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Kajang sustainable city

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  • 1. CIVIL & STRUCTURE DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA REPORT OF PROJECT SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING SEMESTER II, SESSION 2012/2013 KKKH4284 SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING Assignment Title: KAJANG SUSTAINABLE CITY CONCEPT ( SIMCITY) Lecturer: PROF. IR. DR. RIZA ARIQ ABDULLAH BIN O.K RAHMAT Group Member: NURSYAHIDA BINTI BAHARIN A128791 RABIAH ADAWIYAH BINTI ABD RAHMAN A128847 NURFARAHIN BINTI MOHD ZULKIFLI A128904 MUHAMAD RAFI BIN AHMED SHUKOR A128909
  • 2. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Kajang and its surrounding areas is a sub district within Hulu Langat District in the state of Selangor. It was situated approximately 14 miles southern of kuala Lumpur. From Kuala Lumpur, Kajang can be reached by road and rails. The population for Kajang is about 342,657 and the region is about 9298 hectares. If viewed from topographical perspective, Kajang sub district is located on a highland areas which is approximately 76,250 cm from the sea level. Most of the landscape is hilly filled with mountains its flatlands can be found in the river basin such as Sungai Langat, Sungai Bangi, Sungai Semenyih and Sungai Chua. The population centres are at Sg kantan, Sg Jelok, Sungai Chua, Jalan Reko, Taman Prima Saujana, Taman Kantan Permai and Taman kajang prima. The separation of ethnic is about 60.4% malay, 19.3% Chinese, 9.7 % Indians and others ethnics is about 0.6%. The employment in Kajang is coming from the industrial sector, public sector, private sectors and also agricultural. Every district or places have their own landmark. One of Kajang's landmarks is Stadium Kajang which is situated in the heart of the town. It is near a popular hangout place among the locals named Haji Samuri, which is also home to the famous dish satay Kajang. Another landmark is the Kajang Mosque, which is easily recognisable by its bright yellow facade. The mosque was painted and decorated by a local wealthy man. There are a variety of facilities that comfort the community in Kajang. One of the facilities is public transport such as station bus, cab and railway station. Other than that, health facilities are provided in this city that is hospital and clinic. For this project, we need to have a sustainable city in Kajang to ensure that the development in related to the natural environment, have a good transportation systems, create an efficient town structure, enhance the living environment and at the same time conserving the land. Other than that, we also need to ensure the safe and healthy living environment that can cater for the need of all residence including disabled, disadvantages and the aged.
  • 3. There is no renewable energy in our city but we produce energy that convert to the electricity from landfill. We reuse methane gas that produces from the landfill then convert to energy then make it be as electricity sources. 2.0 ISSUE AT KAJANG Kajang have a very high density of population and the capacity was exceeding the limit of the area that should be occupied by the residential. Kajang city is very crowded with people and vehicles. Thus, it will cause to environmental and social issues. Here are some of the issues that we figured out at kajang : 1) Higher population: the population in Kajang increase rapidly and it’s also due to the higher employment such as in commercial sector and public sector. All the residential will be converged at Kajang city. Thus, the area will be filled with many people. 2) Environmental issue: the increase in population and rapidly development of buildings in contribute to pollution in Kajang. The critical pollution that occur in Kajang due to the air pollution coming from transportation and for water pollution coming from industrial and residential development along Sungai Langat. This situation make the residential uncomfortable with the environment. 3) Lack of awareness in environmental issue: because of the increasing in population, solid waste that generated will increase. A proper solid waste management should be done to reduce the transportation of waste to the landfill.
