CIVIL & STRUCTURE DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT
THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA
REPORT OF PROJECT SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING
SEMESTER II, SESSION 2012/2013
KKKH4284 SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING
KAJANG SUSTAINABLE CITY CONCEPT
PROF. IR. DR. RIZA ARIQ ABDULLAH BIN O.K RAHMAT
NURSYAHIDA BINTI BAHARIN A128791
RABIAH ADAWIYAH BINTI ABD RAHMAN A128847
NURFARAHIN BINTI MOHD ZULKIFLI A128904
MUHAMAD RAFI BIN AHMED SHUKOR A128909
Kajang and its surrounding areas is a sub district within Hulu Langat District in the state of
Selangor. It was situated approximately 14 miles southern of kuala Lumpur. From Kuala
Lumpur, Kajang can be reached by road and rails. The population for Kajang is about 342,657
and the region is about 9298 hectares.
If viewed from topographical perspective, Kajang sub district is located on a highland
areas which is approximately 76,250 cm from the sea level. Most of the landscape is hilly filled
with mountains its flatlands can be found in the river basin such as Sungai Langat, Sungai Bangi,
Sungai Semenyih and Sungai Chua.
The population centres are at Sg kantan, Sg Jelok, Sungai Chua, Jalan Reko, Taman
Prima Saujana, Taman Kantan Permai and Taman kajang prima. The separation of ethnic is
about 60.4% malay, 19.3% Chinese, 9.7 % Indians and others ethnics is about 0.6%. The
employment in Kajang is coming from the industrial sector, public sector, private sectors and
Every district or places have their own landmark. One of Kajang's landmarks is Stadium
Kajang which is situated in the heart of the town. It is near a popular hangout place among the
locals named Haji Samuri, which is also home to the famous dish satay Kajang. Another
landmark is the Kajang Mosque, which is easily recognisable by its bright yellow facade. The
mosque was painted and decorated by a local wealthy man.
There are a variety of facilities that comfort the community in Kajang. One of the
facilities is public transport such as station bus, cab and railway station. Other than that, health
facilities are provided in this city that is hospital and clinic.
For this project, we need to have a sustainable city in Kajang to ensure that the
development in related to the natural environment, have a good transportation systems, create an
efficient town structure, enhance the living environment and at the same time conserving the
land. Other than that, we also need to ensure the safe and healthy living environment that can
cater for the need of all residence including disabled, disadvantages and the aged.
There is no renewable energy in our city but we produce energy that convert to the
electricity from landfill. We reuse methane gas that produces from the landfill then convert to
energy then make it be as electricity sources.
2.0 ISSUE AT KAJANG
Kajang have a very high density of population and the capacity was exceeding the limit of the
area that should be occupied by the residential. Kajang city is very crowded with people and
vehicles. Thus, it will cause to environmental and social issues. Here are some of the issues that
we figured out at kajang :
1) Higher population: the population in Kajang increase rapidly and it’s also due to the
higher employment such as in commercial sector and public sector. All the residential
will be converged at Kajang city. Thus, the area will be filled with many people.
2) Environmental issue: the increase in population and rapidly development of buildings in
contribute to pollution in Kajang. The critical pollution that occur in Kajang due to the
air pollution coming from transportation and for water pollution coming from industrial
and residential development along Sungai Langat. This situation make the residential
uncomfortable with the environment.
3) Lack of awareness in environmental issue: because of the increasing in population, solid
waste that generated will increase. A proper solid waste management should be done to
reduce the transportation of waste to the landfill.
4) Road congestion: road connection system in Kajang is very narrow and it cannot occupy
the higher density of traffic congestion. Higher traffic congestion happened during peak
hours and weekends. Due to the traffic congested, the pedestrian are not given priority
and the facilities such as pedestrian bridge and sidewalk are not being provided for the
pedestrian. So, the pedestrian safety is not a priority.
5) Demand on residential area. At the centre of Kajang city, the land use is more on the
community facilities components and for the residential areas, it was located at the edge
of the town. There are a few townships have been developed in Kajang such as Taman
Prima Saujana, Taman Kajang Perdana and many more. The increase in population
contributes in demand of the residential areas. But, the land left for the development is
decrease. Thus, we need to have a proper development at the city.
