1.
• Science is the systematic study of nature
and how it affects us and our environment.
• Science can explain natural phenomena
that happen in our environment.
• How?
– Through careful observations, studies and
scientific investigations.
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3.
Environmentalist
Archeologist
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Forensic technician
Science teacher
Doctor
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4.
VARIOUS FIELDS IN SCIENCE
• Science covers a very wide area of study and is
divided into various fields, such as:
– Biology: the study of living things
– Physics : the study of interaction of matter and energy
– Chemistry : the study of composition and chemical
properties of substances, their reactions and uses
– Geology : the study of rocks and minerals
– Astronomy : the study of the stars and planets
– Meteorology : the study of weather and climate
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11.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Identifying problem
Forming a hypothesis
Planning the experiment
Controlling the variables
Collecting data
Analysing and interpreting data
Drawing a conclusion
Writing a report
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12.
1. List the steps of scientific
investigation.
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13.
2. Write down a report on Simple
pendulum experiment.
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16.
• To investigate how the length of the pendulum
string affect the time for 10 complete swings
of the pendulum.
• How the length of the pendulum string affect
the time for 10 complete swings of the
pendulum?
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17.
• If the length of the pendulum is longer, the
time taken for 10 complete swing of the
pendulum is longer.
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18.
• Manipulated (what to change)
: the length of the pendulum
• Responding (what is observed)
: time taken for 10 complete swings
• Constant (kept the same)
: mass of the pendulum bob
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19.
• Pendulum bob, string/thread, retort stand and
clamp, stop watch
• Apparatus set-up:
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20.
1. Prepare the simple pendulum with a 10cm long
thread.
2. Pull the pendulum bob to one side, then release.
3. Record the time taken for 10 complete
oscillations in a table.
4. Repeat the experiment using a simple pendulum
of different lengths, e.g. 20cm, 30cm, 40cm and
50cm.
5. Draw a graph showing the time taken versus
length of pendulum for 10 complete oscillations.
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21.
1. A simple pendulum with a 10 cm long thread was
prepared.
2. The pendulum was pulled to one side, and then
was released.
3. The time taken for 10 complete oscillations was
recorded in a table.
4. The experiment was repeated using a simple
pendulum with 20cm, 30cm, 40 and 50cm long.
5. A graph showing the time taken versus length of
pendulum for 10 complete oscillations was drawn.
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24.
• Graph of time taken for 10 complete oscillations
versus length of simple pendulum.
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25.
From the graph, we can say that:
1. The pendulum with a longer string takes
longer time to oscillate than the
pendulum with a shorter string.
2. The time taken for the pendulum to make one
complete oscillation will increase when the
pendulum string is longer.
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26.
• From the results, the hypothesis is
accepted
.
• The time taken for the simple pendulum to
make one complete oscillation increases
with the length of the pendulum.
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28.
• Measurement is important because:
–It helps to describe things everyday;
–It is a part of the scientific investigation
process
(e.g: simple pendulum experiment)
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29.
Can be measured
Cannot be measured
How far is your house to How beautiful a person
the school?
is?
How long does you take
How does a durian
to finish your
taste?
homework?
How hot is a glass of
How soft a pillow is?
water?
How a flower smell?
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30.
• A physical quantity is something that can be
measured.
• There are five basic quantities: length, time,
mass, temperature and electric current.
• Measurement of physical quantities consist of
two parts:
– A number indicating value or how much;
– A unit of measurement.
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31.
• Unit is a scale that helps you understand
a particular measurement.
• S.I units: International standard unit of
measurement (Systeme International d’
Unites).
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32.
Allow us to analyse data and compare
information easily and more accurately;
No confusion because there is specific
symbols for each unit;
Allow us to solve problems related to
measurement.
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33.
Physical
quantities
Length
Mass
Time
Temperature
Electric current
SI units
Symbols
Definition
Metre
m
A measurement of how long
something from one point to another
Kilogram
kg
A measurement of how much matter
there is in an object
Second
s
A measurement of the interval
between two events
Kelvin
K
A measurement of the warmness or
coldness in any object
Ampere
A
A measurement of the rate flow of
electric charges through a circuit
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34.
• Prefixes are added to units like meter and
gram when we need to state values that are
too small or too large.
Prefix
Multiplier
Symbol
Micro
Milli
Centi
X 10-6
X 10-3
X 10-2
µ
m
c
Numerical
value
0.000001
0.001
0.01
Kilo
Mega
X 103
X 106
k
M
1000
1000000
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38.
• The weight of an object is the pull of the Earth
(force of gravity) on the object.
• The S.I unit of weight is Newton (N).
• The weight of any object depends on the
gravitational force.
• The weight of an object is obtained using a
spring balance or compression spring
balance.
