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Science Form 1 (Chapter 1)
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Science Form 1 (Chapter 1)



Theme : Introducing Science

Theme : Introducing Science
Title : Introduction to Science



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Science Form 1 (Chapter 1) Science Form 1 (Chapter 1) Presentation Transcript

  • • Science is the systematic study of nature and how it affects us and our environment. • Science can explain natural phenomena that happen in our environment. • How? – Through careful observations, studies and scientific investigations. syamsensei@gmail.com 2
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 3
  • Environmentalist Archeologist syamsensei@gmail.com Forensic technician Science teacher Doctor 4
  • VARIOUS FIELDS IN SCIENCE • Science covers a very wide area of study and is divided into various fields, such as: – Biology: the study of living things – Physics : the study of interaction of matter and energy – Chemistry : the study of composition and chemical properties of substances, their reactions and uses – Geology : the study of rocks and minerals – Astronomy : the study of the stars and planets – Meteorology : the study of weather and climate syamsensei@gmail.com 5
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 6
  • • Wearing goggles • Carrying bottles by the body; not the neck syamsensei@gmail.com 7
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 8
  • Bunsen burner Test tube Tripod stand and wire gauze syamsensei@gmail.com Crucible 9
  • Syringe Test tube holder Retort stand and clamp syamsensei@gmail.com 10
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 11
  • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Identifying problem Forming a hypothesis Planning the experiment Controlling the variables Collecting data Analysing and interpreting data Drawing a conclusion Writing a report syamsensei@gmail.com 12
  • 1. List the steps of scientific investigation. syamsensei@gmail.com 13
  • 2. Write down a report on Simple pendulum experiment. syamsensei@gmail.com 14
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 15
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 16
  • • To investigate how the length of the pendulum string affect the time for 10 complete swings of the pendulum. • How the length of the pendulum string affect the time for 10 complete swings of the pendulum? syamsensei@gmail.com 17
  • • If the length of the pendulum is longer, the time taken for 10 complete swing of the pendulum is longer. syamsensei@gmail.com 18
  • • Manipulated (what to change) : the length of the pendulum • Responding (what is observed) : time taken for 10 complete swings • Constant (kept the same) : mass of the pendulum bob syamsensei@gmail.com 19
  • • Pendulum bob, string/thread, retort stand and clamp, stop watch • Apparatus set-up: syamsensei@gmail.com 20
  • 1. Prepare the simple pendulum with a 10cm long thread. 2. Pull the pendulum bob to one side, then release. 3. Record the time taken for 10 complete oscillations in a table. 4. Repeat the experiment using a simple pendulum of different lengths, e.g. 20cm, 30cm, 40cm and 50cm. 5. Draw a graph showing the time taken versus length of pendulum for 10 complete oscillations. syamsensei@gmail.com 21
  • 1. A simple pendulum with a 10 cm long thread was prepared. 2. The pendulum was pulled to one side, and then was released. 3. The time taken for 10 complete oscillations was recorded in a table. 4. The experiment was repeated using a simple pendulum with 20cm, 30cm, 40 and 50cm long. 5. A graph showing the time taken versus length of pendulum for 10 complete oscillations was drawn. syamsensei@gmail.com 22
  • 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 syamsensei@gmail.com 10 13 15 18 20 23
  • 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 10 13 15 18 20 syamsensei@gmail.com 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.0 24
  • • Graph of time taken for 10 complete oscillations versus length of simple pendulum. syamsensei@gmail.com 25
  • From the graph, we can say that: 1. The pendulum with a longer string takes longer time to oscillate than the pendulum with a shorter string. 2. The time taken for the pendulum to make one complete oscillation will increase when the pendulum string is longer. syamsensei@gmail.com 26
  • • From the results, the hypothesis is accepted . • The time taken for the simple pendulum to make one complete oscillation increases with the length of the pendulum. syamsensei@gmail.com 27
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 28
  • • Measurement is important because: –It helps to describe things everyday; –It is a part of the scientific investigation process (e.g: simple pendulum experiment) syamsensei@gmail.com 29
  • Can be measured Cannot be measured How far is your house to How beautiful a person the school? is? How long does you take How does a durian to finish your taste? homework? How hot is a glass of How soft a pillow is? water? How a flower smell? syamsensei@gmail.com 30
  • • A physical quantity is something that can be measured. • There are five basic quantities: length, time, mass, temperature and electric current. • Measurement of physical quantities consist of two parts: – A number indicating value or how much; – A unit of measurement. syamsensei@gmail.com 31
  • • Unit is a scale that helps you understand a particular measurement. • S.I units: International standard unit of measurement (Systeme International d’ Unites). syamsensei@gmail.com 32
  • Allow us to analyse data and compare information easily and more accurately; No confusion because there is specific symbols for each unit; Allow us to solve problems related to measurement. syamsensei@gmail.com 33
  • Physical quantities Length Mass Time Temperature Electric current SI units Symbols Definition Metre m A measurement of how long something from one point to another Kilogram kg A measurement of how much matter there is in an object Second s A measurement of the interval between two events Kelvin K A measurement of the warmness or coldness in any object Ampere A A measurement of the rate flow of electric charges through a circuit syamsensei@gmail.com 34
