MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA




Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools

          Curriculum Specifications

     ...
Copyright © 2006
Ministry of Education Malaysia


First published 2006


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be ...
TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                       Page

The National Philosophy                   ...
THEME:        PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVING THINGS
                   Learning Area:    1. Transport                   13

        ...
THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY


Our nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; to maintaini...
NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION


Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of...
NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY

In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in
        ...
PREFACE

                                                                          In a recent development, the Government...
INTRODUCTION

As articulated in the National Education Policy, education in                 The elective science subjects ...
The curriculum also aims to develop a concerned, dynamic and             10. Realise that scientific discoveries are the r...
Numbers           Measuring makes observation more accurate.             Manipulative Skills
Inferring         Using past ...
to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas and              Detecting Bias          Identifying views or ...
Synthesising     Combining separate elements or parts to form a           deductive manner. Figure 1 gives a general pictu...
Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS)                    Science Process
through the teaching and le...
Science Process                                                              Example:
                                    ...
?   Appreciating the contribution of science and technology.
?   Being thankful to God.                                   ...
country, they will appreciate the diversity and uniqueness of this            Thinking skills and scientific skills are th...
Contextual Learning
                                                                              The following are brief ...
Discussion                                                                     Visits to these places make the learning of...
evaluation. Levels in the affective domain are: to be aware of, to be
in awe, to be appreciative, to be thankful, to love,...
THEME: PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVING THINGS
LEARNING AREA: 1.0    TRANSPORT

   Learning
                  Suggested Learning Activ...
Learning
                      Suggested Learning Activities          Learning Outcomes                       Notes       ...
Learning
                   Suggested Learning Activities                 Learning Outcomes           Notes         Vocabu...
Learning
                   Suggested Learning Activities                Learning Outcomes                          Notes ...
Learning
                   Suggested Learning Activities                Learning Outcomes            Notes         Vocabu...
Learning
                  Suggested Learning Activities              Learning Outcomes             Notes         Vocabula...
Learning
                  Suggested Learning Activities               Learning Outcomes                      Notes       ...
Learning
              Suggested Learning Activities                 Learning Outcomes               Notes          Vocabu...
LEARNING AREA:      2.0     LOCOMOTION AND SUPPORT

   Learning
                 Suggested Learning Activities            ...
Learning
                  Suggested Learning Activities           Learning Outcomes                    Notes             ...
Learning
                   Suggested Learning Activities                Learning Outcomes             Notes   Vocabulary
...
LEARNING AREA:      3.0    COORDINATION AND RESPONSE

