality, favoring one group (the wealthy) over other groups (the poor). Thinking about education this way helps illustrate why both structural-functionalist and conflict theories are helpful in understanding how society works.
  • Unlike functionalists who defend the status quo, avoid social change, and believe people cooperate to effect social order, conflict theorists challenge the status quo, encourage social change (even when this means social revolution), and believe rich and powerful people force social order on the poor and the weak. 
  • The ancient Greeks, for example, distinguished between civilized peoples and bárbaros ("those who babble"), i.e., those who speak unintelligible languages.[19]systems of signalling social distance through linguistic means.[21] In English, social deixis is shown mostly though distinguishing between addressing some people by first name and others by surname, but also in titles such as "Mrs.", "boy", "Doctor" or "Your Honor“.
  • Americans, for instance, maintain fairly direct eye contact when conversing with others. Asians, on the other hand, may avert their eyes as a sign of politeness and respect.Norms as humanly created rules for behavior to facilitate orderly, stable, predictable interactions.ConformityPeople first must internalize the social norms and values that dictate what is “normal” for the culture; then they must socialize, or teach norms and values to, their children. If internalization and socialization fail to produce conformity, some form of “social control” is eventually needed. Social control may take the form of ostracism, fines, punishments, and even imprisonment.
  • Beliefs can and DOchange, especially in modern industrial societies. Today we laugh at things our grandparents used to believe and chances are that our grandchildren will laugh at many of our beliefs as well.Ex. Of Filipino Belief: SukobMalaskapagangmagkapatid ay ikakasalsaloobngisangtaon.  Upang     maiwasanangmalas, angkapatidnaikakasalng mas huli ay dapatdumaan     salikuranghagdananngsimbahansaarawngkanyangkasal.      (It is bad luck for two siblings to be married within the same year. In order to      remedy the situation, the sibling who marries later in the year should pass      through the backstairs of the church on the day of the wedding.)
  • Status, although related, is not a measure of a person’s wealth, power, and prestige.Roles define what a person in a given status can and should do, as well as what they can and should expect from others. Roles provide a degree of stability and predictability, telling how we should respond to others and giving us an idea of how others should respond to us.Cultural Integration- Leads to reduction of cultural differences and dilution of local cultures
  • Filipino values are, for the most part, centered at maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and "Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'. Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.
  • Strong religious faith - enables Filipinos to face great difficulties and unpredictable risks in the assurance that "God will take care of things." But, if allowed to deteriorate into fatalism, even this admirable characteristic can hinder initiative and stand in the way of progress.Philippine respect for authority is based on the special honor paid to elder members of the family and, by extension, to anyone in a position of power. This characteristic is generally conducive to the smooth running of society, although, when taken to extreme, it can develop into an authoritarianism that discourages independent judgment and individual responsibility and initiative.  Filipinos are sensitive to attacks on their own self-esteem and cultivate a sensitivity to the self-esteem of others as well. Anything that might hurt another's self-esteem is to be avoided or else one risks terminating the relationship. One who is insensitive to others is said to lack a sense of shame and embarrassment, the principal sanction against improper behavior. This great concern for self- esteem helps to maintain harmony in society and within one's particular circle, but it also can give rise to clannishness and a willingness to sacrifice personal integrity to remain in the good graces of the group.Hiya (shame)Negative, because it arrests or inhibits one's action. This trait reduces one to smallness or to what Nietzsche calls the "morality of slaves", thus congealing the soul of the Filipino and emasculating him, making him timid, meek and weak.Positive, because, it contributes to peace of mind and lack of stress by not even trying to achieve.Utangnaloob (indebtedness)Negative, because one overlooks moral principles when one is indebted to a person. One who is beholden to another person will do anything to please him, thinking that by doing so he is able to repay a debt. One condones what the other person does and will never censure him for wrongdoing.Positive, because it is a recognition of one's indebtedness. This trait portrays the spirit behind the Filipino saying, "He who does not know how to look to the past will never reach his destination.“Close Family Ties - Negative, because self-centered; one has no regard for others. So long as my family and I are not in need, I do not care about the world. Positive, because one takes care of oneself and one's family: "Blood is thicker than water."