  • 4. 4) Road congestion: road connection system in Kajang is very narrow and it cannot occupy the higher density of traffic congestion. Higher traffic congestion happened during peak hours and weekends. Due to the traffic congested, the pedestrian are not given priority and the facilities such as pedestrian bridge and sidewalk are not being provided for the pedestrian. So, the pedestrian safety is not a priority. 5) Demand on residential area. At the centre of Kajang city, the land use is more on the community facilities components and for the residential areas, it was located at the edge of the town. There are a few townships have been developed in Kajang such as Taman Prima Saujana, Taman Kajang Perdana and many more. The increase in population contributes in demand of the residential areas. But, the land left for the development is decrease. Thus, we need to have a proper development at the city. 3.0 QUALITY OF DEVELOPMENT Our city will produce a quality development to achieve a sustainable development. There are some qualities that should be focused to achieve sustainable development in term of economy quality, social quality and environmental quality. a. Economic quality One of the ways to achieve the sustainable development is through economic health of the city Economy activity, job creation and poverty should be noted and the role of informal activities and small-scale trade become important. Example of the activities that bring to sustainable in economically such as economic activities that can contribute to the process of environmental awareness such as the production of environmental friendly products, more frequently involved in activities sponsored activities and social environmental in order to form a responsible corporate image. Sales of materials for instance Recycling Program can not only preserve the environment but also can provide some return economist. b. Social quality Sustainable urban development must take into account social justice, basic human needs, public health, environmental awareness in space and time. Prevent development that would increase the gap between rich and poor and encourage development that will reduce social inequality and reduce wastage of manpower. Social equality should be maintained in terms of economic opportunities in this city.
  • 5. c. Environmental quality Sustainable urban development should be carried out taking into account the ability cope that are consumption of resources, distribution of waste and pollution that is triggered on the city and surrounding areas. The environmental activity ensure the continuity of supply of natural resources in the present and future through effective land use, reduction of non-renewable resources, conversation of biological resources. 4.0 INTEGRATING TRANSPORT AND DEVELOPMENT In Kajang, mode transportation for the residential is by using train, buses, taxi and private transportation. For busses and taxi station, it was located at Pusat Hentian Kajang. But at the City centre, there are no bus stands to drop the passengers. Thus, the bus driver will drop the passengers in the middle of the main road. The passengers will across the road to go to the nearby shopping complex. It is not very practical, not a user friendly and unsafe to the passengers. In Kajang, there are excess of taxi at the city but there are no taxi stand. So, the taxi driver will park just beside the major road. This will cause traffic jammed and it cause several difficulties to the user. The pedestrian network at kajang also very poor condition. There are no single pedestrian bridge and also zebra crossing around the town. It is hard for the pedestrian to cross the road during peak hours and weekends. For train, the location is not very suitable because it was situated in front of the school. The location of the train station is far from the residential and commercial areas. it is hard for them to go to the commuter station. During the peak hour, the traffic is very congested due to the existing school in front of the station. So, we need to come out with the mitigation and suggestion by having good integrating transportation systems. Proposed Strategies. A good traffic management is aimed to optimizing the existing infrastructure and improving the flow capacity at the city. Additional measures such as traffic signage, pavement line marking and barrier should be used for the road safety. Here are some strategies that can be applied in Kajang City centre:
  • 6. 1) Redirecting the movement pattern of using the private transport to the public transport and also improving the service for public transport such as subway, busses and taxi. 2) Upgrading the road systems by widening and implementing the smart grid system for the transportation systems. 3) We also suggest making a new Bus Rapid Transit Systems (BRT): BRT is a high performance of public transportation bus service that combines the bus lanes with high quality bus station. The organizational, structure and technological advances of the BRT system are the main factor to increase the efficiency and speed of the buses. Traffic light will be delayed for oncoming buses. It will decrease the amount of time between stops. A part from that, a computer chip inside the bus signal will sensor on the road. Then, it will alert the passengers at the next station if the bus running on time. Besides, fair is paid by using prepaid systems. So it can reduce the waiting time at bus stop and waiting platform are elevated to allow for quicker entry and exit to the bus. After that, the busses will travel in their own lanes which keep the bus system independent to the congested traffic. 4) We also suggest having a metro system in Kajang: in kajang, we preferred to have subway or underground metro systems. It is because, we can minimizing the usage of the land use. A part from that, by using subway we can reduce the emission of carbon monoxide and also reducing the noise pollution in the city. This metro system is an electric passanger transport system with high capacity and high frequency of services that totally independent from other traffic, road or pedestrian. The location of the subway Bas Rapid Transit Proposed Systems