   Learning
                 Suggested Learning Activities          ...
Learning
                  Suggested Learning Activities               Learning Outcomes                       Notes      ...
Learning
              Suggested Learning Activities                Learning Outcomes                      Notes          ...
Learning
                 Suggested Learning Activities               Learning Outcomes               Notes          Vocab...
Learning
              Suggested Learning Activities                Learning Outcomes                       Notes         ...
Learning
                  Suggested Learning Activities               Learning Outcomes                       Notes      ...
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
Biology form 5
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  1. 1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools Curriculum Specifications BIOLOGY Form 5 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2006
  2. 2. Copyright © 2006 Ministry of Education Malaysia First published 2006 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, and recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Director of Curriculum Development Centre, Level 4-8, Block E9, Government Complex Parcel E, 62604 Putrajaya, Malaysia.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page The National Philosophy v National Philosophy of Education vii National Science Education Philosophy ix Preface xi Introduction 1 Aims and Objectives 1 Scientific Skills 2 Thinking Skills 3 Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 7 Teaching and Learning Strategies 9 Content Organisation 11
  4. 4. THEME: PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVING THINGS Learning Area: 1. Transport 13 Learning Area: 2. Locomotion and Support 21 Learning Area: 3. Coordination and Response 24 Learning Area: 4. Reproduction and Growth 33 THEME: VARIATION AND INHERITANCE IN LIVING THINGS Learning Area: 1. Inheritance 39 Learning Area: 2. Variation 44 46 Acknowledgements Panel of Writers 47
  5. 5. THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY Our nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; to maintaining a democratic way of life; to creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared; to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; to building a progressive society which shall be oriented towards modern science and technology; We, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by the following principles: BELIEF IN GOD LOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRY SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION RULE OF LAW GOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY v
  6. 6. NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the betterment of the family, society and the nation at large. vii
  7. 7. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a Science and Technology Culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and able to master scientific knowledge and technological competency ix
  8. 8. PREFACE In a recent development, the Government has made a The aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised society depends on science and technology. It is envisaged decision to introduce English as the medium of instruction in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics. This that success in providing quality science education to Malaysians from an early age will serve to spearhead the measure will enable students to keep abreast of developments in science and technology in contemporary nation into becoming a knowledge society and a competitive player in the global arena. Towards this end, the Malaysian society by enhancing their capability and know-how to tap the diverse sources of information on science written in the education system is giving greater emphasis to science and mathematics education. English language. At the same time, this move would also provide opportunities for students to use the English language The Biology curriculum has been designed not only to provide and hence, increase their proficiency in the language. Thus, in implementing the biology curriculum, attention is given to opportunities for students to acquire science knowledge and skills, develop thinking skills and thinking strategies, and to developing students’ ability to use English for study and communication, especially in the early years of learning. apply this knowledge and skills in everyday life, but also to inculcate in them noble values and the spirit of patriotism. It is The development of this curriculum and the preparation of the hoped that the educational process en route to achieving these aims would produce well-balanced citizens capable of corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been the work of many individuals over a period of time. To all those who contributing to the harmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. have contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, on behalf of the Ministry of Education, express my sincere The Biology curriculum aims at producing active learners. To gratitude and thanks for the time and labour expended. this end, students are given ample opportunities to engage in scientific investigations through hands-on activities and experimentations. The inquiry approach, incorporating thinking skills, thinking strategies and thoughtful learning, should be emphasised throughout the teaching-learning (MAHZAN BIN BAKAR SMP, AMP) process. The content and contexts suggested are chosen Director based on their relevance and appeal to students so that their interest in the subject is enhanced. Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia xi
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION As articulated in the National Education Policy, education in The elective science subjects prepare students who are more Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of scientifically inclined to pursue the study of science at post- individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce secondary level. This group of students would take up careers in individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and the field of science and technology and play a leading role in this physically balanced and harmonious. The primary and secondary field for national development. school science curriculum is developed with the aim of producing such individuals. For every science subject, the curriculum for the year is articulated in two documents: the syllabus and the curriculum specifications. As a nation that is progressing towards a developed nation status, The syllabus presents the aims, objectives and the outline of the Malaysia needs to create a society that is scientifically oriented, curriculum content for a period of 2 years for elective science progressive, knowledgeable, having a high capacity for change, subjects and 5 years for core science subjects. The curriculum forward-looking, innovative and a contributor to scientific and specifications provides the details of the curriculum which includes technological developments in the future. In line with this, there is a the aims and objectives of the curriculum, brief descriptions on need to produce citizens who are creative, critical, inquisitive, open- thinking skills and thinking strategies, scientific skills, scientific minded and competent in science and technology. attitudes and noble values, teaching and learning strategies, and curriculum content. The curriculum content provides the themes, The Malaysian science curriculum comprises three core science learning areas, learning objectives, suggested learning activities, subjects and four elective science subjects. The core subjects are the intended learning outcomes, notes and vocabulary. Science at primary school level, Science at lower secondary level and Science at upper secondary level. Elective science subjects are offered at the upper secondary level and consist of Biology, AIMS Chemistry, Physics, and Additional Science. The core science subjects for the primary and lower secondary The aims of the biology curriculum for secondary school are to levels are designed to provide students with basic science provide students with the knowledge and skills in science and knowledge, prepare students to be literate in science, and enable technology and enable them to solve problems and make decisions students to continue their science education at the upper secondary in everyday life based on scientific attitudes and noble values. level. Core Science at the upper secondary level is designed to produce students who are literate in science, innovative, Students who have followed the biology curriculum will have the and able to apply scientific knowledge in decision making and foundation in biology to enable them to pursue formal and informal problem solving in everyday life. further education in science and technology. 1
