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  • 1. Materi 3 Perangkat Keras dan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Manajemen Dr. Hary Budiarto
  • 2. What is a Computer? Definisi: Suatu sistem yang mempunyai perangkat komponen input, pengolahan, output, storage, dan kontrol.
  • 3. Tipe Sistem Komputer
  • 4. Eniac (1943) A general view of the ENIAC, the world's first all electronic numerical integrator and computer. From IBM Archives.
  • 5. Mark I (1944) The Mark I paper tape readers. From Harvard University Cruft Photo Laboratory.
  • 6. IBM SSEC (1948)
  • 7. The First Mouse (1964)
  • 8. Computer Today Sound 3D Animation Video Devices Size (small->very large) Portable (PDA, phone) Plasticity Context sensitive/aware Personalizable Ubiquitous
  • 9. Sistem Mikrokomputer Personal Computer (PC) – adalah mikrokomputer yang digunakan secara individu Professional Workstation – adalah komputer yang terkoneksi pada suatu jaringan untuk digunakan dalam pengolhan busnis Laptop – adalah komputer kecil yang dapat dibawah kemana-mana
  • 10. Sistem Mikrokomputer …Cont. Network Server – adalah komputer yang kinerjanya lebih baik digunakan untuk resource sharing dalam jaringan komputer dan digunakan sebagai server untuk internet Computer Terminals – adalah komputer yang mempunyai ketergantungan pada komputer server untuk kemampuan perangkat lunaknya, storage dan processingnya
  • 11. Sistem Mikrokomputer ….Cont Network Computers –adalah komputer yang mempunyai tempat storage yang minimal dan tersambung pada jaringan komputer. Information Appliances – adalah suatu perangkat mikrokomputer bertipe hand- held.
  • 12. Fitur PC
  • 13. Sistem Komputer Midrange Definisi: Merupakan jaringan server primer yang dapat menangani pengolahan data skala luas dengan berbagai aplikasi bisnis
  • 14. Mainframe Systems Definition: Adalah sistem komputer yang sangat cepat, dan berkinerja tinggi.
  • 15. Supercomputer Systems Definisi: Adalah sistem komputer yang didesain khusus untuk keperluan scientific, engineering, dan aplikasi binis yang membutuhkan kecepatan dan perhitungan numerik yang sangat besar.
  • 16. Sistem Fungsi Organisasi Hardware Input Devices berfungsi untuk mengkonversi data ke bentuk elektronik dalam sistem komputer secara langsung maupun melalui suatu jaringan telekomunikasi Processing Components, adalah bagian utama yang berfungsi sbg Central Processing Unit (CPU) Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) – adalah bentuk fungsi aritmetika dan logika yang dibutuhkan untuk menjalankan software
  • 17. Sistem Fungsi Organisasi Hardware Output Devices adalah perangkat yang memproduksi informasi elektronik untuk keperluan presentasi pada end users Storage Devices adalah tempat penyimpanan data yang diproses melalui suatu intruksi yang dijalankan melalui software Control Components adalah bagian utama dari CPU’s yang menginterprestasikan instruksi yang harus dijalankan dalam melakukan kegiatan pengontrolan.
  • 18. Computer Processing Speeds Millisecond – thousandth of a second Microsecond – millionth of a second Nanosecond – billionth of a second Picosecond – trillionth of a second
  • 19. Computer Clock Speeds MIPS – million instructions per second Megahertz (MHz) – millions of cycles per second Gigahertz (GHz) – billions of cycles per second
  • 20. Throughput Definition: Kemampuan microprocessor melakukan tugas yang diberikan untuk proses komputasi dan pengolahan data secara penuh selama periode waktu tertentu Depends on: Buses – size of circuitry paths that interconnect microprocessor components Registers – that process instructions Cache – high-speed memory Specialized Processors
  • 21. Computer Peripherals Definition: Nama umum yang diberikan untuk semua perangkat input, output dan storage yang merupakan suatu bagian dari sistem komputer yang bukan bagian dari CPU.
  • 22. Peripherals Advice
  • 23. Online vs. Offline Online – devices are separate from but can be electronically connected to and controlled by a CPU Offline – devices are separate from and not under the control of the CPU
  • 24. Input Technologies Keyboard Pointing Devices Pen-Based Computing Speech Recognition Systems Optical Scanning
  • 25. Graphical User Interface (GUI) Definition: Icons, menus, windows, buttons, bars, etc used for user selection
  • 26. QWERTY Layout Keyboard _ + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 - = Q W E R T Y U I O P : quot; A S D F G H J K L ; ' < > ? Z X C V B N M , . /
  • 27. Dvorak Layout Keyboard < + 7 5 3 1 9 0 2 4 6 8 > = quot; ? ' , . P Y F G R C L / _ A O E U I D H T N S - : ; Q J K X B M W V Z
  • 28. Pointing Devices Electronic Mouse – Moving mouse on pad moves cursor on screen. Pressing buttons on mouse activates activities represented by selected icons. Trackball – Stationary device with a roller ball on top used to move cursor on screen. Pointing Stick – Small button-like device which moves cursor in direction of pressure placed on stick.