  • • Prefixes are added to units like meter and gram when we need to state values that are too small or too large. Prefix Multiplier Symbol Micro Milli Centi X 10-6 X 10-3 X 10-2 µ m c Numerical value 0.000001 0.001 0.01 Kilo Mega X 103 X 106 k M 1000 1000000 syamsensei@gmail.com 35
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 36
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 37
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 38
  • • The weight of an object is the pull of the Earth (force of gravity) on the object. • The S.I unit of weight is Newton (N). • The weight of any object depends on the gravitational force. • The weight of an object is obtained using a spring balance or compression spring balance. syamsensei@gmail.com 39
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 40
  • • The mass of an object is the quantity of matter in the object. • The S.I. unit of mass is kilogram (kg). • The mass of an object can be obtained using a triple beam balance or lever balance. syamsensei@gmail.com 41
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 42
  • It is the amount of matter in an object. Its value is fixed. Unit: kilogram (kg) It is the gravitational pull on an object. Its value varies from place to place. Unit: Newton (N) Measured using beam Measured using spring balance or lever balance or weighing balance. balance. syamsensei@gmail.com 43
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 44
  • 1. Tools: ruler, metre rule, measuring tape 2. Measuring the length of a straight line: – Using metre rule or a ruler – Correct position of eye (to avoid parallax error) syamsensei@gmail.com 45
  • 3. Measuring the length of a curve: a) Using a ruler and a piece of thread • • • • A knot is tied at the end of a thread The thread is stretched along the curve carefully Make a mark at the end of the curve Stretch the thread along the ruler to obtain the length b) Using an opisometer syamsensei@gmail.com 46
  • • Measuring the diameter of a spherical object: – Using two wooden blocks and a ruler – Using a set-square and a ruler syamsensei@gmail.com 47
  • • Measuring the diameter of an object: – The external diameter is measured using external calipers and a ruler – The internal diameter is measured using internal caliper and a ruler. syamsensei@gmail.com 48
  • • Measuring the thickness of an object: – The thickness of a piece of paper can be determined by measuring the thickness of a stack of papers and dividing the value of number of sheets of paper. Thickness of a single sheet Thickness of a stack of paper Number of sheets syamsensei@gmail.com 49
  • – The thickness of a glass tube can be measured by taking the difference between its external and internal diameter. Thickness of glass External diameter - internal diameter 2 syamsensei@gmail.com 50
  • • Area is the total surface covered by an object. • The SI unit is square metre (m2). • Regular-shaped areas can be calculated using Mathematical formula. (next slide) syamsensei@gmail.com 51
  • syamsensei@gmail.com 52
  • Irregular-shaped areas can be estimated by using a graph paper. – Trace the object on the graph paper. – Estimate the area by counting the number of full squares, half full squares and more than half full squares (tick the squares) – Area of the object is estimated by multiplying the number of squares with the area of one square. – The area can be estimated more accurately with syamsensei@gmail.com 53 smaller squares.
  • • Volume of an object is the total space occupied by the object. • The SI unit is cubic metre (m3). • It also can be measured in millilitre (ml). • The apparatus: measuring cylinder, burette and pipette. 1 ml = 1 cm3 1 l = 1000 cm3= 1000 ml 1 m3= 1 000 000 cm3 = 1 000 000 ml syamsensei@gmail.com 54
  • • Measuring volumes of liquids – The volume must be taken at the meniscus level of the liquid. – Use a piece of white paper to enable the meniscus to be seen clearly. – The eye is positioned at the same level of the meniscus to avoid parallax error. syamsensei@gmail.com 55
  • • Measuring volumes of solids – The volume of regular-shaped and irregular-shaped can be measured using water displacement method. – The object to be measured must be submerged in the measuring cylinder filled with water. – The volume of the water displaced is the volume of the object. syamsensei@gmail.com 56
  • – The volume of a solid can also be measured using a displacement can or a Eureka can. – The volume of the water that flows out from the can is the volume of the solid measured. syamsensei@gmail.com 57
  • – The volume of a light object can be measured with the aid of a weight, for example, a stone. – The stone which is tied to the cork enables the cork to be submerged in the water. syamsensei@gmail.com 58
  • MEASURING TEMPERATURE 1. Temperature is the degree of of hotness or coldness of a substance. 2. The S.I unit for temperature is Kelvin (K). Normally temperature is measured in degree Celsius (°C). 3. The temperature of a liquid is measured by using a laboratory thermometer. 4. Pure water boils at 100°C and freezes at 0°C under normal condition. 5. The average body temperature is 36.9°C. 6. The temperature of our body is measured by using a clinical thermometer. syamsensei@gmail.com 59
  • 1. In the past, different units were used by different people for measuring for measuring the same basic quantity. 2. Using different units gives rise to several problem such as; a) It is difficult to make comparisons b) Foreign tourists may not understand the units used in the countries they visit. syamsensei@gmail.com 61
  • Basic quantity Length Unit used • Inch, foot, yard, cubit, mile • Centimetre, metre, kilometre. 1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 foot = 12 inches = 0.3048 m 1 yard = 0.9144 m 1 mile = 1609 m Mass • Ounce, pound • Tahil, kati • Gram, kilogram 1 ounce = 28.35 g 1 pound = 0.4536 kg 1 kati = 16 tahils syamsensei@gmail.com 62
  • 3. The use of standard units in measurements is very important to scientist and people who import and export goods. 4. Using standard units enable scientists; a) To understand one another’s measurement and make accurate comparisons, b) To communicate and understand one another’s experiment and research, c) To exchange information, knowledge and technology d) To avoid confusion. syamsensei@gmail.com 63