  10. 10. The curriculum also aims to develop a concerned, dynamic and 10. Realise that scientific discoveries are the result of human progressive society with a science and technology culture that endeavour to the best of his or her intellectual and mental values nature and works towards the preservation and conservation capabilities to understand natural phenomena for the betterment of the environment. of mankind. 11. Be aware of the need to love and care for the environment and OBJECTIVES play an active role in its preservation and conservation. The biology curriculum for secondary school enables students to: SCIENTIFIC SKILLS 1. Acquire knowledge in biology and technology in the context of natural phenomena and everyday life experiences. Science emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry and 2. Understand developments in the field of biology and technology. problem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills are utilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientific investigation such as 3. Acquire scientific and thinking skills. conducting experiments and carrying out projects. 4. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and critical manner to Scientific skills encompass science process skills and manipulative solve problems and make decisions on biology-related issues. skills. 5. Apply knowledge of biology to improve one’ health and well- s Science Process Skills being, and face challenges in the scientific and technological world and be willing to contribute towards the development of Science process skills enable students to formulate their questions science and technology. and find out the answers systematically. 6. Evaluate science and technology-related information wisely and Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows: effectively. 7. Practise and internalise scientific attitudes and good moral Observing Using the sense of hearing, touch, smell, taste values. and sight to collect information about an object or a phenomenon. 8. Realise the importance of inter-dependence among living things and the management of nature for survival of mankind. Classifying Using observations to group objects or events according to similarities or differences. 9. Appreciate the contributions of science and technology towards national development and the well-being of mankind. Measuring Making quantitative observations using and Using numbers and tools with standardised units. 2
  11. 11. Numbers Measuring makes observation more accurate. Manipulative Skills Inferring Using past experiences or previously collected Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor skills data to draw conclusions and explain events. that enable students to: Predicting Stating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences or ? use and handle science apparatus and laboratory substances collected data. correctly, ? handle specimens correctly and carefully, Communicating Using words or graphic symbols such as tables, ? draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory substances graphs, figures or models to describe an action, accurately, object or event. ? clean science apparatus correctly, and Using Space- Describing changes in parameter with time. ? store science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly Time Examples of parameters are location, direction, and safely. Relationship shape, size, volume, weight and mass. Interpreting Data Giving rational explanations about an object, THINKING SKILLS event or pattern derived from collected data. Defining Defining concepts by describing what must be Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to integrate Operationally done and what should be observed. knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to understand the Controlling Identifying the fixed variables, manipulated environment. Variables variable, and responding variable in an investigation. The manipulated variable is One of the objectives of the national education system is to changed to observe its relationship with the enhance the thinking ability of students. This objective can be responding variable. At the same time, the achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful llearning. fixed variables are kept constant. Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills is a foundation for thoughtful learning. Hypothesising Making a general statement about the relationship between a manipulated variable Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved in and a responding variable in order to explain an the teaching and learning process. Activities should be organised to event or observation. This statement can be provide opportunities for students to apply thinking skills in tested to determine its validity. conceptualisation, problem solving and decision-making. Experimenting Planning and conducting activities to test a Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skills and certain hypothesis. These activities include creative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always collecting, analysing and interpreting data and evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A making conclusions. person who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is able 3
  12. 12. to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas and Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions that have the products. tendency to support or oppose something in an unfair or misleading way. Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes that iinvolve various steps. Each step involves various critical and creative Evaluating Making judgements on the quality or value thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking strategies is the of something based on valid reasons or ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in the teaching and evidence. learning process. Making Making a statement about the outcome of Conclusions an investigation that is based on a Critical Thinking Skills hypothesis. A brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows: Creative Thinking Skills Attributing Identifying characteristics, features, qualities and elements of a concept or an A brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: object. Generating Producing or giving ideas in a discussion. Comparing and Finding similarities and differences based Ideas Contrasting on criteria such as characteristics, features, Relating Making connections in a certain situation to qualities and elements of a concept or determine a structure or pattern of relationship. event. Making Using past experiences or previously collected Grouping and Separating objects or phenomena into Inferences data to draw conclusions and explain events. Classifying categories based on certain criteria such as common characteristics or features. Predicting Stating the outcome of a future event based on Sequencing Arranging objects and information in order prior knowledge gained through experiences or based on the quality or quantity of common collected data. characteristics or features such as size, time, shape or number. Making Making a general conclusion about a group Generalisatio based on observations on, or information from, Prioritising Arranging objects and information in order ns samples of the group. based on their importance or priority. Analysing Examining information in detail by breaking Visualising Recalling or forming mental images about a it down into smaller parts to find implicit particular idea, concept, situation or vision. meanings and relationships. 4