  • 7. connecting the residential area to the commercial area at the centre of the city and also to the Sungai Langat region. This Subway also linkage to Balakong which is industrial area. 5.0 WASTE MANAGEMENT 5.1 Recycling Yet major challenges remain to be addressed. Local authorities’ resources remain limited as their funding base is restricted and financing by state subsidy. The private sector, for its part, struggles to access financing, as waste projects are still regarded as very risky. The concept of the waste sector as a whole, integrating all the various players involved within an overarching vision of the waste chain, is not yet sufficiently developed. Finally, public authorities need to learn to switch position to moving from the role of service provider to that of contractor and regulator. Despite all these challenges, the waste sector can offer genuine economic opportunities. After all, in an environment where the costs of energy and raw materials are escalating, waste represents an attractive resource that is processing it can become a profitable business that leading to the establishment of sustainable management practices within the sector. Recycling is a good example of a waste element where it is necessary to work on all aspects if the initiative is to succeed. It has a social aspect, an institutional or organizational aspect, a political aspect, a technical aspect, though the latter aspect may get ignored and last but not least an economic aspect. We proposed to place an environmentally friendly Recycling Center focusing on reusing today’s household or domestic waste materials to preserve tomorrow’s resources Metro System Proposed
  • 8. and to promote recycle in our city. They are green, reduce energy wastage and the most important thing is they are fully functional as well as any other building. The aim of this recycling center is to minimize natural resource use while enhancing social and economic benefits. It is designed to increase the understanding and appreciation of the environment among the public. The design approach of this project is to produce an environmental aware community by exposing them to the process and the importance of recycling. Interactive space among public and learning space to educate the public are the main concern of the project. Therefore, the space program will be designed for interaction and education purposed. Thus, a recycling center should be more than a recycling center in or to promote and educate the community about recycling. In this project, the recycling center should hold a commercial area selling recycled product, a place for monthly junk yard sale for the community to trade or exchange their unwanted useable house hold or furniture, a gallery and even a cafe. Recycling center building for our city This is the recycle center that we proposed to place at Kajang’s city. A recycling center's purpose is to process and redirect waste material into reusable substances. In many cases, items constructed from recycled materials can be recycled yet again. This reduces the amount of garbage that ends up in landfills across the country.
  • 9. 5.2 Landfill We still provide landfill to dump the excess waste from household and commercial area. We proposed landfill that came out with many function. Sanitary landfills are sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe. It is considered when it has completely degraded biologically, chemically and physically. In high-income countries, the level of isolation achieved may be high. There are financial and other benefits to sites with long operating lifetimes. Landfill sites to sanitary status will also help in capturing the bio-gas as a source of renewable energy. As we know that, landfill will generate main gases that are methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. Capturing and positive utilization of the biogas is not only environmentally beneficial but also economically attractive. The methane gases produce naturally from landfill site. The main gases from methane can convert to energy then convert to electricity. So, we can produce our own electricity from the landfill without have any cost. Landfill is one of the most environmental friendly and cheapest means of waste disposal. 6.0 RENEWABLE ENERGY Solar Power Plant Energy supplies for our entire city are solar power farm. This kind of renewable energy has many advantages than disadvantages. To make our city become the sustainable environment, we have to provide this thing of energy supply. The major advantage of solar power is that no pollution is created in the process of generating electricity. Environmentally it the most Clean and Green energy. Solar Energy is clean, renewable and sustainable, helping to protect our environment.