  • Example: Ferdinand Marcos & famiy
  • Oxymoronic statement that is very true to Filipinos.Filipino as Man: (self-preservation virtues like hiyavs. communal values like pakikipagkapwa)Filipino and the World of Things: For instance, this principleleads to a non-linear concept of time, space, and of causality. (ex. Filipino time. Americans stick to numerical interpretation of time—7PM—while Pinoys are more concerned with when will the event actually happen. Hence their rationale of not coming in at 7PM because with preparations, opening remarks,etc, the actual event will just start at 7:30PM).The Filipino and the Other World: The Filipino tries to bein harmony with God through the spirits and his departed ancestors. Or the existence of lower mythology creatures like tikbalang along with God. Or tying Good Fridays with aswang and multo.
  • It means that businesses are owned privately, rather than by the government or a collective. Profits are made and goods are distributed by individuals or companies. These entities set prices based on what the market will bear.
  • Unlike the capitalist system, which allows free competition to set prices and production levels, the socialist economic system limits the choices of a manufacturer's use of technology, production levels and profit.MarketThe socialist economic system is affected continuously though government intervention, which distorts markets by allocating goods, prices, materials and labor.PricesIn a socialist economic system, a central planning board sets limits on the cost of products and therefore the cost of manufacturing.TechnologyAs prices are set by the central planning board, the manufacturer is forced to create the product using the technology and materials that best suits the price instead of the best technology for manufacturing the product.InventoryWhen a product is not popular with the public, the socialist economic system can lower the price and affect manufacturing levels to make the product more popular with the consumer.OwnershipThe state is always in control of capital and profit making in the socialist system, never allowing a monopoly to develop where prices can become inflated or a high profit margin to develop for a private individual.
  • Communism was a feared and dangerous word in the mid-1900s, with red-scares and the Cold War causing average citizens to point fingers and accuse others of being a cold-blooded communist. Communism is a social theory that has been put into practice and largely failed, yet it still causes unrest in American political circles.FeaturesCommunism is a state-controlled economic system in which property is collectively owned and work is performed for the advantage of all members of the society. Communism is a type of totalitarian government with characteristics such as one-party rule, repression and censorship.SignificanceKarl Marx believed that communism was the ultimate form of society, one in which capitalism no longer exists and people live together in classless peace. Communism has not proved to be peaceful, however, as it rejects freedom, law, and democracy and punishes those who transgress.EffectsCommunist theory aims to end the inequality between the rich and the poor, end racial discrimination, make men and women equals, and often shuns religion and other institutions that cause divisions and social inequality.GeographyThe Soviet Union practiced communism from 1917 to 1991 and in Eastern Europe from World War II to 1990, although it failed in these cases. Modern communist countries include China, Vietnam, North Korea and Cuba.Expert InsightIn his article "Totalitarianism and Human Nature: How and Why Communism Failed," Carlos Alberto Montaner writes that communism failed because it is contrary to man's natural desire to be free. Communism represses the ego, demands abstract universal altruism rather than spontaneous selective altruism, gets rid of material rewards for hard work, breaks down family ties, and uses fear as a means of coercion.Examples:China - Mao Zedong took control over China in 1949 and proclaimed China as the People's Republic of China, a communist country. China has been called "Red China" due to the communist party's control over the country.Cuba - A revolution in 1959 led to the taking over of the Cuban government by Fidel Castro. By 1961, Cuba became a fully communist country and developed close ties to the Soviet Union.North Korea - Despite being led by the USSR beginning in 1945, North Korea did not become a communist country until 1948.
  • Technology – In the early 1900s, it was the steam engine that fueled the industrial revolution. Today, it’s the computer microchip that spurred the latest structural transformation of the economy. Pro: Technology increased productivity. Con: Drastically eliminated human jobs.The Global Economy – Outsourcing and off-shoring solutions is now a viable option, thanks to the speed and accuracy brought about by digital technology. The PH is now the number 1 BPO destination in the world, handling not only customer service but also critical tasks like administrative staffing, accounting, press relations and more. Telecommuting is also becoming better alternative for people who dislike working in conventional office cubes.Manufacturing and production are also being outsourced, lowering costs associated with labor and raw material imports.Capital Mobility – bankers and manufacturers now have more options to move both financial and production sources anywhere they choose.Deindustrialization – the process of declining domestic manufacturing activity. Ex. Parts of an airplane are manufactured in different parts of the world to lower the costs associated with labor and resources importation. [Cite places; research!]