  13. 13. Synthesising Combining separate elements or parts to form a deductive manner. Figure 1 gives a general picture of thinking general picture in various forms such as writing, skills and thinking strategies. drawing or artefact. Making Making general statement about the relationship Figure 1: TSTS Model in Science Hypotheses between manipulated variables and responding variables to explain observations or events. The statements can be tested to determine validity. Making Understanding abstract or complex concepts by Thinking Skills Analogies relating them to simpler or concrete concepts with similar characteristics. Inventing Producing something new or adapting something Critical Creative already in existence to overcome problems in a systematic manner. ? Attributing ? Generating ideas ? Comparing and ? Relating contrasting ? Making inferences Thinking Strategy ? Grouping and ? Predicting classifying Reasoning ? Making Description of each thinking strategy is as follows: ? Sequencing hypotheses ? Prioritising ? Synthesising Conceptualisi Making generalisations based on inter-related ? Analysing ? Making ng and common characteristics in order to construct ? Detecting bias generalisations meaning, concept or model. ? Evaluating ? Visualising ? Making ? Making analogies Making Selecting the best solution from various conclusions ? Inventing Decisions alternatives based on specific criteria to achieve a specific aim. Problem Finding solutions to challenging or unfamiliar Thinking Solving situations or unanticipated difficulties in a Strategies systematic manner. ? Conceptualising ? Making decisions Besides the above thinking skills and thinking strategies, another ? Problem solving skill emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is a skill used in making logical, just and rational judgements. Mastering of critical and creative thinking skills and thinking strategies is made simpler if an individual is able to reason in an inductive and 5
  14. 14. Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS) Science Process through the teaching and learning of science can be developed Thinking Skills Skills through the following phases: 1. Introducing TSTS. Observing Attributing 2. Practising TSTS with teacher’ guidance. s Comparing and contrasting 3. Practising TSTS without teacher’ guidance. s Relating 4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’ s Classifying Attributing guidance. Comparing and contrasting Grouping and 5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish classifying thinking tasks. Measuring and Using Relating Further information about phases of implementing TSTS can be Numbers Comparing and contrasting found in the guidebook “ Buku Panduan Penerapan Kemahiran Making Inferences Relating Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran dan Comparing and contrasting Pembelajaran Sains”(Curriculum Development Centre, 1999). Analysing Making inferences Relationship between Thinking Skills and Science Process Predicting Relating Skills Visualising Science process skills are skills that are required in the process Using Space-Time Sequencing of finding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a Relationship Prioritising systematic manner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting Analysing creative, analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of Detecting bias science process skills and the possession of suitable attitudes Making conclusions and knowledge enable students to think effectively. Generalising Evaluating The mastering of science process skills involves the mastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that are related Defining operationally Relating to a particular science process skill are as follows: Making analogy Visualising Analysing Controlling variables Attributing Comparing and contrasting Relating Analysing 6
  15. 15. Science Process Example: Thinking Skills Skills Learning Outcome: Compare and contrast animal cell and Making hypotheses Attributing plant cell based on the structure and Relating organelles Comparing and contrasting Generating ideas Thinking Skills: Comparing and contrasting Making hypotheses Predicting Synthesising Explanation: Experimenting All thinking skills To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge on the structure Communicating All thinking skills and organelles in animal and plant cells are learned through comparing and contrasting. The mastery of the skill of comparing and contrasting is as important as the acquisition of knowledge on animal and plant cells. This would enable students to understand Teaching and Learning based on Thinking Skills and topics on mitosis and meiosis. Scientific Skills This biology curriculum emphasises thoughtful learning based on thinking skills and scientific skills. Mastery of thinking skills and scientific skills are integrated with the acquisition of knowledge in SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES the intended learning outcomes. Thus, in teaching and learning, teachers need to emphasise the mastery of skills together with the acquisition of knowledge and the inculcation of noble values and Science learning experiences can be used as a means to inculcate scientific attitudes. scientific attitudes and noble values in students. These attitudes and values encompass the following: The following is an example and explanation of a learning outcome based on thinking skills and scientific skills. ? Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. ? Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data. ? Being diligent and persevering. ? Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the environment. ? Realising that science is a means to understand nature. ? Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. ? Appreciating the balance of nature. ? Being respectful and well-mannered. 7
  16. 16. ? Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. ? Being thankful to God. Example: ? Having critical and analytical thinking. ? Being flexible and open-minded. Level: Form Five ? Being kind-hearted and caring. Learning Area: ? Being objective. 2.0 Variation ? Being systematic. Learning Objective: 2.3 Be respectful towards one another ? Being cooperative. despite variation. ? Being fair and just. ? Daring to try. Learning Outcome: Accept that people are different and ? Thinking rationally. respect each other. ? Being confident and independent. The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally Participate in games and club activities occurs through the following stages: Suggested Learning involving individuals from various Activities ethnic groups. ? Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific attitudes and noble values. Conduct a sketch to show respect for ? Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values. all God’ creation, s ? Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and noble values. Love and respect each other. Scientific attitudes and When planning teaching and learning activities, teachers need to noble values Being kind-hearted and caring. give due consideration to the above stages to ensure the continuous and effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and Appreciating the balance of nature. values. For example, during science practical work, the teacher should remind pupils and ensure that they carry out experiments in Being thankful to God. a careful, cooperative and honest manner. Being cooperative. Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values during science lessons. Before the first lesson related to a learning objective, teachers should examine all Inculcating Patriotism related learning outcomes and suggested teaching-learning activities that provide opportunities for the inculcation of scientific The biology curriculum provides an opportunity for the development attitudes and noble values. and strengthening of patriotism among students. For example, in learning about the process of colonization and succession in an The following is an example of a learning outcome pertaining to the ecosystem, students will learn about the rich biodiversity in the inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. 8