3.0 QUALITY OF DEVELOPMENT
Our city will produce a quality development to achieve a sustainable development. There are
some qualities that should be focused to achieve sustainable development in term of economy
quality, social quality and environmental quality.
a. Economic quality
One of the ways to achieve the sustainable development is through economic health of
the city Economy activity, job creation and poverty should be noted and the role of
informal activities and small-scale trade become important. Example of the activities that
bring to sustainable in economically such as economic activities that can contribute to the
process of environmental awareness such as the production of environmental friendly
products, more frequently involved in activities sponsored activities and social
environmental in order to form a responsible corporate image. Sales of materials for
instance Recycling Program can not only preserve the environment but also can provide
some return economist.
b. Social quality
Sustainable urban development must take into account social justice, basic human needs,
public health, environmental awareness in space and time. Prevent development that
would increase the gap between rich and poor and encourage development that will
reduce social inequality and reduce wastage of manpower. Social equality should be
maintained in terms of economic opportunities in this city.
c. Environmental quality
Sustainable urban development should be carried out taking into account the ability cope
that are consumption of resources, distribution of waste and pollution that is triggered on
the city and surrounding areas. The environmental activity ensure the continuity of
supply of natural resources in the present and future through effective land use, reduction
of non-renewable resources, conversation of biological resources.
4.0 INTEGRATING TRANSPORT AND DEVELOPMENT
In Kajang, mode transportation for the residential is by using train, buses, taxi and private
transportation. For busses and taxi station, it was located at Pusat Hentian Kajang. But at the
City centre, there are no bus stands to drop the passengers. Thus, the bus driver will drop the
passengers in the middle of the main road. The passengers will across the road to go to the
nearby shopping complex. It is not very practical, not a user friendly and unsafe to the
In Kajang, there are excess of taxi at the city but there are no taxi stand. So, the taxi
driver will park just beside the major road. This will cause traffic jammed and it cause several
difficulties to the user. The pedestrian network at kajang also very poor condition. There are no
single pedestrian bridge and also zebra crossing around the town. It is hard for the pedestrian to
cross the road during peak hours and weekends.
For train, the location is not very suitable because it was situated in front of the school.
The location of the train station is far from the residential and commercial areas. it is hard for
them to go to the commuter station. During the peak hour, the traffic is very congested due to the
existing school in front of the station. So, we need to come out with the mitigation and
suggestion by having good integrating transportation systems.
A good traffic management is aimed to optimizing the existing infrastructure and improving the
flow capacity at the city. Additional measures such as traffic signage, pavement line marking and
barrier should be used for the road safety. Here are some strategies that can be applied in Kajang
1) Redirecting the movement pattern of using the private transport to the public transport
and also improving the service for public transport such as subway, busses and taxi.
2) Upgrading the road systems by widening and implementing the smart grid system for the
3) We also suggest making a new Bus Rapid Transit Systems (BRT): BRT is a high
performance of public transportation bus service that combines the bus lanes with high
quality bus station. The organizational, structure and technological advances of the BRT
system are the main factor to increase the efficiency and speed of the buses. Traffic light
will be delayed for oncoming buses. It will decrease the amount of time between stops. A
part from that, a computer chip inside the bus signal will sensor on the road. Then, it will
alert the passengers at the next station if the bus running on time. Besides, fair is paid by
using prepaid systems. So it can reduce the waiting time at bus stop and waiting platform
are elevated to allow for quicker entry and exit to the bus. After that, the busses will
travel in their own lanes which keep the bus system independent to the congested traffic.
4) We also suggest having a metro system in Kajang: in kajang, we preferred to have
subway or underground metro systems. It is because, we can minimizing the usage of the
land use. A part from that, by using subway we can reduce the emission of carbon
monoxide and also reducing the noise pollution in the city. This metro system is an
electric passanger transport system with high capacity and high frequency of services that
totally independent from other traffic, road or pedestrian. The location of the subway
Bas Rapid Transit Proposed Systems
connecting the residential area to the commercial area at the centre of the city and also to
the Sungai Langat region. This Subway also linkage to Balakong which is industrial area.