  • 10. Solar power farm that installed in our city. 7.0 PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT FOR KAJANG CITY 7.1 Langat River Basin The Langat River Basin provides water for its population for domestic as well as industrial and agriculture uses. However, population growth, rapid industrialization, urbanization and infrastructure development are changing the socioeconomic patterns of development and affecting the water quality and ecosystem health of the Langat Basin. Tropical ecosystems are among the most complex in the world. Defining their health is a difficult task but concepts, approaches and methods emerging from the literature on ecosystem health increasingly provide insights in how this complexity can be properly examined and understood. The Langat River Basin is situated south and adjacent to the Klang Valley Malaysia’s highly developed urban conurbation where the nation’s capital Kuala Lumpu is located. The Langat River Basin covers three main districts or 20 Mukim. Several large federal government projects are located within the Basin. These development projects have spurred and influx of commerce and industry into the Basin, affecting not only the price of land but also the pattern of human settlements, landscaes and ecology of the Basin. The development in the Langat Basin typifies in general the pattern of urban and industrial development on other parts of Malaysia and Southeast Asia. When new infrastructures, the most important being roads, highways and bridge, are put in place urban sprawl spreads from
  • 11. existing urban centre, in this case Kuala Lumpur, Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Puchong to the north of the Basin, into areas that are less developed. This leads to the conversion of agricultural land, and in some instances forest and other natural areas, into housing and industrial estates as well as business and commercial centre. Such development leads to the establishment of new growth from existing towns and villages. These areas form new urban centre that replace natural and agricultural landscapes. Langat River Basin – Project River Of Life Part II. We suggest continuing project river of life part II at Langat River. The objective of this project is to transform the Langat River into a vibrant and liveable waterfront with high economic value. This transformation is divided into three components that are river cleaning, beautification and river development. a. River cleaning. The objective of the River Cleaning is to clean and improve the water quality from its current Class III until Class V water quality that not suitable for body contact transform to Class IIb that suitable for body contact recreational usage. b. Beautification. The objective of the River Beautification is to beautify the river to increase the economic vialibility of the area. c. River development. The beautification works will spur economic investments into the areas immediately surrounding the river corridor. To catalyse development along the corridor, potential government land will be identified and tendered out to private developers through competitive bidding. This project may increase the monthly income for this city cause of the beautification and the development. The beautification of the river and the development beside the river can be as tourist attraction for this city.
  • 12. Component for transformation of Langat River. The illusion of the Langat River after transformation
  • 13. 7.2 New Building Development a. Kajang Business Hall Kajang Business Hall will join several other governments and private developers that have constructed green roofs as a way of capturing greenhouse gases, easing water runoff and potentially lowering building energy costs. Green roofs is located on a roof below the business incubation centre’s overhead walkway, the greenery has become an attractive place for workers to relax. The green roof’s insulation has abilities and impact on energy costs. b. Riverview Hotel (Hotel budget) It doesn’t take a luxurious property or budget to build in sustainability, but the Riverview Hotel is a strong example of how luxury and green building can work hand in hand in
  • 14. the hospitality industry. The design of the hotel will decreasing the hotel’s environmental footprint by reducing waste and promoting energy and water efficiency. The hotels are unique because of the high volume of individual guest rooms, each of which requires its own supply of energy and water known as compartmentalization even when the room is empty. To combat wastefulness, the project team installed individual guest room controls which setback the heating ventilation and air conditioning system and turn off the lights when rooms are unoccupied. Another cool feature of the hotel is its U-shaped design, facing out toward the beach. Not only does this intelligent use of passive-solar design maximize ocean views and breezes for hotel guests, but it also increases the amount of natural daylight entering common areas and guest rooms. This reduces the need for artificial lighting and creates a healthier indoor environment for guests. All in all, a look at the Riverview Hotel’s sustainability efforts reveals multiple takeaways for prospective green hotels c.Renaissance Hotel
  • 15. This hotel concept of the Eco Factor that is energy efficient hotel complex. The concept revolves around three themes, the analysis of the historical city with its arches, vaults and arcades, a close relation to the master plan with its boulevards, plazas and narrow streets and a focus on human beings. The rooms of this 5-star development will be one-of-a-kind and integrate luxurious bathrooms, as a kind of private spa-rooms. Illuminating the interiors will largely depend on daylight, which is a general them throughout the building complex. The large windows will also provide a visual connection to the outside greenery, which makes the atmosphere in the rooms more relaxing and impressive d. Kajang Conventional Center The concept of this building is zero carbon footprint. There, things take a turn for the higher- technology that sophisticated heating and cooling systems that that use minimal amounts of juice, all linked up to a central computer that monitors environmental conditions in real time and adjusts electricity consumption accordingly. When the building is stuffed with guests, it even traps their radiating heat and water vapor to be stored for later use.