  17. 17. country, they will appreciate the diversity and uniqueness of this Thinking skills and scientific skills are thus developed further during natural resource of the country and deepen their love for the the inquiry process. However, the inquiry approach may not be country. suitable for all teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it may be more appropriate for teachers to present concepts and principles directly to students. TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES Constructivism Teaching and learning strategies in the biology curriculum emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process that Constructivism suggests that students learn about something when helps students acquire knowledge and master skills that will help they construct their own understanding. The important attributes of them develop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful learning constructivism are as follows: can occur through various learning approaches such as inquiry, ? Taking into account students’prior knowledge. constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery learning. Learning ? Learning occurring as a result of students’own effort. activities should therefore be geared towards activating students’ critical and creative thinking skills and not be confined to routine or ? Learning occurring when students restructure their rote learning. Students should be made aware of the thinking skills existing ideas by relating new ideas to old ones. and thinking strategies that they use in their learning. They should ? Providing opportunities to cooperate, sharing ideas and be challenged with higher order questions and problems and be experiences, and reflecting on their learning. required to solve problems utilising their creativity and critical thinking. The teaching and learning process should enable students Science, Technology and Society to acquire knowledge, master skills and develop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated manner. Meaningful learning occurs if students can relate their learning with their daily experiences. Meaningful learning occurs in learning approaches such as contextual learning and Science, Technology Teaching and Learning Approaches in Science and Society (STS). Inquiry-Discovery Learning themes and learning objectives that carry elements of STS are incorporated into the curriculum. STS approach suggests that Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning through experiences. Inquiry science learning takes place through investigation and discussion generally means to find information, to question and to investigate a based on science and technology issues in society. In the STS phenomenon that occurs in the environment. Discovery is the main approach, knowledge in science and technology is to be learned characteristic of inquiry. Learning through discovery occurs when with the application of the principles of science and technology and the main concepts and principles of science are investigated and their impact on society. discovered by students themselves. Through activities such as experiments, students investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions by themselves. Teachers then lead students to understand the science concepts through the results of the inquiry. 9
  18. 18. Contextual Learning The following are brief descriptions of some teaching and learning Contextual learning is an approach that associates learning with methods. daily experiences of students. In this way, students are able to Experiment appreciate the relevance of science learning to their lives. In contextual learning, students learn through investigations as in the An experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. In inquiry-discovery approach. experiments, students test hypotheses through investigations to discover specific science concepts and principles. Conducting an Mastery Learning experiment involves thinking skills, scientific skills, and manipulative skills. Mastery learning is an approach that ensures all students are able to acquire and master the intended learning objectives. This Usually, an experiment involves the following steps: approach is based on the principle that students are able to learn if ? Identifying a problem. they are given adequate opportunities. Students should be allowed ? Making a hypothesis. to learn at their own pace, with the incorporation of remedial and enrichment activities as part of the teaching-learning process. ? Planning the experiment - controlling variables. Teaching and Learning Methods - determining the equipment and materials needed. - determining the procedure of the experiment and the Teaching and learning approaches can be implemented through method of data collection and analysis. various methods such as experiments, discussions, simulations, projects, and visits. In this curriculum, the teaching-learning ? Conducting the experiment. methods suggested are stated under the column “ Suggested ? Collecting data. Learning Activities.” However, teachers can modify the suggested ? Analysing data. activities when the need arises. ? Interpreting data. The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods can enhance ? Making conclusions. students’ interest in science. Science lessons that are not ? Writing a report. interesting will not motivate students to learn and subsequently will affect their performances. The choice of In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guiding students to teaching methods should be based on the curriculum content, do an experiment, where appropriate, teachers should provide students’ abilities, students’ repertoire of intelligences, and the students with the opportunities to design their own experiments. availability of resources and infrastructure. Besides playing the role This involves students drawing up plans as to how to conduct of knowledge presenters and experts, teachers need to act as experiments, how to measure and analyse data, and how to present facilitators in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers need the outcomes of their experiment. to be aware of the multiple intelligences that exist among students. Different teaching and learning activities should be planned to cater for students with different learning styles and intelligences. 10
  19. 19. Discussion Visits to these places make the learning of science more interesting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learning A discussion is an activity in which students exchange questions opportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Students may be and opinions based on valid reasons. Discussions can be involved in the planning process and specific educational tasks conducted before, during or after an activity. Teachers should play should be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is complete the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking questions without a post-visit discussion. that stimulate thinking and getting students to express themselves. Use of Technology Simulation Technology is a powerful tool that has great potential in enhancing In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation is the learning of science. Through the use of technology such as carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and the television, radio, video, computer, and Internet, the teaching and use of models. In role-play, students play out a particular role based learning of science can be made more interesting and effective. on certain pre-determined conditions. Games require procedures that need to be followed. Students play games in order to learn a Computer simulation and animation are effective tools for the particular principle or to understand the process of decision-making. teaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts. Models are used to represent objects or actual situations so that Computer simulation and animation can be presented through students can visualise the said objects or situations and thus courseware or Web page. Application tools such, as word understand the concepts and principles to be learned. processor, graphic presentation software and electronic spreadsheet are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation of Project data. A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by an The use of other tools such as data loggers and computer individual or a group of students to achieve a certain learning interfacing in experiments and projects also enhance the objective. A project generally requires several lessons to complete. effectiveness of teaching and learning of science. The outcome of the project either in the form of a report, an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to the teacher and other students. Project work promotes the development of problem- solving skills, time management skills, and independent learning. CONTENT ORGANISATION The biology curriculum is organised around themes. Each theme Visits and Use of External Resources consists of various learning areas, each of which consists of a number of learning objectives. A learning objective has one or more The learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in the learning outcomes. school compound. Learning of science can be enhanced through the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, science Learning outcomes are written based on the hierarchy of the centres, research institutes, mangrove swamps, and factories. cognitive and affective domains. Levels in the cognitive domain are: knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis and 11