  • Unemployment occurs when a worker wishes to be employed and is actively seeking employment, yet does not have a job. Most often, unemployment is a result of losing a job, or being laid off. However, it can also affect people that did not have a job, but are attempting to enter the job market. People without jobs and who are not looking for jobs are not considered unemployed, but rather as disaffected or discouraged workers. Therefore, they are not part of the work force.Underemployment - An employee is underemployed when he is not working at a needed compensation, needed hours or desired challenge.Examples include holding a part-time job despite desiring full-time work, and overqualification, where the employee has education, experience, or skills beyond the requirements of the job.Labor market segmentation theory (LMS) has two principle elements: (1) the labor market can be modeled as consisting of a small number of distinct markets offering different wages, and (2) workers, particularly those from racial and ethnic minorities, women, and new entrants, cannot necessarily find employment in the segment that offers them the highest compensation.Ex: In Asia, the informal economy (economic exchange outside state control and untaxed, like odd jobs) is not necessarily predominantly female but women are much more likely than men to be informally employed. women are concentrated in the most vulnerable and poorest forms of informal employment – where they have low, irregular or no cash returns, are subject to a high level of job insecurity and do not have safety nets to cover them during periods of low economic demand or when they cannot work or do not have work
  • Too often we dwell on the 2nd meaning.
  • Social Control - Schools teach us certain values such as, obedience, discipline, perseverance, respect and punctuality. Schools also teach us conformity; it encourages us to be good and to be a law abiding citizen.Transmitting Culture - As an educational institution, schools perform conservable function in order to transmit the dominant culture. In going to school, the young generation is exposed to the belief, norms and values that had long been exist on a particular culture.Change - Educational institution promotes social change, serving as meeting ground where the society’s distinctive belief as well as tradition is shared; thus, education stimulates and bring about desired social change in society. One only must look at University of the Philippines and its alumni that chartered the history of the PH.Socialization -   If children need to learn the norms, values, and skills they need to function in society, then education is a primary vehicle for such learning. Schools teach the three Rs, as we all know, but they also teach many of the society’s norms and values. In the United States, these norms and values include respect for authority, patriotism,punctuality, individualism, and competition. Regarding these last two values, American students from an early age compete as individuals over grades and other rewards. The situation is quite the opposite in Japan, where children learn the traditional Japanese values of harmony and group belonging from their schooling (Schneider & Silverman, 2010).They learn to value their membership in their homeroom, or kumi, and are evaluated more on their kumi’s performance than on their own individual performance. How well a Japanese child’s kumi does is more important than how well the child does as an individual.Social Placement - . Beginning in grade school, students are identified by teachers and other school officials either as bright and motivated or as less bright and even educationally challenged. Depending on how they are identified, children are taught at the level that is thought to suit them best. In this way they are prepared in the most appropriate way possible for their later station in life.Social Integration – an individual subscribing to a common set of goals and values learns a lot through educationSocial and Cultural Innovation -  Our scientists cannot make important scientific discoveries and our artists and thinkers cannot come up with great works of art, poetry, and prose unless they have first been educated in the many subjects they need to know for their chosen path.
  • Bilingualism – Another problem, and a continuing topic of debate, has been the educational system’s bilingual policy, adopted 35 years ago which compels schools to use English and Filipino as medium of instruction. People use the excuse that there’s ‘Filipino English.’ Media, entertainment, young professionals and even some schools use Taglish. But this only impedes a learner from properly mastering either language.Also, most teachers nowadays are not capable of modeling proper English to their students.Solutions being looked at are: intensifying efforts to train teachers in English communication (even non-English subjects are covered by these seminars), possibly instating an English proficiency exam that teachers must pass aside from LET, and the DepEd School Mentoring Program, which has already reached 60,000 teachers as of the writing.Foreign textbooks – The content, examples, and objectives at some books prove irrelevant to Filipino students, decreasing motivation to learn and the rate of how the student absorbs the material.Hidden Curriculum – some teachers tend to liberally fuse their opinions and views on otherwise objective topics. These are then readily accepted as “facts” by their students.Highly authoritarian school – the “teacher-centric” classroom setup forces students to acquire knowledge by spoonfeeding. Teachers dictate information through lectures and expect students to parrot it back in verbatim during exams. Teachers feel affronted or threatened when asked by students. Hence, learning remains a passive experience for students.