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40.
• The mass of an object is the quantity of
matter in the object.
• The S.I. unit of mass is kilogram (kg).
• The mass of an object can be obtained using a
triple beam balance or lever balance.
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42.
It is the amount of
matter in an object.
Its value is fixed.
Unit: kilogram (kg)
It is the gravitational
pull on an object.
Its value varies from
place to place.
Unit: Newton (N)
Measured using beam Measured using spring
balance or lever
balance or weighing
balance.
balance.
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44.
1. Tools: ruler, metre rule, measuring tape
2. Measuring the length of a straight line:
– Using metre rule or a ruler
– Correct position of eye (to avoid parallax error)
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45.
3. Measuring the length of a curve:
a) Using a ruler and a piece of thread
•
•
•
•
A knot is tied at the end of a thread
The thread is stretched along the curve carefully
Make a mark at the end of the curve
Stretch the thread along the ruler to obtain the length
b) Using an opisometer
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46.
• Measuring the diameter of a spherical
object:
– Using two wooden blocks and a ruler
– Using a set-square and a ruler
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47.
• Measuring the diameter of an object:
– The external diameter is measured using external
calipers and a ruler
– The internal diameter is measured using internal
caliper and a ruler.
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48.
• Measuring the thickness of an object:
– The thickness of a piece of paper can be
determined by measuring the thickness of a stack
of papers and dividing the value of number of
sheets of paper.
Thickness
of a single sheet
Thickness
of a stack of paper
Number of sheets
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49.
– The thickness of a glass tube can be measured by
taking the difference between its external and
internal diameter.
Thickness
of glass
External
diameter
- internal
diameter
2
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50.
• Area is the total surface covered by an object.
• The SI unit is square metre (m2).
• Regular-shaped areas can be calculated using
Mathematical formula. (next slide)
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52.
Irregular-shaped areas can be estimated by using a graph paper.
– Trace the object on the
graph paper.
– Estimate the area by
counting the number of full
squares, half full squares
and more than half full
squares (tick the squares)
– Area of the object is
estimated by multiplying the
number of squares with the
area of one square.
– The area can be estimated
more accurately with
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smaller squares.
53.
• Volume of an object is the total space
occupied by the object.
• The SI unit is cubic metre (m3).
• It also can be measured in millilitre (ml).
• The apparatus: measuring cylinder, burette
and pipette.
1 ml = 1 cm3
1 l = 1000 cm3= 1000 ml
1 m3= 1 000 000 cm3 = 1 000 000 ml
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54.
• Measuring volumes of liquids
– The volume must be taken at the meniscus level
of the liquid.
– Use a piece of white paper to enable the
meniscus to be seen clearly.
– The eye is positioned at the same level of the
meniscus to avoid parallax error.
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55.
• Measuring volumes of solids
– The volume of regular-shaped and irregular-shaped
can be measured using water displacement method.
– The object to be measured must be submerged in the
measuring cylinder filled with water.
– The volume of the water displaced is the volume of
the object.
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56.
– The volume of a solid can also be measured using
a displacement can or a Eureka can.
– The volume of the water that flows out from the
can is the volume of the solid measured.
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57.
– The volume of a light object can be measured
with the aid of a weight, for example, a stone.
– The stone which is tied to the cork enables the
cork to be submerged in the water.
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58.
MEASURING TEMPERATURE
1. Temperature is the degree of of hotness or
coldness of a substance.
2. The S.I unit for temperature is Kelvin (K).
Normally temperature is measured in degree
Celsius (°C).
3. The temperature of a liquid is measured by using
a laboratory thermometer.
4. Pure water boils at 100°C and freezes at 0°C under
normal condition.
5. The average body temperature is 36.9°C.
6. The temperature of our body is measured by
using a clinical thermometer.
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59.
1. In the past, different units were used by
different people for measuring for measuring
the same basic quantity.
2. Using different units gives rise to several
problem such as;
a) It is difficult to make comparisons
b) Foreign tourists may not understand the units
used in the countries they visit.
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60.
Basic quantity
Length
Unit used
• Inch, foot, yard, cubit, mile
• Centimetre, metre, kilometre.
1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 foot = 12 inches = 0.3048 m
1 yard = 0.9144 m
1 mile = 1609 m
Mass
• Ounce, pound
• Tahil, kati
• Gram, kilogram
1 ounce = 28.35 g
1 pound = 0.4536 kg
1 kati = 16 tahils
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61.
3. The use of standard units in measurements is
very important to scientist and people who
import and export goods.
4. Using standard units enable scientists;
a) To understand one another’s measurement and
make accurate comparisons,
b) To communicate and understand one another’s
experiment and research,
c) To exchange information, knowledge and
technology
d) To avoid confusion.
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