  20. 20. evaluation. Levels in the affective domain are: to be aware of, to be in awe, to be appreciative, to be thankful, to love, to practise, and to internalise. Where possible, learning outcomes relating to the affective domain are explicitly stated. The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values should be integrated into every learning activity. This ensures a more spontaneous and natural inculcation of attitudes and values. Learning areas in the psychomotor domain are implicit in the learning activities. Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurable behavioural terms. In general, the learning outcomes for a particular learning objective are organised in order of complexity. However, in the process of teaching and learning, learning activities should be planned in a holistic and integrated manner that enables the achievement of multiple learning outcomes according to needs and context. Teachers should avoid employing a teaching strategy that tries to achieve each learning outcome separately according to the order stated in the curriculum specifications. The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning activities stated under the column Suggested Learning Activities are given with the intention of providing some guidance as to how learning outcomes can be achieved. A suggested activity may cover one or more learning outcomes. At the same time, more than one activity may be suggested for a particular learning outcome. Teachers may modify the suggested activity to suit the ability and style of learning of their students. Teachers are encouraged to design other innovative and effective learning activities to enhance the learning of biology. 12
  21. 21. THEME: PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVING THINGS LEARNING AREA: 1.0 TRANSPORT Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 1.1 Carry out activities to identify the A student is able to: Understanding problem that could be faced by the importance multicellular organisms and explain ? identify the problem that could As compared to cell requirements of having a how the problem is overcome in be faced by multicellular unicellular organisms – keperluan sel transport multicellular organisms as organisms in obtaining their system in some compared to unicellular organisms: cellular requirements and getting waste products multicellular rid of their waste products, – hasil buangan organisms a) correlate different sizes of cubes to total surface area / transport – volume (TSA/V) ratio, pengangkutan b) discuss how the (TSA/V) ratio affects the movement of solutes total surface area to the interior of cubes, – jumlah luas permukaan c) relate the outcome of a) and b) to the problem faced by multicellular organisms in getting cell requirements to the cells in the interior of the organisms, ? suggest how the problem is d) suggest ways to improve the overcome in multicellular movement of solutes to the organisms. interior of cubes without changing the size of cubes, e) explain why there is a need for a transport system in some multicellular organisms. 13
  22. 22. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 1.2 Read text materials and view A student is able to: Synthesising computer simulations on circulatory circulatory system the concept of system and discuss the following: ? state what a circulatory system – sistem peredaran circulatory is, a) what is a circulatory system, system b) the three components of the ? state the three components of composition – komposisi circulatory system in humans circulatory system, i.e. and animals, blood vessel – salur medium, vessels and pump, darah c) blood and haemolymph as a ? state the medium of transport in medium of transport, humans and animals, d) the composition of human ? state the composition of human blood, blood, e) the function of blood and ? explain the function of blood and hemolymph in transport, haemolymph in transport, f) the structure of human blood ? describe the structure of human Only a brief description heart – jantung vessels: arteries, veins and blood vessels, of human blood capillaries, vessels is required. cardiac muscle – otot kardium g) the basic structure and function of the human heart, h) the circulation of blood in ? explain how blood is propelled Cardiac cycle is not skeletal muscle humans in terms of: through the human circulatory required. – otot rangka i. pumping of the heart, system, regulatory mechanism ii. contraction of skeletal – mekanisme kawal atur muscles around veins, i) the regulatory mechanism of ? explain briefly how blood Baroreceptors in the blood pressure blood pressure. pressure is regulated, aorta and carotid – tekanan darah arteries are mentioned. Effectors are smooth muscles of the arteries and cardiac muscles. 14
  23. 23. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Look at the heart of the fish, chicken and/or cow, and note similarities and differences in terms of size, and number of compartments. Use schematic diagrams to ? compare and contrast the compare the circulatory system in circulatory systems in the the following: humans, fish and following: humans, fish and amphibians. amphibians, Visualise and draw concept maps ? conceptualise the circulatory on the circulatory system in system in humans. humans. 1.3 Show photomicrographs of blood A student is able to: blood clotting Understanding clots. Discuss the necessity for – pembekuan darah the mechanism blood clotting with respect to: ? explain the necessity for blood of blood clotting damaged blood vessel a) preventing serious blood loss, clotting at the site of damaged – salur darah tercedera b) preventing the entry of blood vessels, microorganisms and foreign particles, impaired blood clotting c) maintaining blood pressure, – pembekuan darah d) maintaining circulation of blood terjejas in a closed circulatory system. Use a schematic diagram to ? explain the mechanism of blood illustrate the mechanism of blood clotting, clotting. Predict the consequences of blood ? predict the consequences of clotting related problems such as impaired blood clotting haemophilia or thrombosis. mechanism in an individual. 15
  24. 24. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 1.4 Draw a schematic diagram on the A student is able to: Synthesising formation of interstitial fluid and interstitial fluid the concept of lymph, and discuss the following: ? describe the formation of – bendalir interstis lymphatic a) spaces between cells, interstitial fluid, system lymphatic system b) materials from blood capillaries – sistem limfa entering these spaces, c) composition of interstitial fluid, ? state the composition of interstitial fluid, d) the importance of interstitial ? state the importance of fluid, interstitial fluid, e) the need for interstitial fluid to ? describe the fate of interstitial return to the circulatory system fluid, directly or via the lymphatic system. Discuss the following: With the exception of lymph nodes – nodus a) the structure of the lymphatic ? describe the structure of the thoracic duct and right limfa system, lymphatic system, lymphatic duct, specific ? explain how the lymphatic names of lymph b) the flow of lymph, vessels and lymph c) the role of the lymphatic system system complements the nodes are not required. in transport. circulatory system, Use a graphic organiser to compare ? compare the content of blood, the content of blood, interstitial fluid interstitial fluid and lymph, and lymph. Brainstorm to predict what will ? predict what will happen if happen if interstitial fluid fails to interstitial fluid fails to return to return to the circulatory system. the circulatory system, Study diagram or computer ? conceptualise the relationship simulation on the lymphatic system, between the lymphatic system and discuss the relationship and circulatory system. 16
  25. 25. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives between the lymphatic system and circulatory system. 1.5 Discuss the necessity for a body A student is able to: body’ defence s Understanding defence mechanism in humans. mechanism the role of the ? state another function of the – mekanisme circulatory pertahanan badan. Gather information and discuss the circulatory system besides system in body body’ defence mechanism with s transport, defence mechanism reference to: a) first line of defence ? identify the three lines of - skin, defence mechanism of the body, - mucous membrane, b) second line of defence - phagocytic white blood cells, c) third line of defence - lymphocytes. Draw and label the various stages ? describe the process of of phagocytosis. phagocytosis, Discuss the following: ? state the meaning of antigen and immunity – keimunan a) antigens, antibodies, immunity antibody, and immunisation, ? state the meaning of immunity immunisation – pengimunan and immunisation, b) how antigens and antibodies ? relate antigen and antibody to are related to immunity, immunity, c) the various types of immunity: ? name and give examples of i. active immunity (natural, various types of immunity, artificial), ii. passive immunity (natural, artificial). 17
