Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project

2,030

Published on

Paper to be presented at the International Workshop on economic sociology of Water, NDHU, Taiwan. March 27-28, 2013

Paper to be presented at the International Workshop on economic sociology of Water, NDHU, Taiwan. March 27-28, 2013

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,030
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance Beijing and the South-to-North Water Transfer Project13年4月9日星期二
  • 2. Outlines ✤ Introduction ✤ Urbanization of water and water politics ✤ Beijing’s water: historical legacies ✤ Beijing and the “South-to-North Water Transfer Project” ✤ A new governance mechanism is emerging? ✤ Conclusion13年4月9日星期二
  • 3. Introduction ✤ This paper discusses the issues regard how rapid industrialization and urbanization generated high degree of water consumption that, triggering by the building of various water supply civil engineering, caused conflict/tension between cities and rural areas as well as between central and local states. ✤ Case: Beijing vs. the South-to-North Water Transfer Project ✤ Urban Political Ecology Perspective13年4月9日星期二
  • 4. China: Water Scarcity Problems ✤ Rapid economic development after 1980s ✤ The increase of water consumption ✤ Uneven rainfall distribution ✤ The arid north, and humid south13年4月9日星期二
  • 5. Rainfall Distribution The arid north, and humid south13年4月9日星期二
  • 6. Beijing: Thirsty Capital ✤ Located in the dry northern part of China ✤ Rapid urbanization and industrialization ✤ Water, we need more water ✤ The South-to-North Water Transfer Project13年4月9日星期二
  • 7. Research Questions ✤ How has the Chinese state handled the disputes on water demands from related provinces? ✤ How has Beijing city compensated those rural regions where water was diversified to feed its need? ✤ Has China developed a new type of governance to solve the dispute of water supply along the affected provinces where the Sou-North water diversification project?13年4月9日星期二
  • 8. Hydraulic Society and State Power ✤ Wittfogel: The capital investment and labor coordination required for substantial water control demand the rise of a strong and hierarchical power center which he called the “despotic” states of the Orient. (ex: China) ✤ Worster: The “capitalist state mode” of production on water control is dominated by two powerful groups: wealthy agricultural capitalists and “water bureaucrats.” (ex: The Western US) ✤ Swyngedow: After 1990s, water became Privatized, Commodified, Globalized. (ex: Latin America)13年4月9日星期二
  • 9. Dujiangyan (都江堰) Sichuan, China13年4月9日星期二
  • 10. Who dominate?13年4月9日星期二
  • 11. Urbanization of Water ✤ Not only social, political and economic processes, but also the interaction of social and nature. ✤ Swygngedow: Urbanization of water looks at urban hydraulic environments as socio-physical constructions in which urban water is organized through a combination of social historical and metabolic- ecological process. ✤ The re-territorialization of water, the rise of scalar politics.13年4月9日星期二
  • 12. Beijing’s water legacies ✤ Located in Northern China with Yongding river and Chaobai river ✤ Capital city of China from Qin Dynasty (1644-1912)13年4月9日星期二
  • 13. 1949-1970s ✤ Beijing dominant era ✤ Dams: Guanting and Miyung ✤ Wells: everywhere in the city ✤ Policy: Industrialized!!13年4月9日星期二
  • 14. 1980s-1990s ✤ Local competition era ✤ Rapid Industrialization ✤ Crowded Urbanization ✤ Water Pollution ✤ Water Shortages ✤ Fragmented Authoritarian13年4月9日星期二
  • 15. Fragmented Water Management System State Council of P.R. China Ministry of Water Ministry of Resources Environmental Protection ✤ Tiao-Kuai (條塊) Inter- 7 River Bansin governmental relation Commissions Provincial Governments ✤ No Water Law before 1980s Bureau of Bureau of Water Environmental Resources Protection ✤ Water Act promulgated 1988 City & County ✤ Water Pollution Amendment Governments Act amended in 1996 Bureau of Water Bureau of Resources Environmental Protection ✤ But local governments still compete to each other.13年4月9日星期二
  • 16. Water shortage crisis in Beijing ✤ In the late 1990s, seven consecutive years led Miyung and Guanting reservoirs’ storage had sharply shrunk. ✤ In the fragmented water management system, adjusted the water prices couldn’t solve the problem. ✤ But, Beijing government promotes FAB, TFT-LCD and even Olympic ✤ So, where is the CLEAN WATER?13年4月9日星期二
  • 17. Water consumption and Water resource in Beijing (Unit: One billion cubic meter) 60 45 30 15 0 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Water Consumption Water Resource13年4月9日星期二
  • 18. Water Consumption in Beijing (Unit: One billion cubic meter) 60 45 30 15 0 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Water Consumption Agricultural Irrigation Industrial Use Urban Domestic Use13年4月9日星期二
  • 19. The South-to-North Water Transfer Project ✤ 1952: Chairman Mao suggested ✤ 2002: the overall plan of the project began to take place ✤ There are EASTERN, CENTRAL, and (WESTERN) Routes ✤ Beijing is the terminal of the Central Routes13年4月9日星期二
  • 20. South-to-North Water Transfer Project13年4月9日星期二
  • 21. Danjiangkou Dam13年4月9日星期二
  • 22. Beijing vs. Hebei: Urban vs. Rural ✤ Not just a water diversion project, but also a task to prevent water from environmental pollution. ✤ The Beijing government asks the farmers in Hebei: no more chemical pesticide, no more ecological harmful farming techniques, and reducing the farming area. ✤ Dead lock: poorly irrigation skill + national food security policy ✤ So the conflict still going...13年4月9日星期二
  • 23. Beijing vs. Water-Supply Provinces ✤ Immigration: in Henan and Hubei, 330,000 people have to move. ✤ Compensation: each person can get 600 RMB per year but hard to get job in the new place. ✤ Fiscal burden: for the local government, resettlement costs is too heavy and industrial development is forbidden. ✤ Ecological impact: not only to the water source area, but also along the canal and the downstream of Han River.13年4月9日星期二
  • 24. A new governance mechanism is emerging? ✤ Political, the “South-to-North Water Diversion Project Committee Office” was composed in 2003. ✤ Director: the Deputy Prime Minister of the State Council ✤ Members: Minister of the relevant ministries, the governors of the People’s Bank and the Development Bank, and the relevant provinces. ✤ Missions: Policy, Financing, Monitor, and Cooperation. ✤ Six Units at the Central level ✤ Project Construction Committees at the Local level13年4月9日星期二
  • 25. A new governance mechanism is emerging? ✤ Economical, three types of Company compose the market mechanism ✤ Water Transfer Company: state-owned company, invested by central government and relevant local governments with different ratio. ✤ Water Resources Company: invested by the water-supply province government, sell the water to the Water Transfer Company. ✤ Water Company: some state-owned some private, buy the water from the Water Transfer Company and sell it to the citizen.13年4月9日星期二
  • 26. A new governance mechanism is emerging? ✤ Ecological Compensation ✤ First one: the water-receiving areas should help the water-supply areas to solve its economic problem. ✤ Second one: the market-oriented compensation. Rise of Beijing water price to compensate water contribution areas. ✤ Beijing: provided 50 million RMB to Henan + signed economic cooperation agreement.13年4月9日星期二
  • 27. The Governance Mechanism of the South-to-NorthWater Transfer Project13年4月9日星期二
  • 28. Conclusion ✤ This paper argues that the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in fact has strengthened the Beijing-centered central-peripheral relation ✤ Such an “artificial water-shed” strengthen the injustice distribution of natural resources between Beijing and other inland areas. ✤ Beijing should re-orient its development path.13年4月9日星期二

×