Transcript

  • 1. Sociological Perspective BY MRS. LUISA Y. SANTOS
  • 2. What is Sociological Perspective? • a sociological mindset in regards to being able to connect individual experiences and societal relationships. • the lens that an individual chooses to view the scope of society from. • go beyond the obvious and question what is accepted as true or common sense.
  • 3. Why do we need a Sociological Perspective? • To help us to see general social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals • To offers insights about the social world that extend far beyond explanations that rely on individual quirks and personalities
  • 4. Sociological Imagination • “...the vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider society.” • going beyond the individual and understanding how structural forces shape individuals and their action.
  • 5. 3 Major Sociological Perspectives •Symbolic Interactionism •Structural-Functionalism •Conflict Theory These offer sociologists theoretical paradigms for explaining how society influences people, and vice versa.
  • 6. Jeremy & Kim Jeremy and Kim broke up last year. When Jeremy received an email from Kim to go out he agreed and they went to a bar. Then Kim started talking about their happier days. A confused Jeremy offered to take her home. The night didn’t end well.
  • 7. Symbolic Interactionism • directs sociologists to consider the symbols and details of everyday life, what these symbols mean, and how people interact with each other. • Originated from Max Weber's assertion that individuals act according to their interpretation of the meaning of the symbols
  • 8. Symbolic Interaction Model Individual Interaction Individual Analysis of the Interaction by other Persons
  • 9. Quick Questions: • Who is in charge of spiritually nurturing a child? • Who is in charge of disciplining a child? • Who is in charge of taking care of a child’s rights? • Who is in charge of teaching our children about various knowledge areas like reading, writing and arithmetic?
  • 10. Structural-Functionalism • Also known as the “Consensus Theory” • A sociologist with this perspective will try to identify the structures of society and how they function. • Stresses that relations among the individuals, groups and societies follow well-defined patterns of social organization. • Emphasizes Stability, Harmony and Evolution
  • 11. The Structural Functionalism Model Social structures provide pre-set patterns, which evolve to meet human needs. Stability, Order and Harmony Maintenance of Society
  • 12. Who has a bigger chance of attending college?
  • 13. Conflict Theory • Addresses the point of stress and conflict in society and the way they contribute to social change. • View a society’s legal system as a political instrument used by the wealthy and powerful to protect and extend their privileges, not a rational tool for the resolution of conflict and preservation of order. • Society is not about solidarity or social consensus but about competition.
  • 14. The Conflict Theory Model Social Structures produces patterns of inequality in the distribution of scarce resources. Conflict Reorganization and Change
  • 15. Culture and Norms BY MRS. LUISA Y. SANTOS
  • 16. Culture Defined • Excellence of taste in the fine arts and humanities (high culture) • An integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning • The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization, or group
  • 17. Elements of Culture •Language •Norms •Values •Beliefs and ideologies •Statuses and Roles •Cultural Integration
  • 18. Language • a set of symbols used to assign and communicate meaning. • a way of signaling identity with one cultural group and difference from others • a way of signaling cultural rank • a social product, as it is not a creation of an individual
  • 19. Norms • the agreed-upon expectations and rules by which a culture guides the behavior of its members in any given situation. • Members of a culture must conform to its norms for the culture to exist and function. Internalize Socialize Control
  • 20. Kinds of Norms • Folkways - sometimes known as “conventions” or “customs,” are standards of behavior that are socially approved but not morally significant. Example: Belching loudly after eating dinner at someone else's home breaks an American folkway. • Mores – norms of morality. Breaking mores will offend most people of a culture Example: Attending church in the nude
  • 21. Kinds of Norms • Laws - a formal body of rules enacted by the state and backed by the power of the state. Example: Child abuse is against U.S. and Philippine laws. • Taboos – absolutely forbidden by a certain culture. Example: Incest is a taboo in Philippine and American culture.