5.0 WASTE MANAGEMENT
Yet major challenges remain to be addressed. Local authorities’ resources remain limited
as their funding base is restricted and financing by state subsidy. The private sector, for
its part, struggles to access financing, as waste projects are still regarded as very risky.
The concept of the waste sector as a whole, integrating all the various players involved
within an overarching vision of the waste chain, is not yet sufficiently developed. Finally,
public authorities need to learn to switch position to moving from the role of service
provider to that of contractor and regulator. Despite all these challenges, the waste sector
can offer genuine economic opportunities. After all, in an environment where the costs of
energy and raw materials are escalating, waste represents an attractive resource that is
processing it can become a profitable business that leading to the establishment of
sustainable management practices within the sector. Recycling is a good example of a
waste element where it is necessary to work on all aspects if the initiative is to succeed. It
has a social aspect, an institutional or organizational aspect, a political aspect, a technical
aspect, though the latter aspect may get ignored and last but not least an economic aspect.
We proposed to place an environmentally friendly Recycling Center focusing on
reusing today’s household or domestic waste materials to preserve tomorrow’s resources
Metro System Proposed
and to promote recycle in our city. They are green, reduce energy wastage and the most
important thing is they are fully functional as well as any other building.
The aim of this recycling center is to minimize natural resource use while
enhancing social and economic benefits. It is designed to increase the understanding and
appreciation of the environment among the public. The design approach of this project is
to produce an environmental aware community by exposing them to the process and the
importance of recycling. Interactive space among public and learning space to educate
the public are the main concern of the project. Therefore, the space program will be
designed for interaction and education purposed.
Thus, a recycling center should be more than a recycling center in or to promote
and educate the community about recycling. In this project, the recycling center should
hold a commercial area selling recycled product, a place for monthly junk yard sale for
the community to trade or exchange their unwanted useable house hold or furniture, a
gallery and even a cafe.
Recycling center building for our city
This is the recycle center that we proposed to place at Kajang’s city. A recycling center's
purpose is to process and redirect waste material into reusable substances. In many cases,
items constructed from recycled materials can be recycled yet again. This reduces the amount
of garbage that ends up in landfills across the country.
We still provide landfill to dump the excess waste from household and commercial area. We
proposed landfill that came out with many function. Sanitary landfills are sites where waste
is isolated from the environment until it is safe. It is considered when it has completely
degraded biologically, chemically and physically. In high-income countries, the level of
isolation achieved may be high.
There are financial and other benefits to sites with long operating lifetimes. Landfill sites
to sanitary status will also help in capturing the bio-gas as a source of renewable energy. As
we know that, landfill will generate main gases that are methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide
and carbon dioxide. Capturing and positive utilization of the biogas is not only
environmentally beneficial but also economically attractive. The methane gases produce
naturally from landfill site. The main gases from methane can convert to energy then convert
to electricity. So, we can produce our own electricity from the landfill without have any cost.
Landfill is one of the most environmental friendly and cheapest means of waste disposal.
6.0 RENEWABLE ENERGY
Solar Power Plant
Energy supplies for our entire city are solar power farm. This kind of renewable energy has
many advantages than disadvantages. To make our city become the sustainable environment, we
have to provide this thing of energy supply.
The major advantage of solar power is that no pollution is created in the process of
generating electricity. Environmentally it the most Clean and Green energy. Solar Energy is
clean, renewable and sustainable, helping to protect our environment.
Solar power farm that installed in our city.
7.0 PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT FOR KAJANG CITY
7.1 Langat River Basin
The Langat River Basin provides water for its population for domestic as well as industrial and
agriculture uses. However, population growth, rapid industrialization, urbanization and
infrastructure development are changing the socioeconomic patterns of development and
affecting the water quality and ecosystem health of the Langat Basin.
Tropical ecosystems are among the most complex in the world. Defining their health is a
difficult task but concepts, approaches and methods emerging from the literature on ecosystem
health increasingly provide insights in how this complexity can be properly examined and
understood. The Langat River Basin is situated south and adjacent to the Klang Valley
Malaysia’s highly developed urban conurbation where the nation’s capital Kuala Lumpu is
located. The Langat River Basin covers three main districts or 20 Mukim.