  26. 26. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Carry out small group discussion on the following and present the findings: ? state the effects of human a) the effects of HIV on the body’ s immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on immune system, the body’ defence mechanism, s b) transmission of HIV, ? describe the transmission of HIV, c) prevention of AIDS. ? suggest ways to prevent the acquired immune spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome deficiency syndrome (AIDS). (AIDS) – sindrom kurang daya tahan 1.6 Research and discuss nuitrition and A student is able to: Appreciating a lifestyle which can lead to a healthy ? select and practise suitable healthy cardiovascular system. Then select ways to maintain a healthy cardiovascular ways that are suitable and practise cardiovascular system. system them. 1.7 Discuss the following: A student is able to: Understanding a) the necessity for transport of ? state the necessity for transport the transport of substances in plants, of substances in plants, substances in b) the problem that could be faced plants by plants in transporting substances and how it is overcome in plants. 18
  27. 27. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Carry out the following activities: a) to show the presence of xylem ? identify the vascular tissue in cross section as a continuous tube system to stem, root and leaf, – keratan rentas transport water and minerals, b) prepare slides and look at the longitudinal section cross section (XS) and – keratan membujur longitudinal section (LS) of a ? state the role of vascular tissue dicot stem, in the transport of substances, c) study prepared slides of XS of ? describe the structure of stem, root and leaf of a dicot vascular tissue, plant, and draw plan diagrams. Relate the following: a) the structure of xylem to the ? relate the structure of xylem to transport of water and minerals, transport, b) the structure of phloem to the ? relate the structure of phloem to transport of organic substances. transport, Carry out bark ringing to show the ? predict the effect of removing a Bark ringing is the role of phloem in the continuous ring of phloem tissue from a removal of a ring of transport of organic substances. plant. tissue external to the xylem from around the trunk of a woody plant. 1.8 Discuss the following: A student is able to: pathway of water Synthesising a) the transport of organic ? state what translocation is, Mechanism to explain - laluan air the concept of substances in plants, translocation is not transport of b) the importance of translocation ? explain the importance of required. environmental factor substances in in plants. translocation in plants, - factor persekitaran plants 19
  28. 28. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Carry out small group discussion on ? describe the process of light intensity the following and present the transpiration, - keamatan cahaya findings: a) the process of transpiration, b) the importance of transpiration, ? explain the importance of relative humidity transpiration, - kelembapan relatif c) the pathway of water from soil ? describe the pathway of water rate of transpiration to leaves using a schematic from the soil to the leaves, - kadar transpirasi diagram, d) the external conditions affecting ? state external conditions root pressure the rate of transpiration affecting transpiration, - tekanan akar Design and conduct experiments transpiration pull to study factors affecting the rate of ? design experiments to study - tarikan transpirasi transpiration, i.e. : factors affecting the rate of a) air movement, transpiration, capillary action b) temperature, - tindakan kapilari c) light intensity, d) relative humidity. Carry out an activity to show the ? explain the role of root pressure following: in the movement of water in a) root pressure, plants, b) cohesion and adhesion of ? explain the role of cohesion and water. adhesion of water in the movement of water in plants, Discuss and draw a concept map of ? conceptualise the transport the movement of water in plants in mechanism in plants. terms of the following: osmosis, transpiration pull, cohesion and adhesion of water, opening and closing of stomata, root pressure. 20
  29. 29. LEARNING AREA: 2.0 LOCOMOTION AND SUPPORT Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 2.1 Carry out small group discussion on A student is able to: Understanding the following: support and a) the necessity for support and ? explain the necessity for support support - sokongan locomotion in locomotion in humans and and locomotion in humans and humans and animals, animals, locomotion - gerak alih animals b) the problems that could be ? describe problems that could be faced by humans and animals faced by humans and animals in in support and locomotion, support and locomotion, c) how the above problems are ? explain how problems in support overcome in humans and and locomotion are overcome in animals. humans and animals, Study a model of human skeleton ? name the bones that make up axial skeleton to identify the following: the axial skeleton and - rangka paksi a) axial skeleton consisting of the appendicular skeleton of the skull, cervical vertebrae, human body, appendage skeleton thoracic vertebrae, lumbar - rangka apendaj vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, sternum and ribs, b) appendicular skeleton pelvic girdle consisting of the scapula, - lengkungan pelvic clavicle, humerus, ulna, radius, pelvic girdle, femur, tibia and fibula. Observe a chicken wing to note the position and nature of muscles, ligaments and tendons. Draw and label a simple diagram of ? label the bones, the skeletal an arm to show the arrangement of muscles and tendons in a bones, skeletal muscles and diagram of the arm, tendons. 21
  30. 30. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Briefly discuss: a) how the bones, skeletal ? explain how movement is The Sliding –Filament joint - sendi brought about in a limb, Model of Muscle muscles, tendons and joints Contraction is not contraction - pengecutan bring about movement in the required. arm or leg, b) the necessity of nerve impulses in skeletal muscle contraction, c) the antagonistic action of skeletal muscles, d) all muscle has two primary proteins, e) source of energy is from ATP produced in adjacent mitochondria, f) the function of cartilage and ? state the function of cartilage cartilage - rawan synovial fluid at joints. and synovial fluid at joints, Observe and discuss the ? describe briefly the mechanism Only a simple account mechanism of locomotion in an of locomotion in an animal, is required. earthworm, grasshopper, fish or bird. Discuss and present findings on ? state some consequences of impaired - terjejas muscle cramp, osteoporosis, impaired musculoskeletal muscular dystrophy, and arthritis. system on support and muscle cramp - kejang locomotion. otot 22
  31. 31. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 2.2 Discuss and share ways of caring A student is able to: Appreciating a for the musculoskeletal system healthy such as: ? practise ways to care for the musculo- a) following a balanced diet, musculoskeletal system. skeletal system b) having a good posture, c) using of proper attire for daily activities, d) taking appropriate precautions during vigorous activities, e) practising correct and safe exercise techniques. 2.3 Discuss the following: A student is able to: Understanding a) the necessity for support in ? explain the necessity for support support in plants, in plants, plants b) what could be the support related problems faced by: i. aquatic plants, ii. terrestrial plants. c) how is support achieved in ? explain how support is achieved aquatic and terrestrial plants. in aquatic plants, Carry out the following activities: a) study the adaptations for ? explain how support in terrestrial support (aerenchyma and air plants are achieved through sacs) in floating aquatic plants, tissue modifications. e.g. water hyacinth, b) study prepared slides of cross sections of old stems to identify tissue that help in support, c) investigate how support in herbaceous plant, e.g. spinach and balsam, is achieved without woody tissue. 23