  • 22. Social Control • Internal social control • Ideologies, beliefs, values • External social control • Informal Sanctions • Physical and verbal reactions. • Embarrassment and stigma. • Avoidance and ostracization. • Formal sanctions. • Formal sanctions in large organizations. • Governments, laws, and police. • Courts, hearings, trials, and punishments.
  • 23. Values • anything members of a culture aspire to or hold in high esteem. • things to be achieved, things considered of great worth or value • Can be complimentary (set of values) as well as contradictory (equity and justice vs. compassion and humanitarianism Filipinos generally value:
  • 24. Beliefs & Ideologies • Collective social agreements produced during interaction and reified over time. What is "true" or "factual" for a given people is what they collectively agree to be true at that point in time. • Sets of beliefs and assumptions connected by a common theme or focus.
  • 25. Statuses and Roles • Status - a slot or position within a group or society. They tell us who people are and how they "fit" into the group. • Can be ascribed or achieved • Roles - norms specifying the rights and responsibilities associated with a particular status. Cultural Integration • The increasing integration of the different cultures found throughout the world and the diffusion of a dominant “global culture”.
  • 26. Filipino Values and Worldview BY: MRS. MA. LUISA Y. SANTOS
  • 27. Filipino Values • Defined as “the set of values or the value system that a majority of Filipino people have historically held important in their lives.” • rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity), and commercial relationships. (U.S. Library of Congress)
  • 28. Common Filipino Values • Strong religious faith • Respect • Smooth interpersonal relationships • Hiya • Utang na loob (indebtedness) • Close family ties Have positive and negative aspects
  • 29. Filipino Worldview 1 : Family • Family is the focus of the Filipino worldview. • The welfare of the community and the nation takes a less prominent role. • “Do not bring shame to the family” • Possibly responsible for nepotism and government corruption.
  • 30. Filipino Worldview 2: non- dualism -> means that the Filipino wants to harmonize the object and the subject, while at the same time, holding both as distinct. • Filipino as Man: non-dualism urges him to harmonize his faculties as well as be in support with his fellowmen • Filipino and the World of Things: the non-dualistic principle appears in the Filipino’s harmony-with-nature orientation • Filipino and the Other World: non-dualism is the basis of the non-dichotomy between the profane and the sacred
  • 31. Economy & Education BY: MRS. MARIA LUISA Y, SANTOS
  • 32. Economy •Fishing • The dominant form of economic activity characterizing a society. What kind of economy does the Philippines have? •Agricultural • The structures, relationship and activities that produce and distribute wealth in a society. • State & Economy – shapers of individual opportunities and places in the society.
  • 33. Different Types of Economy
  • 34. Major Forms of Political Economy Major Forms of Political Economy Capitalism –accumulation and investment of capital by private individuals - Individuals own the means of production and distribution of the goods and services. Examples
  • 35. Major Forms of Political Economy Socialism –the means of production and distribution are collectively owned. (ex. by the State) - relies on social cooperation between workers to create wealth. - Wage paid for labor Examples: Major Forms of Political Economy
  • 36. Major Forms of Political Economy Communism – ideal type of economic system - All property is communally owned - No social distinctions based on people’s ability to produce. Examples: Major Forms of Political Economy Communism – ideal type of economic system - All property is communally owned - No social distinctions based on people’s ability to produce. Examples:
  • 37. Factors of the Structural Transformation of the Economy •Technology •The Global Economy •Capital Mobility •Deindustrialization
  • 38. Economic Structural Transformation & Inequality • Economic transformation accentuated inequality in the Philippines. Unemployment Underemployment Segment Labor Market Job Displacement The Declining Middle Class
  • 39. Education • The action or process of educating and/or becoming educated. • the act or process of training by a prescribed or customary course of study or discipline
  • 40. Functions of Education • Agent of Social Control • Agent in Transmitting Culture • Agent of Social Change • Agent of Socialization • Agent of Social Placement • Agent of Social Integration • Agent of Social and Cultural Innovation
  • 41. Problems the Philippine Educational System are Facing Today • Bilingualism • Lack of textbooks / Dependence on foreign textbooks • “Hidden Curriculum” • Highly authoritarian schools