Several large federal government projects are located within the Basin. These
development projects have spurred and influx of commerce and industry into the Basin, affecting
not only the price of land but also the pattern of human settlements, landscaes and ecology of the
Basin. The development in the Langat Basin typifies in general the pattern of urban and
industrial development on other parts of Malaysia and Southeast Asia. When new infrastructures,
the most important being roads, highways and bridge, are put in place urban sprawl spreads from
existing urban centre, in this case Kuala Lumpur, Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Puchong to the
north of the Basin, into areas that are less developed. This leads to the conversion of agricultural
land, and in some instances forest and other natural areas, into housing and industrial estates as
well as business and commercial centre. Such development leads to the establishment of new
growth from existing towns and villages. These areas form new urban centre that replace natural
and agricultural landscapes.
Langat River Basin – Project River Of Life Part II.
We suggest continuing project river of life part II at Langat River. The objective of this project is
to transform the Langat River into a vibrant and liveable waterfront with high economic value.
This transformation is divided into three components that are river cleaning, beautification and
a. River cleaning.
The objective of the River Cleaning is to clean and improve the water quality from its
current Class III until Class V water quality that not suitable for body contact transform
to Class IIb that suitable for body contact recreational usage.
The objective of the River Beautification is to beautify the river to increase the economic
vialibility of the area.
c. River development.
The beautification works will spur economic investments into the areas immediately
surrounding the river corridor. To catalyse development along the corridor, potential
government land will be identified and tendered out to private developers through
This project may increase the monthly income for this city cause of the beautification and the
development. The beautification of the river and the development beside the river can be as
tourist attraction for this city.
Component for transformation of Langat River.
The illusion of the Langat River after transformation
7.2 New Building Development
a. Kajang Business Hall
Kajang Business Hall will join several other governments and private developers that have
constructed green roofs as a way of capturing greenhouse gases, easing water runoff and
potentially lowering building energy costs. Green roofs is located on a roof below the business
incubation centre’s overhead walkway, the greenery has become an attractive place for workers
to relax. The green roof’s insulation has abilities and impact on energy costs.
b. Riverview Hotel (Hotel budget)
It doesn’t take a luxurious property or budget to build in sustainability, but the Riverview
Hotel is a strong example of how luxury and green building can work hand in hand in
the hospitality industry. The design of the hotel will decreasing the hotel’s environmental
footprint by reducing waste and promoting energy and water efficiency.
The hotels are unique because of the high volume of individual guest rooms, each of
which requires its own supply of energy and water known as compartmentalization even when
the room is empty.
To combat wastefulness, the project team installed individual guest room controls which
setback the heating ventilation and air conditioning system and turn off the lights when rooms
are unoccupied. Another cool feature of the hotel is its U-shaped design, facing out toward the
beach. Not only does this intelligent use of passive-solar design maximize ocean views and
breezes for hotel guests, but it also increases the amount of natural daylight entering common
areas and guest rooms. This reduces the need for artificial lighting and creates a healthier indoor
environment for guests. All in all, a look at the Riverview Hotel’s sustainability efforts reveals
multiple takeaways for prospective green hotels
This hotel concept of the Eco Factor that is energy efficient hotel complex. The concept revolves
around three themes, the analysis of the historical city with its arches, vaults and arcades, a close
relation to the master plan with its boulevards, plazas and narrow streets and a focus on human
beings. The rooms of this 5-star development will be one-of-a-kind and integrate luxurious
bathrooms, as a kind of private spa-rooms.
Illuminating the interiors will largely depend on daylight, which is a general them
throughout the building complex. The large windows will also provide a visual connection to the
outside greenery, which makes the atmosphere in the rooms more relaxing and impressive
d. Kajang Conventional Center
The concept of this building is zero carbon footprint. There, things take a turn for the higher-
technology that sophisticated heating and cooling systems that that use minimal amounts of
juice, all linked up to a central computer that monitors environmental conditions in real time
and adjusts electricity consumption accordingly. When the building is stuffed with guests, it
even traps their radiating heat and water vapor to be stored for later use.