  32. 32. LEARNING AREA: 3.0 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 3.1 Carry out small group discussion on A student is able to: Understanding the following and present the response and findings: coordination a) external stimuli, e.g. light, ? list the changes in external and external environment sound, smell, taste, internal environment faced by an - persekitaran luar temperature, pressure and organism, touch, internal environment b) internal stimuli e.g. sugar level - persekitaran dalam in the blood and osmotic pressure of blood, stimulus - rangsangan c) the necessity for living ? state why organisms have to be organisms to respond to stimuli, sensitive to changes in internal response - gerak balas and external environment, Carry out activities to study: ? clarify through examples the a) human and animal responses to meaning of ‘ stimulus’and external and internal ‘ response’ , environment, b) plant responses to external environment. View computer simulations on the ? state the main components and Main components are negative feedback pathways in detecting and pathways involved in detecting receptors, integrating - suap balik negatif responding to external and internal and responding to changes in centre and effectors. stimuli in humans and animals and external environment, Afferent and efferent draw schematic diagrams involving pathways are involved the main components. ? state the main components and In regulating the pathways involved in detecting internal environment, and regulating changes in negative feedback is internal environment, involved.. Discuss what is meant by ? clarify through examples the ‘ coordination’ . meaning of ‘ coordination’ . 24
  33. 33. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 3.2 Discuss the role of nervous system. A student is able to: Analysing the ? state the role of nervous system, role of human Draw a diagram to show the ? draw and label a diagram to The parts of the brain nervous system nervous system organisation of the nervous system. show the organisation of the to be studied are the - sistem saraf nervous system, cerebrum, cerebellum, View graphics of the brain and label ? name the main parts of the brain medulla oblongata, spinal cord the main parts of the brain, and and state their functions, pituitary, hypothalamus - saraf tunjang state their respective function(s). and thalamus. Draw and label diagram of a cross ? draw and label a diagram of a Cross section of spinal section of the spinal cord. cross section of the spinal cord, cord includes grey matter, white matter, Discuss the main functions of the ? state the main functions of the dorsal root, ventral spinal cord. spinal cord, root, ganglion, spinal nerve. Draw and label the structure of the ? label the structure of an efferent efferent neurone (nucleus, cell neurone, body, cytoplasm, dendrites, axon, synaptic dendrites, myelin sheath). Identify and discuss the function of ? identify the type of the neurone the three types of neurone. from diagrams given, ? state the function of each type of neurone, View computer animations on the ? state the mode of transmission transmission of transmission of information in the of information along the information - form of electrical signals. neurone, penghantaran maklumat Discuss the mode of transmission electrical signals of information along the neurone. - isyarat elektrik 25
  34. 34. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Draw a schematic diagram to show ? describe briefly the pathway of the pathway of transmission of transmission of information from information, and discuss the receptors to effectors, following: a) reception of stimuli by receptors, b) from receptors to the central nervous system, c) integration and interpretation by the central nervous system, d) from the central nervous system to the effectors, e) response by the effectors. Draw and label a simple diagram of ? draw and label a simple diagram a synapse, of a synapse, Conduct small group discussion on the following: ? describe the transmission of a) transmission of information information across synapses, across the synapse. b) the role of the synapse in ? state the role of the synapse in transmission, transmission, Discuss voluntary action and ? give examples of voluntary voluntary action involuntary action with examples. action, Note: – tindakan terkawal Conditional reflex is ? give examples of involuntary not required. involuntary action action, – tindakan luar kawal Discuss the following: a) voluntary action eg. raising your ? outline the transmission of hand to answer a question, information in voluntary action, 26
  35. 35. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives b) involuntary action involving ? outline the transmission of knee jerk – sentakan lutut skeletal muscles eg. knee jerk, information in involuntary action, skeletal muscles c) involuntary action involving – otot rangka smooth muscles, cardiac smooth muscles – otot muscles or glands eg. normal licin blood pressure. Work in small groups to draw a ? draw a schematic diagram reflex arc – arka refleks schematic diagram of a reflex arc. showing a reflex arc, Visit homes for the aged. Show ? give examples of nervous compassion towards senior citizens system related diseases. and patients with Alzheimer’ and s Parkinson’ diseases. s 3.3 Carry out small group discussion on A student is able to: Analysing the the following and present the endocrine glands role of findings: ? state what a hormone is, – kelenjar endokrin hormones in a) what a hormone is, ? state what the endocrine system humans b) what the endocrine system is, is, c) why the endocrine system is ? state why the endocrine system necessary, despite having the is necessary, nervous system, d) the physiological processes ? state physiological processes which are not directly regulated not directly regulated by the by the nervous system e.g. nervous system, menstrual cycle, development of secondary sex characteristics, growth, etc., e) how the endocrine system ? descibe how the endocrine complements the nervous system complements the system. nervous system, 27
  36. 36. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Carry out group activity to label the ? label the main glands of the main glands of the endocrine endocrine system, system. Name the main hormones ? name the main hormones The main hormones produced by each endocrine gland. produced by each endocrine required are: gland, - follicle stimulating Match the hormones with their hormone, functions in the following ? state the functions of the - luteinising hormone, physiological processes: hormones involved in some - estrogen, (a) reproduction, physiological processes, - progesterone, (b) growth, - androgens (c) homeostasis. - growth hormone, - thyroid-stimulating hormone, - thyroxine, - insulin, - glucagon, - antidiuretic hormone, and - adrenaline. Discuss how secretion of a ? describe briefly how secretion of hormone can be regulated by: hormone is regulated, a) another hormone, e.g. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), b) level of certain substances, e.g. glucose, c) nervous system. 28
  37. 37. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Discuss the involvement of both the ? describe briefly coordination nervous system and the endocrine involving both the nervous system in a “fight or flight”situation system and endocrine system, in (involving adrenaline). a“ fight or flight”situation, Carry out small group discussion on the following and present the findings on: a) the effects of imbalance of ? state the effects of hormonal hormonal imbalance thyroxine, growth hormone, imbalance, - ketidakseimbangan antidiuretic hormone, and hormon insulin, b) the use of hormone in the dwarfism - kekerdilan treatment of diabetes mellitus ? state the use of hormone in and dwarfism. medicine. 3.4 Discuss the following : A student is able to: Regulation of the Synthesising a) physical factors – body physical and chemical the concept of temperature and blood ? explain the necessity to maintain factors in internal homeostasis in pressure, an optimal physical and environment is vital for humans b) chemical factors in the blood - chemical condition in the internal survival. partial pressure of oxygen and environment, of carbon dioxide, osmotic pressure, and sugar level, c) the necessity to maintain an optimal physical and chemical condition in the internal environment. d) the meaning of homeostasis, ? state the meaning of homeostasis, 29
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