What is plagiarism?• Oxford Dictionary definition: “to take and use as one’s own thoughts, writings, or inventions of another.” (OED 1987)• In other words, the act of using the words or ideas of another and calling them your own.
Types of Plagiarism• Fraud (intentional deception)• Failure to cite information• Failure to quote
Intentional plagiarism is: Buying or Copying Papers
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Intentional or Not?• Unintentional plagiarism can be: – Patch-writing (using sections of writing copied from a variety of sources, linked together with additional sentences. This is considered plagiarism unless all directly quoted text is indicated ) – Failing to cite a source (Bibliography) – Failing to use quotation marks
Why it’s wrong• Plagiarism is stealing another’s work and calling it your own.• Plagiarism is lying about where you found the information and who wrote it.• Plagiarism removes any chance of learning from a research assignment.
First PostTop NRI doctor quits after admitting plagiarismPress Trust of India, India -Oct 23, 2008Raj Persaud, the celebritydoctor, who admittedplagiarism at a GMC hearingin June, has stepped downas a consultant psychiatrist.
Canada opposition party accuses PM of plagiarism The Associated Press - Sep 30, 2008 Australian economist John Kunkel, who served as Howards speechwriter from 2004-2007, said plagiarism in speechwriting is not uncommon in any political ...
PLAGIARISM CHARGE: PH.D ANNULLED-By Our Staff Correspondent , The Hindu• MYSORE Dec. 15. The Governor, T.N.Chaturvedi, has annulled the decision of the Mysore University to award a Ph.D for an alleged plagiarised thesis.• Mr. Chaturvedi, who is the Chancellor of the university, directed the authorities concerned to annul the award of Ph.D to Saroj Arya for her thesis, "Studies on the nutrient changes during processing and storage of quick cooking pulses processed under different methods submitted in 1999.
Pi’s lullaby: Bombay Jayashri denies allegations of plagiarism IISc plagiarism row hots upHarvard Plagiarist KaavyaViswanathan’s Book DealCancelled
How to Avoid Plagiarism• Plan well.• Write down all sources.• Read and take notes by paraphrasing and summarizing. Never write directly from sources.• Use many sources and organize info by subject.• Whenever you use exact words, use quotes and footnote.• Don’t cut and paste from internet sources. Try reading and minimizing.• Try the paper folding method.
Why do people plagiarize?• Laziness: it’s easier and faster• Lack of good planning skills• Unclear criteria and expectations for assignments• Lack of reading comprehension skills• Tendency to "search" rather than "research"• Pressure to get good grades• “Everyone else is doing it.”
When do you have to give credit? When you are using or referring to somebody else’s words or ideas from any source When you use information gained through interviewing another person When you copy the exact words or a "unique phrase” from somewhere When you reprint any diagrams, illustrations, charts, and pictures When you use ideas that others have given you in conversations or over email
Examples• Kennedy in 1962 stated, “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.” (Kennedy, p. 108)• Rick Reilly of Sports Illustrated reflected on the honor of being asked to carry the Olympic torch. I was proud to be a tiny part of an amazing human chain… Proud I was passing along the same flame carried -- for the first time -- in Africa and South America, carried by Tom Cruise and Billy Mills and Miss World 2002 before me. (Reilly, p. 110)
When Not to Give Credit• No Need to Document When:• When you are writing your own experiences, your own observations, your own insights your own thoughts, your own conclusions about a subject
What Are We Looking For?• A responsible use of information• A moral code• Students who are learning the most from the research process (taking notes, forming your own conclusions, writing your own text)
“absence of evidence is not evidence of absence”Unintentional plagiarism is still plagiarism!
1) Turnitin (www.turnitin.com)• A plagiarism prevention system used by hundreds of institutions worldwide Checks submitted papers against a database, which exceeds 100 million Web pages Software scans the paper and reports on originality (on a scale from 1 to 5). Cost? It varies depending on the institution and number of users. Anywhere from a single subscription at $100/yr, to $13,000 for a large University.
2. WordCheck – (www.wordchecksystems.com)• A protected database of digital documents, available only to the individual user of the software• The database is referred to as a "Library," and organizes documents into "Categories" selected by an individual user.• New documents are automatically compared to all other documents in the Library• Cost? Between $295 ($149 academic price*) for individuals and $1,295 ($897 academic price*) for departments
Be organized!• Be well-informed about all major research projects• Check your agenda on a daily basis• Set realistic goals for finishing assignments
Create a Bibliography• Make sure you: – Immediately records all Internet sources used (including photos and audio files) – Record the access date• Check the SIS Library website for further information regarding bibliographies (select: Citing sources)
Style Manuals? … that illustrate how to correctly format and record information. They are most frequently consulted for information on formatting citations, but they also include a variety of other information that is useful for research, including where to find information for other bibliography, general rules for punctuation, formatting footnotes, spacing, indention, form of authors name, etc.
Why do we need to Style Manuals? To avoid plagiarism To provide a clear, uniform style for references To organize your paper so it is less confusing for the reader
Style Manuals• APA Style Guide• From the American Psychological Association. Often preferred in the fields of psychology and many other social sciences.• MLA Style Guide• From the Modern Language Association of America. Often preferred in the fields of literature, arts, humanities, and in some other disciplines.• Chicago Style Guide• From the University of Chicago Press. Often preferred in history and many other disciplines.
If you choose to plagiarize, the consequences are: • Disciplinary points • Failing grade on the assignment Take your time and work carefully when creating your Note Cards. They are the building blocks of your paper, and they will either “make” your paper, or “break” it.