  • 29. Pointing Device
  • 30. Pointing Devices Touchpad – Small rectangular touch- sensitive surface which moves the cursor in the direction of finger moves on the pad. Touch Screen – Video display screen that emits a grid of infrared beams, sound waves, or a slight electric current that is broken when the screen is touched.
  • 31. Pointing Device
  • 32. Pen-based Computing Definition: Pressure-sensitive layer under slate-like liquid crystal display screen and software that digitizes handwriting, hand printing, and hand drawing
  • 33. Speech Recognition Systems Discrete – user must pause between each spoken word Continuous – software can recognize conversationally-paced speech
  • 34. Optical Scanning Definition: Devices that read text or graphics and convert them into digital input for your computer
  • 35. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Definition: The machine identification of printed characters through the use of light- sensitive devices
  • 36. Digital Sculpture To record and archive the morphological features of heritage artifacts from the past culture
  • 37. Other Input Technologies Magnetic Stripe – devices that read data stored in the magnetic stripe on the back of cards Smart Cards – devices that read a microprocessor chip embedded in a card
  • 38. Other Input Technologies Digital cameras – devices that allow you to capture, store, and download still photos and full motion pictures Magnetic Ink Recognition (MICR) – devices that can read characters printed on source documents with an iron oxide- based ink
  • 39. Output Technologies Video Output Printed Output Voice Response
  • 40. Video Output Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) – similar to vacuum tubes in television Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) – electronic visual displays that form characters by applying an electrical charge to selected silicon crystals
  • 41. Printed Output Inkjet Printers – spray ink onto the page Laser Printers – use an electrostatic process similar to a photocopying machine
  • 42. Storage Trade-Offs
  • 43. Binary Representation Definition: Data are processed and stored in a computer system through the presence or absence of electronic or magnetic signals in the computer’s circuitry or in the media it uses
  • 44. Bit vs. Byte Bit – binary digit, which can have a value of either zero or one Byte – basic grouping of bits that the computer operates as a single unit, typically eight bits
  • 45. Storage Capacities Kilobyte (KB) – one thousand bytes Megabytes (MB) – one million bytes Gigabytes (GB) – one billion bytes Terabytes (TB) – one trillion bytes Petabytes (PB) – one quadrillion bytes
  • 46. ASCII Codes
  • 47. Binary Number System Definition: Number system used by computers to perform computations since it has only two digits
  • 48. Binary Number System
  • 49. Direct vs. Sequential Access Direct (or Random) Access – Each storage position has a unique address. Each storage position can be individually accessed without having to search through other storage positions. Sequential Access – Data are recorded one after another in a predetermined sequence. Locating an individual item of data requires searching the recorded data until the desired item is located.
  • 50. Direct vs. Sequential Access
  • 51. Semiconductor Memory Characteristics: Small Fast Shock Resistant Temperature Resistant Volatile – contents of memory is lost when power is interrupted Used for Primary Storage
  • 52. RAM vs. ROM Random Access Memory (RAM) – each memory position can be both sensed and changed Read Only Memory (ROM) – can be read but not erased or overwritten
  • 53. Firmware Definition: Frequently used programs which are permanently burned into ROM during manufacture
  • 54. Magnetic Disks Characteristics: Fast Large Reasonably Priced Used for Secondary Storage
  • 55. Types of Magnetic Disks Floppy Disks – single disk inside a protective jacket Hard Disk Drives – several disks, access arms and read/write heads in a sealed module Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks (RAID) - disk arrays of interconnected microcomputer hard disk drives
  • 56. Formatting Disks
  • 57. Hard Disk Drives
  • 58. Magnetic Tape Definition: Read/write heads of magnetic tape drives record data in the form of magnetized spots on the iron oxide coating of the plastic tape
  • 59. Optical Disks
  • 60. Software
  • 61. Remote Information System Satellite Connection Camera Control Screen High Res Screen Modem Connection Microscope Keypad
  • 62. Remote Information System Application
  • 63. Summary Major types of computers include microcomputers, midrange computers, mainframe computers and supercomputers. A computer is a system of information processing components that perform input, processing, output, storage, and control functions.